Leaching loss of nutrients in tobacco-planting soil under
different biochar adding levels
摘要: 【目的】我国南方植烟土壤养分淋失严重尤其是氮、钾,不仅造成资源浪费和潜在环境威胁,还严重制约了烟叶的可持续生产。生物炭比表面积大、孔隙多、稳定性强,施入土壤后可增加对养分的吸附,延长肥效和减少养分损失。本文研究了添加不同水平生物炭对植烟土壤硝态氮、磷、钾养分淋失的影响,为充分发挥生物炭提高养分利用率的作用提供依据。【方法】采用土柱淋洗模拟方法,试验共设5个处理,包括不施肥对照(CK)、氮磷钾肥(NPK)、氮磷钾肥+10%生物炭(10%B)、氮磷钾肥+20%生物炭(20%B)、氮磷钾肥+40%生物炭(40%B),每个处理重复4次,随机排列。【结果】不同生物炭添加量下,土壤硝态氮、磷、钾的淋失量在培养期间呈先增加后减少的趋势。与NPK处理相比,添加生物炭处理在培养21天之后减少了硝态氮淋失量,在整个培养期间延缓和减少了磷的淋失量;与NPK处理相比,10%B、20%B和40%B处理硝态氮淋失总量分别显著降低13%、18%和25%,磷素淋失总量分别显著降低46%、61%和73%,10%B和20%B处理的钾素淋洗量略高,但差异未达显著水平,而40%B处理的钾素淋洗量则显著高于前3个处理,比NPK处理高47%。培养结束后,由于生物炭本身偏碱性,随着生物炭添加量的增加,土壤pH显著升高。表明添加生物炭条件下,土壤硝态氮淋失量的减少主要是生物炭的吸附作用所致;磷素淋失量的减少除了与生物炭的吸附作用有关外,也可能与土壤pH的升高有关;钾素淋失量的增加可能与生物炭本身携带的钾素有关。施用生物炭对土壤硝态氮、磷、钾养分淋失影响的机制还需进一步验证。【结论】施用生物炭能够有效减少植烟土壤硝态氮和磷素的淋溶损失,进而节约氮、磷肥料和提高养分利用效率,降低地下水污染风险,促进烟叶可持续优质生产,在一定范围内其施用量越高效果越好。生物炭的适宜添加量还需综合考虑氮磷钾3个元素的淋失而继续试验。Abstract: 【Objectives】Leaching loss of soil nitrogen and potassium is generally serious in tobacco cropping regions of Southern China, which leads to fertilizer waste and potential environmental pollution, and greatly limits sustainable production of tobacco. Biochar is porous and stable, and has large surface area. The addition of biochar to soil may increase the adsorption of nutrients and elongate the fertilizer effects. In this study, the leaching loss of main soil nutrients were investigated under different biochar addition levels.【Methods】 Tobacco-planting soil was used in a soil column incubation experiment. Five treatments were designed: no fertilizer (CK); only N, P, K fertilizers (NPK); NPK+ 10% biochar of the soil amount (10%B); NPK+20% biochar (20% B) and NPK+40% biochar (40%B). Each treatment was replicated four times, and the NO-3-N, soluble P and soluble K contents in the leaching water were measured after different days of biochar addition.【Results】 As normal, the leaching amounts of NO-3-N, P and K are increased firstly and then decreased during the incubation In the 21st day of incubation, the leaching amount of NO-3-N and P in NPK treatment was significantly lower than those in the treatments with biochar. Compared to the NPK treatment, the total leaching of NO-3-N in 10%B, 20%B and 40%B treatments were significantly decreased by 13%, 18% and 25%; the total leaching of P decreased by 46%, 61% and 73%, respectively, the total leaching of K in 10%B and 20%B treatments were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. The leaching of K in 40%B treatment was significantly higher than those in the other two biochar added treatments, and was 47% higher than the NPK treatment. At the end of the incubation, the soil pH increased with increasing biochar addition rates. Therefore, it was supposed that the decrease in NO-3-N leaching was mainly attributed to adsorption of biochar. Besides adsorption functions of biochar, the decrease in P leaching maybe due its decreased mobility caused by the increased soil pH, and the increase in K leaching could be the increase in total K input with biochar addition.【Conclusions】 Biochar addition could effectively reduce the leaching losses of NO-3-N and P in soil, but not reduce that of K. Further researches are needed for the proper addition levels of biochar in the comprehensive consideration of nutrient leaching and efficiency.
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