• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
Volume 27 Issue 9
Oct.  2021
Article Contents

Citation:

Effects of new fertilizers on the yield and soil biological activity of three major food crops: A global meta-analysis

  • Corresponding author: CHEN Yong-liang, ylchen@cau.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2021-02-05
  •   【Objectives】  In recent years, with the transformation of agricultural development mode from resource consumption to green ecology, the development of new fertilizers has become a hot topic. Recent available studies mostly focused on the effects of new fertilizers on the crop yield, nitrogen (N) uptake and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), but our understanding about their effect on soil biological activity was relatively limited. This study aims to analyze the effects of new fertilizer on the yield of three major food crops (wheat, maize and rice) and soil biological activity, and also to provide a scientific basis for the wide production and application of new fertilizers.   【Methods】  In this study, we obtained the data from “CNKI” and “Web of Science” databases. A total of 29 relevant papers conducted in field trials were obtained with “wheat”, “maize”, “rice”, “yield”, “microbial biomass”, “enzyme activity” and “new fertilizer” as the keywords, producing a total of 545 data groups coming from 32 independent trials. Using conventional fertilizers as the control and new fertilizers as the experimental group, Meta-analysis was used to integrate the effects of new fertilizers application on crop yield, enzyme activity and soil microbial biomass.   【Results】  The yield, aboveground N uptake and NUE of three crops were significantly increased by new fertilizers application, with an increment rate of 8.4%, 9.9% and 36.8%, respectively, compared with those of conventional fertilizers application. Similarly, the application of new fertilizers significantly increased soil microbial biomass nitrogen (14.6%), but had no significant effect on soil microbial biomass carbon. Soil phosphate metabolism-related enzymes activities (8.6%) and oxide-related enzymes activities (5.7%) were significantly increased by applying new fertilizers, but no significant difference was found for soil carbon and nitrogen cycling enzyme activities between these two treatments.  【Conclusions】  The application of new fertilizers increased the yield, aboveground N uptake and NUE of three major crops, and also increased soil microbial biomass N, soil phosphate metabolism-related enzymes activity and oxide-related enzymes activity, and further improved the soil biological activity of agricultural ecosystem.
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Effects of new fertilizers on the yield and soil biological activity of three major food crops: A global meta-analysis

    Corresponding author: CHEN Yong-liang, ylchen@cau.edu.cn
  • Department of Plant Nutrition, College of Resource and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University/ Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100193, China

Abstract:   【Objectives】  In recent years, with the transformation of agricultural development mode from resource consumption to green ecology, the development of new fertilizers has become a hot topic. Recent available studies mostly focused on the effects of new fertilizers on the crop yield, nitrogen (N) uptake and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), but our understanding about their effect on soil biological activity was relatively limited. This study aims to analyze the effects of new fertilizer on the yield of three major food crops (wheat, maize and rice) and soil biological activity, and also to provide a scientific basis for the wide production and application of new fertilizers.   【Methods】  In this study, we obtained the data from “CNKI” and “Web of Science” databases. A total of 29 relevant papers conducted in field trials were obtained with “wheat”, “maize”, “rice”, “yield”, “microbial biomass”, “enzyme activity” and “new fertilizer” as the keywords, producing a total of 545 data groups coming from 32 independent trials. Using conventional fertilizers as the control and new fertilizers as the experimental group, Meta-analysis was used to integrate the effects of new fertilizers application on crop yield, enzyme activity and soil microbial biomass.   【Results】  The yield, aboveground N uptake and NUE of three crops were significantly increased by new fertilizers application, with an increment rate of 8.4%, 9.9% and 36.8%, respectively, compared with those of conventional fertilizers application. Similarly, the application of new fertilizers significantly increased soil microbial biomass nitrogen (14.6%), but had no significant effect on soil microbial biomass carbon. Soil phosphate metabolism-related enzymes activities (8.6%) and oxide-related enzymes activities (5.7%) were significantly increased by applying new fertilizers, but no significant difference was found for soil carbon and nitrogen cycling enzyme activities between these two treatments.  【Conclusions】  The application of new fertilizers increased the yield, aboveground N uptake and NUE of three major crops, and also increased soil microbial biomass N, soil phosphate metabolism-related enzymes activity and oxide-related enzymes activity, and further improved the soil biological activity of agricultural ecosystem.

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  • 我国是农业大国,同时也是全球肥料用量最大的国家,我国单位面积施肥量是全球平均水平的3倍[1-2]。2015年我国化肥用量为6023万t (实物量),粮食产量为62144万t[3]。与1984年相比,2015年化肥用量增加了4283万t,增加了246%,而粮食只增产21413万t,增加了52.6%。长期以来,我国农业生产一直处于高肥料投入、高作物产量、高环境代价的生产模式[4],肥料的施用对我国粮食生产的持续增长起到了重要作用[5],但是大幅度增加化肥施用量并没有带来相应比例的粮食增产,出现这种现象的主要原因是我国化肥利用率较低。2010年北美和欧洲三大作物的氮肥利用效率分别为52%和61%[6],而中国的水稻、小麦和玉米的氮肥利用率分别为31%、32%和30%,平均仅为31%[7]

    随着世界人口的快速增长,人类对粮食需求量逐渐加大。据预测,到2050年要增加50%~70%的粮食产量才能满足未来人类对粮食的需求[8]。在农业绿色发展背景下,如何提高肥料利用率已成为人们考虑的重要问题,其中,加快对新型肥料的研发,可以保证农业生产沿着高产高效的方向发展[9-10]。国内外学者通过田间试验和Meta分析对新型肥料的产量[11]以及环境效应[12]等方面进行了研究,涉及的粮食作物主要包括小麦[13-14]、玉米[15-16]和水稻[17]等。这些研究结果表明,新型肥料能够提高作物产量和氮肥利用效率[18],提高作物品质,减少经济投入[19],同时降低氮素损失[12]

    施用新型肥料是否能培育健康土壤,这在很大程度上与农业生态系统土壤生物学活性的改善有关。土壤微生物是陆地生态系统的重要组分,土壤微生物量能从整体上反映土壤微生物群落参与地球物质循环和转化过程的状况,而土壤酶是土壤微生物分泌的产物,两者是反映土壤健康的重要生物学指标[20-21]。有田间试验研究表明,施用新型肥料能提高土壤酶活性,但是不同新型肥料类型对土壤酶活性的影响不同[22]。同时,施用新型肥料对土壤微生物量碳氮的影响也不同[23]。然而,基于整合分析研究新型肥料对三大粮食作物土壤微生物量和土壤酶活性影响的研究目前鲜有报道。

    本研究搜集整理了国内外学者发表的文献资料,运用整合分析的方法,分析了全球尺度上施用新型肥料对三大作物 (小麦、玉米和水稻) 产量和土壤生物学活性的影响,进一步明确了氮肥施用量、土壤pH、作物类型和新型肥料类型等因素的影响,旨在为加快新型肥料的研发和推广提供依据。

1.   材料与方法

    1.1.   数据来源

  • 本研究在“中国知网”及“Web of Science”数据库进行文献搜集,以“小麦”、“玉米”、“水稻”、“产量”、“微生物量”、“酶活性”为主要关键词检索2019年12月31日之前发表的田间试验文献。为实现本研究的目的及Meta分析对数据的要求,基于以下7个标准对检索文献进行筛选:1) 研究区域为全球范围内;2) 同一文献中有不同的独立试验,则把每个试验都作为一个独立研究;3) 同一文献中必须同时包括新型肥料处理和传统化学肥料处理;4) 文献中有明确的试验处理重复数以及试验处理的产量、土壤微生物量和土壤酶活性;5) 一篇文献中包含不同采样日期或者不同土壤深度的结果,使用最新采样时间点或者土壤表层的数据;6) 为便于满足数据的统计分析,将作物种类确定为小麦、玉米和水稻;7) 数据搜集过程中,如果数据以柱状图和折线图的形式展示,则采用图形数字化软件GetData Graph Digitizer进行数字化转换后再提取。基于以上标准筛选,共筛选出29篇文献,32个独立试验,获得545组数据。

  • 1.2.   数据分类

  • 经筛选获得的数据,主要涉及中国、印度、日本等国家,考虑到施用新型肥料对三大作物产量和土壤生物学活性的影响可能受其他相关因素的调控,根据文献中的相关试验信息进行归纳分组,整理得到以下影响因素:作物类型、氮肥施用量、新型肥料类型、土壤酸碱度(表1)。本研究中提到的新型肥料包括缓/控释肥、脲酶抑制剂、硝化抑制剂和双抑制剂4种;氮肥施用量以投入纯氮量计算。

    影响因素 Influence factor分组 Classification
    作物类型 Crop type小麦、玉米、水稻 Wheat,Maize,Rice
    土壤酸碱度 Soil pHpH < 6、6 ≤ pH < 7、7 ≤ pH < 8、pH ≥ 8
    氮肥施用量 N rate (kg/hm2) < 150、150~200、 ≥ 200
    控释肥类型 Controlled release fertilizer typeCRF、UI、NI、DI
    注(Note):CRF—缓/控释肥 Controlled release fertilizer; UI—脲酶抑制剂 Urease inhibitor; NI—硝化抑制剂 Nitrification inhibitor; DI—双抑制剂 Double inhibitor.

    Table 1.  Classification of experiment data

  • 1.3.   整合分析

  • 在整合分析中,使用响应比 (RR) 作为一种度量标准,来比较不同响应变量 (作物产量、地上部吸氮量、氮肥利用效率、土壤微生物量和土壤酶活性) 在传统化学肥料和新型肥料处理间的效应大小[24]。RR以新型肥料 (Xt) 与传统化学肥料 (Xc) 处理的相关指标平均值比值的自然对数计算:

    式中:RR是响应比;Xt为施用新型肥料处理的相关指标的平均值;Xc是施用传统化学肥料处理的相关指标的平均值。

    本研究在提取和分析数据的过程中,对酶活性单位进行了统一,使用酶活性的响应比作为响应变量,由此可以消除不同酶分析方法的差异。同时,用平均土壤胞外酶活性 (EEAs) 表示碳代谢 (C-acq)、氮代谢 (N-acq)、磷代谢 (P-acq) 和氧化分解 (OX) 相关酶活性[25],土壤胞外酶活性 (EEAs) 计算公式如下:

    其中,AG、BG、CBH、BX、XY、INV分别代表α-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶、β-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶、β-D-纤维二糖苷酶、β-1,4-木糖苷酶、木聚糖酶和转化酶的活性;NAG、LAP、UREA和BAA分别代表β-1,4-N-乙酰氨基葡萄糖苷酶、亮氨酸氨基肽酶、脲酶和蛋白酶的活性;DEs、ALP和ACP分别代表二酯酶、碱性磷酸酶和酸性磷酸酶的活性;PEO、DHH、CAT和PhOx分别代表过氧化物酶、脱氢酶、过氧化氢酶和酚氧化酶的活性。

  • 1.4.   统计分析

  • 本研究使用 Microsoft Excel 2013记录文献数据,并通过SPSS 26软件进行数据分析,使用Sigmaplot 14软件进行作图。

2.   结果与分析

    2.1.   新型肥料和传统化学肥料对作物产量的影响

  • 总体上,相比于传统化学肥料,施用新型肥料增加了8.4%的作物产量 (图1)。不同施氮量对作物产量有显著影响,当施氮量 < 150 kg/hm2时,增产幅度最高 (11.5%);当施氮量 ≥ 200 kg/hm2和在150~200 kg/hm2时,增产幅度分别为9.7%和5.6%。在所有土壤酸碱度范围内,新型肥料对作物产量均有显著正效应,当pH ≥ 8时增产幅度最高 (12%)。在所有的作物类型中,玉米的增产幅度最高 (11.3%),其次是小麦 (7.3%) 和水稻 (7.0%)。4种新型肥料类型均能显著增加作物产量,其中脲酶抑制剂对产量的增幅影响最大 (11.1%),其次是硝化抑制剂 (10.2%)、双抑制剂 (9.0%) 和缓/控释肥 (7.7%)。

    Figure 1.  The effects of new fertilizers and traditional chemical fertilizers on crop yields response ratio (RR)

  • 2.2.   新型肥料和传统化学肥料对作物地上部吸氮量的影响

  • 总体上,施用新型肥料的作物地上部吸氮量比施用传统化学肥料高9.9%。氮肥施用量、土壤酸碱度、作物类型和新型肥料类型对作物地上部吸氮量均呈现显著正效应。从氮肥施用量来看,施用氮肥越多地上部吸氮量对新型肥料添加的响应越低 (图2)。地上部吸氮量对新型肥料添加的响应程度随着pH的增加逐渐降低。不同作物类型对新型肥料的响应中,水稻的增幅最高 (10.5%),其次是玉米 (10.2%) 和小麦 (8.2%)。相比于传统化学肥料,缓/控释肥、硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂对作物地上部吸氮量的增幅分别为8.8%、12.2%和12.3%,而双抑制剂对地上部吸氮量没有显著影响 (图2)。

    Figure 2.  The effects of new fertilizers and traditional chemical fertilizers on crop nitrogen uptake response ratio (RR)

  • 2.3.   新型肥料和传统化学肥料对作物氮肥利用效率的影响

  • 总体上,施用新型肥料的氮肥利用效率比施用传统化学肥料高36.8%;氮肥施用量、土壤酸碱度、作物类型和新型肥料类型对作物氮肥利用率的影响均呈现显著正效应 (图3)。作物氮肥利用率随着新型肥料添加量的增加而增加。当土壤在7 ≤ pH < 8时,氮肥利用率对施用新型肥料的响应最大,达到45.2%;而当土壤pH < 6时响应最小,为17.5%。施用缓/控释肥对作物氮肥利用率的影响最大 (44.1%),其次是双抑制剂 (23.8%)、硝化抑制剂 (19.4%) 和脲酶抑制剂 (17.2%)。

    Figure 3.  The effects of new fertilizers and traditional chemical fertilizers on nitrogen use efficiency response ratio (RR)

  • 2.4.   新型肥料和传统化学肥料对土壤微生物量的影响

  • 总体上,施用新型肥料对土壤微生物量碳的影响不显著,但显著增加了土壤微生物量氮 (14.6%)。氮肥施用量、土壤酸碱度、作物类型和新型肥料种类对土壤微生物量碳均没有显著影响 (图4)。当氮肥施用量 < 200 kg/hm2时,施用新型肥料显著增加了土壤微生物量氮,而在 ≥ 200 kg/hm2时对土壤微生物量氮无显著影响 (图4)。当土壤pH在6~7时,施用新型肥料显著增加土壤微生物量氮 (27.1%),而在其他pH范围内对微生物量氮的影响不显著。施用新型肥料显著增加了水稻土壤微生物量氮 (8.2%),但对小麦和玉米土壤微生物量氮无显著影响 (图4)。此外,施用缓/控释肥显著增加了土壤微生物量氮 (22.5%),而其他新型肥料类型对微生物量氮无显著影响 (图4)。

    Figure 4.  The effects of new fertilizers and traditional chemical fertilizers on soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen response ratio (RR)

  • 2.5.   新型肥料和传统化学肥料对土壤酶活性的影响

  • 总体上,施用新型肥料对土壤碳氮代谢酶活性无显著影响。当施氮量 < 150 kg/hm2时,施用新型肥料显著提高土壤碳代谢酶活性 (21.4%),而在其他施氮量范围内对土壤碳代谢酶活性无显著影响。当施氮量在150~200 kg/hm2时,施用新型肥料显著提高土壤氮代谢酶活性 (14.1%),在其他施氮量范围内对土壤氮代谢酶活性无显著影响 (图5)。当土壤pH在6~7时,施用新型肥料分别显著提高土壤碳、氮代谢酶活性24.2%和13.7% (图5)。施用新型肥料显著提高水稻土壤碳代谢酶活性 (15.9%) 和氮代谢酶活性 (7.2%),但对玉米和小麦土壤碳氮代谢酶活性无显著影响 (图5)。施用缓/控释肥显著提高土壤碳氮代谢酶活性 (8.0%和12.7%);脲酶抑制剂显著降低了氮代谢相关酶活性 (3.1%),而在其他情况下效果均不显著。相比之下,施用新型肥料显著增加了土壤磷代谢酶活性 (8.6%) 和氧化相关酶活性 (5.7%)。当氮肥施用量在150~200 kg/hm2时,施用新型肥料显著提高土壤磷代谢酶活性 (11.9%)。土壤pH在7~8时,施用新型肥料显著提高土壤磷代谢酶活性 (24.1%) 和氧化相关酶活性 (16.4%)。同时,施用新型肥料显著提高小麦土壤磷代谢酶活性和氧化相关酶活性 (29.9%和15.9%),但对玉米和水稻土壤磷代谢活性和氧化相关酶活性无显著影响 (图5)。

    Figure 5.  The effects of new fertilizers and traditional chemical fertilizers on the soil enzymes including C-acq, N-acq, P-acq and OX response ratio (RR)

3.   讨论

    3.1.   新型肥料的增产效应

  • 施用新型肥料可以提高作物产量和肥料利用率,达到增产增效的目的[25]。本研究结果表明,与施用传统化学肥料相比,施用新型肥料能够提高三大作物产量 (8.4%),同时提高了地上部吸氮量 (9.9%) 和氮肥利用率 (36.8%)。陈琨等[26]研究表明,在等量氮素的投入下,新型肥料处理比普通尿素处理的产量增加3.61%~11.36%,同时提高氮素利用率10个百分点以上。周雯雯等[27]研究表明,新型肥料能够提高双季稻产量6.20% ~26.05%。原因可能是传统化学肥料无法满足作物整个生育期生长的需要,而新型肥料在作物生育期内氮素损失较少,而且能满足作物后期的氮素供应,从而提高作物产量、氮素吸收和氮肥利用率[28-31]。然而在不同的施氮水平下,新型肥料对作物的增产效应有所差异。在本研究中,当施氮量 < 150 kg/hm2时三大作物增产幅度最高 (11.5%),其次是在施氮量 ≥ 200 kg/hm2 (9.7%) 和150~200 kg/hm2 (5.6%) 水平,这与苑俊丽等[32]整合分析的结果一致。就作物类型而言,玉米的增产效应最好 (11.3%),其次是小麦 (7.3%) 和水稻 (7.0%)。这可能是由于玉米对氮的吸收可以与新型肥料养分的缓慢释放同步:新型肥料一般在2~3个月内释放氮素,这与玉米在整个生长季节对氮素的需求相匹配[33-34]。此外,当玉米生长早期对氮需求低时,新型肥料可以最大限度地降低土壤氮的有效性,减少土壤氮损失,从而实现作物的增产[35]。本研究发现不同土壤pH对作物增产效果无显著差异,与Feng等[36]的结果不一致,Feng等[36]研究表明,在碱性土壤上施用新型肥料的增产效果最好。原因可能是两个研究中作物类型不同,本研究关注的作物包括水稻、玉米和小麦3种作物,而Feng等[36]关注的是旱地作物 (玉米、小麦和大麦)。本研究中不同类型新型肥料均能显著提高作物产量,这与很多整合分析的研究[11, 37-38]结果一致,研究表明新型肥料 (缓释肥、脲酶抑制剂、硝化抑制剂) 对水稻均有着显著的增产效应[11, 37],Abalos等[38]研究发现脲酶抑制剂和硝化抑制剂不仅能显著提高谷类作物产量,还能提高牧草作物的产量。总之,相比于传统化学肥料,施用新型肥料能够显著提高作物产量。

  • 3.2.   新型肥料的土壤生物学活性效应

  • 土壤质量和肥力很大程度上依赖于土壤中微生物量[39],其中,微生物量碳和微生物量氮是参与土壤碳氮循环的重要评价指标[40]。土壤微生物量、酶活性与施肥管理有关,有研究发现施用氮肥降低了微生物量碳[41]和氮循环酶的活性[42]。本研究中施用脲酶抑制剂对微生物量碳氮的影响不显著 (图4),这与张文学等[43]的研究结果一致,原因可能是脲酶抑制剂占据了脲酶水解尿素的活性位置,降低脲酶活性,但是这种作用对土壤微生物量影响较小。施用双抑制剂和缓/控释肥能显著提高微生物量氮 (图4),这与李东坡等[44]和王静等[45]的研究结果一致,李东坡等[44]的研究表明,施用缓/控释氮肥能增加土壤微生物量氮;王静等[45]研究表明,尿素配施硝化抑制剂、配施双抑制剂会显著提升微生物量氮。这可能是因为新型肥料施用后会减少土壤中氮的损失,提高土壤可利用性氮的含量,大量氮素被土壤微生物固持到体内,因此增加了土壤微生物量氮。

    土壤酶能够推动土壤中生物化学反应的进行,与土壤质量和土壤肥力有密切的关系,是反映生态系统功能的重要指标[46]。本研究中,施用脲酶抑制剂显著降低了氮代谢相关酶活性 (图5),这与卢维宏等[47]、姚云柯等[48]的结果一致。卢维宏等[47]的研究表明,施用脲酶抑制剂能够降低土壤中脲酶活性;姚云柯等[48]的研究表明,与普通复合肥处理相比,施用脲酶抑制剂能降低脲酶活性 (66.19%)。本研究中施用缓/控释肥显著提高土壤碳氮代谢酶活性,这与金容等[49]的研究结果一致;金容等[49]研究结果表明,与施用普通尿素相比,施用控释肥能够显著提高土壤氮代谢酶活性,原因可能是控释肥能够改善土壤理化性状,为土壤微生物营造良好的生存环境,使得微生物同化更多的氮,从而增加微生物量氮,进而增加脲酶活性[50]。另外,施用新型肥料总体上提高了土壤磷代谢酶活性和氧化相关酶活性 (图5),与刘飞等[51]、井大炜等[52]的研究结果类似。刘飞等[51]和井大炜等[52]的研究表明,与普通肥料相比,施用缓/控释肥能提高土壤中磷酸酶活性。这可能是因为磷酸酶活性与土壤中有效磷含量呈正相关关系,土壤有效磷含量的增加提高了磷酸酶活性[53-54]

4.   结论
  • 1) 与施用传统化学肥料相比,施用新型肥料后显著提高三大作物 (小麦、玉米、水稻) 的产量 (8.4%),脲酶抑制剂对产量增幅影响最大 (11.1%),其次为硝化抑制剂 (10.2%)、双抑制剂 (9.0%) 和缓/控释肥 (7.7%)。

    2) 与施用传统化学肥料相比,施用新型肥料显著提高了作物地上部吸氮量 (9.9%),缓/控释肥、硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂对作物地上部吸氮量的增幅分别为8.8%、12.2%和12.3%。

    3) 与施用传统化学肥料相比,施用新型肥料能够显著提高三大作物对氮肥的利用效率,增幅达到36.8%。施用缓/控释肥对作物氮肥利用率的影响最大 (44.1%),双抑制剂、硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂的增产效果分别为23.8%、19.4% 和17.2%。

    4) 与施用传统化学肥料相比,施用新型肥料能够显著提高土壤微生物量氮 (14.6%)、土壤磷代谢活性 (8.6%) 和氧化相关酶活性 (5.7%)。其中施用缓控释肥能显著提高土壤微生物氮含量 (22.5%)、碳代谢酶活性 (8%) 和氮代谢酶活性 (12.7%),而施用脲酶抑制剂显著降低了土壤氮代谢相关酶活性 (3.1%)。

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