• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
Volume 27 Issue 9
Oct.  2021
Article Contents

Citation:

Detection rate and concentration of tetracycline antibiotics in organic fertilizers raw materials and commercial products in China

  •   【Objectives】  Livestock manures from intensive farming often contain a certain amount of antibiotics, which could get into farmland when applied as fertilizers. To provide a basis for their safe recycling, we investigated the concentration of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in the raw materials and commercial products of organic fertilizers in China.  【Methods】  180 samples of organic fertilizer raw materials (including auxiliary materials) and 244 samples of commercial organic fertilizer products were collected nationwide for the analysis of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and doxycycline (DXC). The commercial organic fertilizer products only included those made from livestock manure.  【Results】  The total detection rate of the four TCs in all the samples was 24.29%, and 35.00% in raw materials and 16.39% in the commercial products, with the rate being lower in the latter than in raw materials. Detection rate of one or two types of antibiotics in total samples was 80.58%, 92.50% in the commercial products and 73.02% in raw materials. The detected concentration of the 4 TCs was in the order of CTC (22.11 mg/kg) > OTC (2.49 mg/kg) > TTC (1.74 mg/kg) > DXC (0.71 mg/kg), and the detection rate was in the order of OTC (14.39%) > DXC (11.08%) > CTC (8.96%) > TTC (6.13%). The detection rate of the four TCs in raw materials was pig manure (83.33%) > chicken dung (66.67%) > cow dung (30.77%) > sheep dung (24.42%). Residues, including oil residues (dry cakes), yeast residues and bone meal were also detected, indicating that TCs were not only widely used in animal husbandry but also had been extended to mushroom cultivation and leftovers from the animal-derived food industry. The contents of CTC, TTC and OTC in sheep dung were higher, and those of CTC and OTC in pig manure were higher. The removal rates of TCs in commercial products were in the order OTC (77.81%) > CTC (75.02%) > TTC (72.84%) > DXC (62.80%). Inner Mongolia and Gansu were the regions with the highest detection rate and concentration of the 4 TCs investigated.  【Conclusions】  The composting process of organic fertilizer generally removes 62.80%−77.81% of the four kinds of TCs in organic fertilizer raw materials, and the order of removal rate is OTC>CTC>TTC>DXC. At present, the detection rate of the four TCs in all the raw-materials and commercial organic fertilizer products is 24.29%, and that in commercial organic fertilizer products (16.39%) is lower than in raw materials (35.00%).
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Detection rate and concentration of tetracycline antibiotics in organic fertilizers raw materials and commercial products in China

    Corresponding author: TAN Qi-ling, qltan@mail.hzau.edu.cn
  • 1. College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizers, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China
  • 2. Institute of Resources, Environment and Testing Technology, Academy of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Sciences of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010031, China
  • 3. College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100091, China
  • 4. National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, Beijing 100125, China
  • 5. Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100089, China
  • 6. Chengdu Soil and Fertilizer Testing Center/Agricultural Products Quality and Safety Environmental Factors Risk Assessment Laboratory (Chengdu), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China

Abstract:   【Objectives】  Livestock manures from intensive farming often contain a certain amount of antibiotics, which could get into farmland when applied as fertilizers. To provide a basis for their safe recycling, we investigated the concentration of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in the raw materials and commercial products of organic fertilizers in China.  【Methods】  180 samples of organic fertilizer raw materials (including auxiliary materials) and 244 samples of commercial organic fertilizer products were collected nationwide for the analysis of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and doxycycline (DXC). The commercial organic fertilizer products only included those made from livestock manure.  【Results】  The total detection rate of the four TCs in all the samples was 24.29%, and 35.00% in raw materials and 16.39% in the commercial products, with the rate being lower in the latter than in raw materials. Detection rate of one or two types of antibiotics in total samples was 80.58%, 92.50% in the commercial products and 73.02% in raw materials. The detected concentration of the 4 TCs was in the order of CTC (22.11 mg/kg) > OTC (2.49 mg/kg) > TTC (1.74 mg/kg) > DXC (0.71 mg/kg), and the detection rate was in the order of OTC (14.39%) > DXC (11.08%) > CTC (8.96%) > TTC (6.13%). The detection rate of the four TCs in raw materials was pig manure (83.33%) > chicken dung (66.67%) > cow dung (30.77%) > sheep dung (24.42%). Residues, including oil residues (dry cakes), yeast residues and bone meal were also detected, indicating that TCs were not only widely used in animal husbandry but also had been extended to mushroom cultivation and leftovers from the animal-derived food industry. The contents of CTC, TTC and OTC in sheep dung were higher, and those of CTC and OTC in pig manure were higher. The removal rates of TCs in commercial products were in the order OTC (77.81%) > CTC (75.02%) > TTC (72.84%) > DXC (62.80%). Inner Mongolia and Gansu were the regions with the highest detection rate and concentration of the 4 TCs investigated.  【Conclusions】  The composting process of organic fertilizer generally removes 62.80%−77.81% of the four kinds of TCs in organic fertilizer raw materials, and the order of removal rate is OTC>CTC>TTC>DXC. At present, the detection rate of the four TCs in all the raw-materials and commercial organic fertilizer products is 24.29%, and that in commercial organic fertilizer products (16.39%) is lower than in raw materials (35.00%).

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  • 四环素类抗生素 (TCs) 是一类具有并四苯结构的广谱抗生素,包括由放线菌产生的土霉素 (OTC)、四环素 (TTC)、金霉素 (CTC) 和半合成的强力霉素 (DXC) 等。由于TCs具有广谱性和廉价性的特点,被广泛应用于畜禽养殖,具有防治禽畜疾病、促进生长的作用。世界许多国家都在生产和使用TCs,中国已成为世界上生产和消费TCs量最大的国家之一[1]。大部分TCs不能完全被动物消化或吸收,约有30%~90%以母体化合物的形态随畜禽粪尿排放[2]。对规模化养殖企业禽畜粪便有害成分检测分析发现,在32个猪粪检测样本中不同程度地检测出TCs的残留[3]

    有机肥是畜禽粪便资源化利用和提供作物养分的重要途经之一,对实现有机肥替代化肥、发展绿色可持续农业具有重要意义。但畜禽粪便也是抗生素污染土壤的重要来源之一,施用畜禽粪便肥的农田表层土壤中OTC、TTC和CTC的平均残留量分别是未施畜禽粪便的农田38、13和12倍[4]。堆肥是畜禽粪便无害化处理和资源化利用的主要措施,是国内外较为常用且经济、有效、成熟的畜禽粪便处理方法,也是去除畜禽粪便抗生素残留的主要方式之一[5-6],堆肥发酵过程被认为是有机肥生产中抗生素降解的主要途径,除了微生物的降解,堆肥温度、pH、含水率、光线、容重及抗生素自降解等均会影响抗生素的降解[7-13],虽然堆肥对大部分抗生素具有好的降解效果,但仍从商品有机肥中检出11种抗生素,其中TTC的检出率为8.82%[14],畜禽粪便结合秸秆进行高温堆肥,猪粪堆肥和鸡粪堆肥TTC、OTC、CTC去除率分别为81.5%、66.8%、59.7%和73.7%、53.0%和46.6%[15],经50天堆肥处理后,TTC、CTC及OTC的去除率分别为70%、92%及74%[16],说明堆肥化处理并未能完全降解抗生素。未降解的抗生素随着肥料进入农田,不仅能杀死有益的微生物,甚至可产生耐药菌,从而对土壤生态系统的结构和功能产生影响。抗生素被动植物吸收后进入食物链,对人类健康也形成潜在威胁,如在3家中国商业养猪场粪肥中发现了149种“独特”的抗生素耐药基因[17],甘蓝、玉米和叶用洋葱不仅能吸收CTC且随CTC浓度增加吸收量增加[18-19]。我国有机肥标准虽已于2021年6月进行修订 (NY/T 525-2021《有机肥料》),但仍未对有机肥的抗生素含量作限量规定,因此亟需建立我国有机肥抗生素含量限量标准。

    本研究对我国不同地区的畜禽粪便原料及以其为主要原料生产的有机肥进行4种TCs含量的检测,通过分析不同原料及地区TCs含量与检出率、有机肥制作过程对4种TCs的去除率,评估不同畜禽粪便及不同地区存在TCs风险的可能性,为我国有机肥的安全风险监测和评价提供依据。

1.   材料与方法

    1.1.   样品采集

  • 2019年5—12月,以华中、华南、东北、华北、西南地区等典型县市区为代表,包括内蒙古、河北、甘肃、湖北、湖南、云南、四川、广西、江西、安徽、江苏、山东等省区,采集商品有机肥样品244个,有机肥原料样品180个,其中畜禽养殖类原料占抽样数的86.1%,其它则为商品有机肥生产常用的辅料。同时采集原料及利用该原料生产的商品有机肥样品各81份。

    袋装商品有机肥根据所需抽样商品有机肥的样袋,每袋从斜长对角线放入到取样器的四分之三处,取样量应多于或等于100 g,一个样品取样应多于或等于2 kg,装入样品袋密封;散装有机肥和有机肥原料取样方法是在每个堆垛点,自下而上每20 cm取样一次,每次约500 g,采用四分法取样1 kg,装入样品袋密封 (NY/T 3442—2019)。样品冷藏带回实验室,粉碎后过0.5 mm筛用于测定。

  • 1.2.   样品测定指标与测定方法

  • 样品经Na2EDTA-Mcllvaine-甲醇 (1∶1) 提取,上清液氮气吹至一半体积,依次用水和甲醇–超纯水进行净化处理,草酸–甲醇溶液洗脱,调pH为 5~6,氮气吹干后加水溶解并用0.22 μm滤膜过滤,高效液相色谱紫外检测器检测OTC、TTC、CTC及DXC的含量。测定条件:C18色谱柱 (2.7 μm,4.6 mm×100 mm) 进行分离,0.01 mol/L草酸∶乙腈∶甲醇 (76∶16∶8) 等度洗脱,流速1 mL/min,柱温30℃。进样20 μL,355 nm处检测,采样时间25 min (GB/T32951—2016)。OTC、TTC、CTC及DXC的检出限及回收率分别为0.75 mg/kg和92.45%、0.75 mg/kg和92.18%、1.0 mg/kg和92.69%及0.75 mg/kg和96.18%。

  • 1.3.   数据分析

  • 利用Microsoft Excel 2007、SPSS 23.0及Origin 2017进行数据分析和作图。

2.   结果与分析

    2.1.   畜禽粪便原料及商品有机肥中4种四环素类抗生素总检出率

  • 图1可知,有机肥原料及商品有机肥样品检出抗生素的比率分别为35.00%和16.39%,总计24.29%,原料检出率约是商品有机肥的1倍。检出1~2种抗生素的样品占总样品数的80.58%,其中检出1~2种抗生素的商品有机肥比例高达92.50%,而有机肥原料检出1~2种抗生素的样品占73.02%,商品有机肥检出1~2种抗生素的比例高于有机肥原料,这是因为选择1种或2种抗生素的畜禽养殖企业较多,但在商品有机肥生产过程中添加多种畜禽粪便所致。

    Figure 1.  Detection rate of tetracycline antibiotics and the proportion of the types of tetracycline antibiotics detected

    表1可知,以畜禽粪便为主的有机肥原料,猪粪、鸡粪、牛粪及羊粪4种抗生素的检出率最高,分别为83.33%、66.67%、30.77%及24.42%,说明在鸡、猪、牛及羊的养殖中抗生素的使用频率较高;鸭粪、菇渣及骨粉原料中有也4种抗生素的检出 (因其取样数量较少,其检出率无代表性),说明在蘑菇生产或生产菌肥的菌渣中也有4种抗生素的使用。商品有机肥中,则以鸡粪、猪粪、牛粪及羊粪为主要原料的4种抗生素的检出率最高,分别为31.67%、25.00%、14.63%及9.59%,虽然秸秆、油饼及酵母渣原料中未检出4种抗生素,但以其为主要原料的商品有机肥仍检出抗生素,其可能是在有机肥生产过程中,掺入部分含4种抗生素的原料所致。

    原料
    Raw material
    样品数
    Sample
    No.
    土霉素
    Oxytetracycline
    四环素
    Tetracycline
    金霉素
    Chlortetracycline
    强力霉素
    Doxycycline
    合计
    Total
    产品
    Product
    原料
    Raw
    material
    产品
    Product
    原料
    Raw
    material
    产品
    Product
    原料
    Raw
    material
    产品
    Product
    原料
    Raw
    material
    产品
    Product
    原料
    Raw
    material
    羊粪 Sheep dung159 1.3715.12 2.7412.79 6.8511.63 5.48 4.65 9.5924.42
    鸡粪 Chicken dung9016.6753.33 3.33 3.33 6.6716.6723.3340.0031.6766.67
    牛粪 Cow dung8012.2025.64 4.8812.82 4.8815.38 5.1314.6330.77
    猪粪 Pig manure2611.5411.54 5.0011.5425.0030.7725.0083.33
    秸秆 Straw1111.1111.11
    菇渣
    Mushroom residue
    920.0040.040.00
    油饼 Oil residue716.6616.6616.67
    酵母渣 Yeast residue616.6716.67
    鸭粪 Duck dung616.6716.67
    骨粉 Bone meal250.050.050.050.00
    腐殖酸 Humic acid11
    海藻 Seaweed3
    糠醛渣 Furfural residue3
    蚯蚓粪 Vermi compost3
    中药渣
    Chinese medicine residue
    3
    沼渣 Biogas residue2
    餐厨垃圾 Food waste1
    酒糟 Lees1
    兔粪 Rabbit dung1
    注(Note):检出率= 有抗生素样品检出数/采样数 Detection rate=Number of samples with tetracycline antibiotics/Sample numbers; “—”表示未检出 Not detected.

    Table 1.  Detection rate of tetracycline antibiotics in the raw materials and their commercial products

  • 2.2.   畜禽粪便原料及生产的有机肥中土霉素检出率及含量

  • 商品有机肥和原料中土霉素 (OTC) 的检出率分别为6.56%和25.00%,平均检出率和含量分别为14.39% 和2.49 mg/kg (表2)。从原料检出率来看,鸡粪、牛粪、猪粪、菇渣及羊粪检出率较高,分别占各自取样量的28.89%、18.75%、11.54%、11.11%及8.81%,骨粉及生产菌肥的秸秆中也有土霉素的检出。从含量来看,以牛粪、猪粪、羊粪 (去掉一个异常值) 及鸡粪中较高,分别达2.75、2.61、2.22及0.66 mg/kg,检出率及含量都以畜禽粪便原料最高,分别为25.00%和3.01 mg/kg;从肥料生产企业所在地域来看,北京、甘肃 (去掉一个异常值)、云南、四川及湖南地区含量较高,分别为5.13、5.11、1.13、0.69及0.40 mg/kg,安徽、河北、江西及内蒙古地区也有检出 (图2)。

    Figure 2.  Oxytetracycline content in different raw materials and their commercial products

    分类
    Classification
    样品数
    Sample No.
    检出样品数
    Detected sample No.
    检出率
    Detection rate
    (%)
    平均含量
    Average content
    (mg/kg)
    最大值
    Maximum
    (mg/kg)
    最小值
    Minimum
    (mg/kg)
    变异系数
    CV
    (%)
    总样品 Total sample4246114.392.4956.100.06323
    商品有机肥 Commercial product244166.561.0414.200.06382
    原料 Raw material1804525.003.0156.100.06220

    Table 2.  Detection rate and content of oxytetracycline in organic fertilizer raw materials and commercial products

  • 2.3.   畜禽粪便原料及生产的有机肥中四环素检出率及含量

  • 畜禽粪便原料及商品有机肥四环素 (TTC) 检出率分别为11.11%和2.46%,平均检出率和含量分别为6.13%和1.74 mg/kg (表3)。羊粪、牛粪、猪粪及鸡粪中检测出了TTC,检出率占各自样品数的比例分别为8.17%、8.75%、11.54%、3.33%,含量分别为2.94、0.81、0.32、0.11 mg/kg。从肥料生产企业所在地域来看,内蒙古、甘肃、云南、河北、北京 (去掉一个异常值) 及湖北6省有检出,其平均含量分别为1.35、0.46、0.23、0.14、0.12及0.08 mg/kg (图3)。

    分类
    Classification
    样品数
    Sample
    No.
    检出样品数
    Detected
    sample No.
    检出率
    Deteced rate
    (%)
    平均含量
    Average content
    (mg/kg)
    最大值
    Maximum
    (mg/kg)
    最小值
    Minimum
    (mg/kg)
    变异系数
    CV
    (%)
    总样品 Total samples424266.131.7425.000.05282
    商品有机肥 Commercial product24462.460.341.560.05147
    原料 Raw material1802011.112.1525.000.07260

    Table 3.  Detection rate and content of tetracycline in the raw materials and their commercial products

    Figure 3.  Tetracycline content in the raw materials and their commercial products

  • 2.4.   畜禽粪便原料及生产的有机肥中金霉素检出率及含量

  • 畜禽粪便原料和商品有机肥金霉素 (CTC) 检出率分别为13.33%和5.74%,平均检出率和含量分别为8.96%和22.11 mg/kg (表4)。鸡粪、牛粪、猪粪及羊粪中CTC的检出率比较相近,分别为10.00%、10.00%、11.54%及9.43%,骨粉、酵母渣及油饼中也有CTC的检出。从含量来看,羊粪和牛粪较高,分别达15.60 (去掉一个异常值) 和9.06 mg/kg,猪粪及鸡粪中较低,分别为2.37和0.34 mg/kg。从肥料生产企业所在地域来看,内蒙古、甘肃、河北、云南、湖北、湖南及四川的平均含量分别为19.18、1.84、0.94、0.42、0.42、0.31及0.17 mg/kg,而北京地区只有一个肥料企业的羊粪原料中检出CTC,且其含量高达538.38 mg/kg (图4)。

    分类
    Classification
    样品数
    Sample
    No.
    检出样品数
    Detected
    sample No.
    检出率
    Detected rate
    (%)
    平均含量
    Average content
    (mg/kg)
    最大值
    Maximum
    (mg/kg)
    最小值
    Minimum
    (mg/kg)
    变异系数
    CV
    (%)
    总样品 Total samples424388.9622.11538.380.500402
    商品有机肥 Commercial product244145.740.341.530.050119
    原料 Raw material1802413.3334.81538.380.065318

    Table 4.  Detection rate and content of chlortetracycline in organic fertilizer raw and commercial products

    Figure 4.  Chlortetracycline concentration in the raw materials and their commercial products

  • 2.5.   畜禽粪便原料及生产的有机肥中强力霉素检出率及含量

  • 畜禽粪便原料和商品有机肥强力霉素 (DXC) 检出率分别为13.33%和9.43%,平均检出率和含量分别为11.08%和0.71 mg/kg (表5)。DXC在猪粪、鸡粪及鸭粪中检出率较高,分别为30.77%、30.0%及16.67%,羊粪及牛粪中检出率较低,只有3.14%和2.5%,菇渣、油饼及骨粉中也有检出。从含量来看,猪粪、鸡粪、羊粪、鸭粪及牛粪中相对较高,分别为1.10、0.82、0.42、0.16及0.14 mg/kg,从肥料生产企业所在地域来看,内蒙古、河北、北京、甘肃、云南、四川、湖南、湖北及安徽地区均有检出,其平均含量分别为1.58、1.28、0.87、0.76、0.64、0.48、0.24、0.19及0.06 mg/kg,但大部分省区均有DXC含量较高的肥料 (图5)。

    分类
    Classification
    样品数
    Samples
    No.
    检出样品数
    Detected
    sample No.
    检出率
    Detected rate
    (%)
    平均含量
    Average content
    (mg/kg)
    最大值
    Maximum
    (mg/kg)
    最小值
    Minimum
    (mg/kg)
    变异系数
    CV
    (%)
    总样品 Total samples4244711.080.718.830.055211
    商品有机肥 Commercial product244239.430.240.530.0846
    原料 Raw material1802413.331.168.830.055173

    Table 5.  Detection rate and content of doxycycline in the raw materials and their commercial products

    Figure 5.  Doxycycline content in organic fertilizer raw materials and commercial products from different regions

  • 2.6.   有机肥生产对畜禽粪便原料TCs的去除率

  • 对81份同时采集原料及利用该原料生产的商品有机肥,进行有机肥生产过程4种TCs的去除率分析 (图6) 可知,商品有机肥生产不能完全去除4种TCs,去除率为62.80%~77.81%,4种TCs的去除率由大到小顺序为OTC (77.81%) >CTC (75.02%) >TTC (72.84%) >DXC (62.80%),基本与原料中4种TCs的含量顺序一致 (除CTC与OTC的顺序互换)。与张树清等[15]的研究结果不一致,其原因可能与有机肥原料种类及含量有关。不同肥料企业商品有机肥4种TCs去除率差异较大,可能与有机肥生产过程中的发酵次数、发酵时间及发酵温度等有关。OTC、TTC、CTC及DXD的去除率分别为71.43%~97.08%、50.00%~99.54%、68.64%~83.35%及21.21%~98.20%。

    Figure 6.  Removal rate of tetracycline antibiotics during productive process of organic fertilizer

3.   讨论
  • 有机肥是我国农业生产中重要的肥料品种。随着我国果菜茶有机肥替代化肥、主要农作物化肥农药减施增效等项目的推进,有机肥需求量的迅速增加及生产的低门槛,导致有机肥市场鱼龙混杂,企业送检样品和市场销售肥料的不一致说明企业规避政府管理的动向明显。

    不同畜禽粪便原料4种TCs检出率有较大差异,鸡粪中OTC和DXC、牛粪中OTC及猪粪中DXC的检出率高于其它TCs,说明在不同畜禽养殖中对TCs的选择有明显区别;4种TCs的检出含量以CTC显著高于其他3种TCs,说明在畜禽养殖中CTC使用更为普遍且使用量也显著高于其他TCs。

    畜禽粪便原料4种TCs的检出率因畜禽粪便种类不同差异较大,检出率高的猪粪和鸡粪基本为集约化程度和空间密集度高的牲畜品种,需要较多的抗生素以预防病菌的传染;以鸡粪、猪粪、牛粪和羊粪为原料生产的商品有机肥仍有31.67%、25.00%、14.63%和9.59%的4种TCs检出率,且有机肥的堆肥化过程只能去除畜禽粪便原料TCs的62.80%~77.81%,表明有机肥的堆肥或生产过程并不能完全去除四环素类抗生素,与前期报道[15-16]的研究结果一致,也说明减少畜禽养殖过程中抗生素的使用才是畜禽粪便商品有机肥化的质量保证。

    巨大体积及数量的畜禽粪便是有机肥生产的主要原料。在集约化畜禽养殖中常使用抗生素以控制感染疾病,我国每年有一半以上的抗生素作为饲料添加剂用于畜禽养殖业,其中约30%随畜禽粪便排出体外成为重要的抗生素污染源。本研究结果也表明,畜禽粪便原料确实是有机肥抗生素含量增加的风险因素之一。我国于2016年出台了《有机肥料中土霉素、四环素、金霉素与强力霉素的含量测定高效液相色谱法》 (GB/T32951—2016),为有机类肥料产品TCs残留检测提供了检测方法,但新修订的有机肥料农业行业标准NY/T 525—2021并未涉及到抗生素。本研究结果表明有机肥的堆肥或生产过程并不能完全降解抗生素, 畜禽粪便原料及畜禽粪便为原料生产的商品有机肥,仍部分残留抗生素。建议在有机肥标准中纳入常用抗生素的含量限量标准。

    有机肥生产企业对样品采集的不配合,说明企业也深知其原料可能存在着安全性风险,建议加大对有机肥生产企业产品的监管力度,建立有机肥料分类管理目录,要求企业在有机肥料产品登记时,提供畜禽粪便生产有机肥料时生产原料配比、原料及有机肥产品抗生素含量第三方检测报告。加强对畜禽粪便生产有机肥料的监督抽查,引导有机肥生产企业建立原料进厂检测和产品出厂检测制度,优化工艺参数,有效控制有机肥料中抗生素含量。加强有机肥抗生素检测仪器和检测技术研发,开发简便易行、价格低廉的抗生素检测方法,有效降低抗生素检测费用,降低检测门槛,提高检测覆盖率。

4.   结论
  • 1) 有机肥原料及商品有机肥中均含有一定的四环素类抗生素,4种常用四环素类抗生素的检出率分别为35.00%和16.39%,总检出率为24.29%,商品有机肥的检出率低于生产原料。近80%的畜禽粪便原料及商品有机肥中只检出1~2种抗生素,检出率表现为:OTC (14.39%) > DXC (11.08%) > CTC (8.96%) > TTC (6.13%)。

    2) 畜禽粪便中4种四环素类抗生素的检出率由大到小表现为:猪粪 (83.33%) >鸡粪 (66.67%) >牛粪 (30.77%) >羊粪 (24.42%),以畜禽粪便为主要原料生产的商品有机肥4种TCs检出率由大到小表现为:鸡粪 (31.67%) >猪粪 (25.00%) >牛粪 (14.63%) >羊粪 (9.59%)。在鸭粪、菇渣及骨粉原料中也有检出,说明TCs除了在畜牧养殖业中使用普遍,目前已延伸到蘑菇种植、动物源食品业的下脚料等,但其检出率及含量还有待研究。

    3) 有机肥的堆肥化过程能去除畜禽粪便原料4种TCs的62.80%~77.81%,去除率由大到小表现为OTC >CTC>TTC>DXC。

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