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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Effects of fertilizer application methods on fungal communities in sweet potato rhizosphere
WANG Jing, YUAN Jie, WANG Lei, ZHAGN Hui, TANG Zhong-hou, ZHAO Peng, ZHANG Ai-jun, WANG Ji-dong, ZHANG Yong-chun
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022510
Abstract(102) FullText HTML(19) Related Articles
  Objectives  Fungi play an important role in rhizosphere soil nutrient cycling. Effects of long-term phosphorus fertilizer application on the soil fungal communities in sweet potato rhizosphere were explored, in order to diminish the potential unfavorable impacts of P application methods in the rhizospheric microecological environment.  Methods  A long-term experiment was established in 2011 with sweet potato-wheat rotation system was conducted in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. In 2020, three treatments were selected for this experiment: no phosphorus fertilizer (NK), chemical fertilizers (NPK), and organic and chemical fertilizers (NPKM). The rhizospheric soils of storage and fibrous roots were collected at the storage root expansion stage of sweet potato. The basic soil chemical properties were determined using standard chemical analytical methods, and the relative abundance, composition and diversity of fungal community were analyzed using Illumina Novaseq High-throughput sequencing technology.   Results  1) Long-term P application altered chemical properties of rhizospheric soils. The organic carbon (SOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) were all significantly increased by P application in both storage and fibrous rhizosphere. The SOC, DOC and AK contents were in order of NPKM>NPK>PK (P<0.05), while the AP was in order of NPK>NPKM>NK (P<0.05). Only the AP under NPK was significantly different between the two root types. The pH in fibrous and storage rhizosphere were found to be highest in NPKM, and lowest in NPK treatment. The fibrous rhizosphere pH was 0.81 units higher than that in storage rhizosphere under NPKM treatment. 2) The dominant fungi were Ascomycota (70.2%~77.9%), Basidiomycota (5.9%~8.5%), and Mortierellomycota (1.8%~8.1%), regardless of treatments. The relative abundance of Ascomycota in fibrous rhizosphere was similar among the three treatments, while that in the storage rhizosphere was significantly (P<0.05) higher in NK treatment than in NPKM treatment. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Mortierella was not significant different between NPK and NPKM treatments, nor between the two root types. While the relative abundance of Basidiomycetes and Mortierella in NK treatment decreased by 70.4% and 62.9% in NPK treatment, and decreased by 44.0% and 151% in NPKM treatment in storage roots. 3) The specific quantities of fungal OTUs were 122 and 113 in storage rhizosphere under NPKM and NPK treatments, respectively, while in NK treatment, it was only 86 lesser than NPKM and NPK treatments. The specific quantities of fungal OTUs were 160 in fibrous rhizosphere under NPKM treatment, and 114 and 127 in NPK and NK treatments, respectively. The observed species and Shannon diversity index were significantly higher in fibrous rhizosphere under NK treatment than those in storage rhizosphere (P<0.05). The observed species, and Shannon diversity index were highest under NPKM treatment. Topological network analysis showed that the relationships of fungal communities in the rhizosphere of storage roots were more complex, but those in fibrous rhizosphere had stronger interactions. Redundancy analysis indicated that the AP, SOC, and pH in rhizosphere soil were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with fungal community.   Conclusions  Long-term chemical phosphorous fertilization decreased pH, but significantly increased organic carbon and AP in rhizosphere soil. Combined application of chemical and organic fertilizers alleviated the decrease in pH, thus maintained higher abundance and diversity of fungi communities in the rhizospheric soils.
Effects of straw decayed products on inhibiting re-acidification of red soils and improving maize growth
XU Ying-hui, DU Jian-jun, FAN Ru-qin, YANG Xian-ting, HE Wen-bin, ZHOU Liang-zhuo, PAN Xiao-ying
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022607
Abstract(106) FullText HTML(77) Related Articles
  Objectives  Straw decayed products have been found of improving soil acidity and resisting soil acidification. This study compared the effects of two straw decayed products, to provide technological base for choosing efficient straws to inhibit the re-acidification of red soil.   Methods  The lateritic red soil (pH 4.75) and latosol soil (pH 5.02), derived from granite and basalt respectively, were used as test soils, 2% of rice and pea straw decayed products (RSD, PSD) was added into the two soils to make four treatment soils. The control soils were prepared by adding Ca(OH)2 to the same pH as the RSD and PSD treatments (RCK, PCK). All the eight soil samples were then cultured at dark for 30 days before used as the treatments of corn pot experiment. After corn harvest, soil acidity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available nutrient content, microbial diversity, plant aboveground and root growth and nutrient uptake were analyzed.   Results  Compared to before sowing, the lateritic red soil pH after harvest of maize in RSD, RCK, PSD, and PCK treatment decreased by 0.11, 0.60, 0.92, and 1.04 unit, the decrease in RCK, PSD, and PCK reached significant level. While the latosol soil pH after harvest in RSD increased by 0.22 unit, and that in RCK, PSD, and PCK decreased by 0.13, 0.16, and 0.36 unit, with significant decrease in PSD and PCK treatment. In lateritic red soil, there were no significant differences among the four treatments in exchangeable H+ and Al3+ content, while in latosol soil, the exchangeable Al3+ in RSD treatment was higher than in RCK, but that in PSD lower than PCK. The soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in the RSD and PSD treatments were significantly higher than that in the corresponding lime treatment. The RSD and PSD increased the soil CEC by 27.11% and 17.69% in lateritic red soil, and increased soil CEC by 10.10% and 6.40% in latosol soil, respectively. Both RSD and PSD increased the content of soil organic matter, available N, P and K significantly, compared with lime controls. The application of straw decayed products enhanced the species abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, stimulated the growth of maize plants and roots and the absorption of nutrients. Compared with lime treatment, the plant height, biomass, total root length, root surface area and root volume of maize treated by pea straw decayed product increased by 59.51%, 738.43%, 280.00%, 392.87%, 404.31% respectively in lateritic red soil, and those in latosol were 29.82%, 72.04%, 23.43%, 11.05% and 5.79%, respectively.   Conclusions  Compared with lime treatment, the application of rice and pea straw decayed products effectively prevented soil re-acidification, improved soil fertility, increased soil microbial community diversity, and promoted the growth of maize. The promoting effect of pea straw decayed product treatment was better than that of rice straw decayed product.
Construction and regulation of soil structure in root zone based on the theory of rhizobiont
LIU Xue-song, WANG Yi-fei, SHI Yuan-fei, ZHANG Fang-bo, WU Meng-qi, TANG Xiao-yan, SHEN Jian-bo, JIN Ke-mo
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022616
Abstract(99) FullText HTML(80) Related Articles
In China, most agricultural soils have structural obstacles such as shallow plow layer, crust, and compaction, which seriously affect crop yields and threaten food security. Some methods such as deep plowing and deep loosening, application of organic fertilizer, returning straw to the field and adding biochar, are often used in modifying soil structure, and have resulted in obvious changes. However, the high cost and environmental risks brought about by these methods are not negligible. Recently, the biological potential of plant roots have caused concerns on their great potential to change soil pore characteristics through root growth and release of root exudates. As a "green" way to reduce soil barriers, root zone soil structure regulation has important theoretical and practical significance. Here, in this review, we summarize the characteristics of soil structure in the root zone, and the advantages and disadvantages of the existing measures to reduce soil structure barriers, and discuss the feasibility of exploring and strengthening root-soil interaction and using plant roots to reshape soil structure based on the theory of "Rhizobiont". Specifically, we focus on the design and construction of ideal soil structure from the perspective of soil pores. Different diameters of soil pores correspond to different functions. By selecting plants with specific root phenotypes to reshape the soil pore network, and then construct an ideal root zone soil structure to realize the coupling of soil structure and function.
Root morphology and nutrient efficiency of Tibetan barley and Peas in response to planting pattern and fertilization levels
GUO Tong-xin, YAO Xiao-hua, WU Kun-lun, YAO You-hua
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022691
Abstract(16) FullText HTML(10) Related Articles
  Objectives  We examined the root morphology and nutrient utilization of Tibetan barley (Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste Linnaeus) and Peas (Pisum sativum L) in mixed cropping systems under different fertilization levels.  Methods  The study used pot and field experimental methods at the Qinghai University experimental base. The cropping patterns included monoculture of Tibetan barley and Peas and mixed cropping of both crops. Fertilization levels were no fertilization (N0P0), low nitrogen and phosphorus (N1P1), and high nitrogen and phosphorus (N2P2). The root morphology, biomass, N and P contents of Tibetan barley and Peas, and estimated nutrient use efficiency of both crops.  Results  Compared with monoculture, mixed cropping (P<0.05) increased the shoot and root dry weight of Tibetan barley by 32.1% and 15.3%, decreased the root to shoot ratio by 13.1%, increased the total root length, root surface area, total root volume and root tip number by 21.7%, 43.7%, 79.6%, and 44.8%, increased root N content and total N uptake by 75.8% and 72.7% and root P content and total P uptake by 56.3% and 60%. On the contrary, mixed cropping (P<0.05) decreased peas shoot and root dry weight and the root-to-shoot ratio by 19.3%, 27.9%, and 9.7%, decreased the shoot and root N content and total N uptake by 24.7%, 32.5%, and 28.0%, and the shoot and root P content and total P uptake by 2.6%, 12.8%, and 6.9%, respectively. Compared with mono-cropping, the N accumulation in Tibetan barley shoot under mixed cropping (P<0.05) increased by 9.8%, 34.6%, and 39.6%, and those of P increased by 11.6%, 18.7%, and 16.5% at tillering, jointing, and maturity stages. Peas shoot N accumulation under the mixed cropping system decreased by 13.8%, 18.0%, and 17.5%; the shoot P accumulation decreased by 26.1%, 15.8%, and 19.9% at branching, flowering and podding stages. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the root surface area, volume, and average root diameter (P<0.05) affected the N and P uptake of Tibetan barley under mono-cropping and mixed cropping. Under N1P1 condition, the root length and surface area of Tibetan barley (P<0.05) increased in the mixed cropping system, promoting the absorption of N and P, but showed an opposite effect on Pea's root development.  Conclusions  The N and P uptake of Tibetan barley and peas positively correlate with the root surface area and volumes. Inefficient N and P supply changed the root morphology in the mixed cropping system. Mixed cropping increased the root morphology indexes of Tibetan barley but decreased Peas' root surface area and volume. Hence, Tibetan barley is the "beneficiary" while Pea is the "contributor". The mixed cropping system increased grain yield and nutrient utilization more than mono-cropping. Under sufficient fertilization, the mixed cropping system did not influence the two crops' root morphology, with less benefit from the system.
The spatiotemporal variation of soil available phosphorus and phosphorus application strategy in Dali tobacco field in Yunnan
CHENG Xiaomei, WANG Fei, SUN Nan, KUAI Yan, FAN Zhiyong, XU Minggang, LI Jianhua
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022656
Abstract(17) FullText HTML(9) Related Articles
  Objectives  This study investigated the spatiotemporal variation of soil available phosphorus (AP) in tobacco-growing areas of Dali Prefecture, Yunnan province, aimed to provide a scientific basis for phosphorus management friendly to high-quality tobacco production and sustainable environment.   Methods  The total tobacco planting area in Dali Prefecture of Yunnan is around 3.23 ×105 hm2. In 1999, 2012, 2018 and 2022, 256, 633, 1244 and 2332 soil samples in total were collected from five typical tobacco planting counties of Dali for determination of soil available P content. Geostatistics and GIS technology were used to analyze the spatiotemporal variation of soil AP in the five counties over five time periods (1982, 1999, 2012, 2018 and 2022) spanning four decades. Finally, a general phosphorus application strategy was proposed based on the soil AP content in 2022.   Results  The average soil AP content in the tobacco-growing areas of Yunnan-Dali trended to increase over the last 40 years. The AP increased from 8.09 mg/kg in 1982 to 43.92 mg/kg in 2022, with an increase of 5.42 times. The soil AP content in most tobacco planting area belonged to 'low' grade (<20 mg/kg) in 1982, and over 50% of soil belonged to 'medium' grade (20~40 mg/kg) in 1999~2022. The nugget effect of soil available nutrients increased from less than 25% to 41.45% over the last 40 years, indicating a weakening influence of natural factors such as topography and an increasing impact of human factors such as fertilization. Based on the of soil AP content in 2022, 34.21% of the total area are high and even extremely high in soil AP, mainly distributed in the north of Midu, west of Xiangyun, southwest and northeast of Binchuan.  Conclusions  The soil AP content in Dali tobacco-growing areas has significantly increased on average over the past four decades, due to fertilization. Most tobacco fields should reduce or even stop phosphorous fertilizer application.
Effects of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus on assimilate accumulation and mineral nutrient transport in citrus leaves
SHI Ya-man, ZENG Ji-xing, XUE Jin-jun, JIA Shu-gang, WANG Min, GUO Shi-wei
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022528
Abstract(105) FullText HTML(92) Related Articles
  Objectives  Huanglongbing is one of the most devastating citrus bacterial diseases worldwide, mainly caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (C. Las) infection. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between leaf mineral elements and the development of Huanglongbing to provide a theoretical basis for revealing the pathogenesis of the disease.  Methods  The surveyed citrus orchard was located in the Huanglongbing Disease Research Center, Yangshuo, Guangxi Province. Six healthy and diseased plants were selected, and the twigs in the middle part of the citrus trees with 6 to 8 leaves were chosen for leaf sampling. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) method was used to measure leaf temperature, assimilate distribution in different parts of the leaves, and the ICP-MS method was used to determine the nutrient contents in the leaf parts.   Results  The C. Las mainly colonized in the vicinity of sieve tubes and companion cells in the leaves (i.e., midrib). The pathogen's cycle threshold (Ct value) in the midrib (P<0.05) decreased. Compared with healthy citrus leaves, the infected leaves were mottled yellow, with reduced chlorophyll content and increased leaf temperature. The starch, total soluble sugar and fructose (P<0.05) increased in the mesophyll and midribs, while the sucrose (P<0.05) increased in phloem. The accumulation of nutrient elements in different parts of the leaves significantly changed between the healthy and ill leaves. Ca and Fe accumulated in mesophyll, K in midrib, and Zn, Cu, and Mn were lacking in mesophyll. There was a (P<0.05) positive correlation between Cu and Zn in the mesophyll and a negative correlation between Ca and Mn and Cu in midrib. In the linear mixed effect model, the pathogen concentration had a (P<0.05) effect on K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing a positive effect on K, Cu, and Mn and a negative effect on Ca and Fe.  Conclusions  The pathogen of Huanglongbing mainly colonized the midrib of leaves, blocked the transport of starch and total soluble sugar from mesophyll, midrib and phloem to xylem of the leaves. The mineral elements balance the nutrition through synergistic or antagonistic relationships to resist the growth of pathogens. The number of pathogens is positively correlated with K, Cu, and Mn content and negatively correlated with Ca and Fe in mesophyll. Therefore, Ca and Fe nutrition is essential for dealing with the Huanglong disease of citrus.
Using discrete element simulation and microstructure observation to study the urea surface modification and nutrients release performance of coated urea
TIAN Hong-yu, DONG Jing-jing, XIE Chen-shuo, CUI Jing, DUAN Jian-hang, ZHANG Tian-jiao, DAI Jia-ying, WANG Shuo, ZHANG Li-li, WEI Zhan-bo, WU Liang, GUO Wu-song, LIU Zhi-guang, ZHANG Min
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022495
Abstract(105) FullText HTML(69) Related Articles
  Objectives  Surface modification is a key step towards realization of nutrient-release control of coated urea production. We tested several abrasives, and studied the basis for modification in improving the coating property.   Methods  In this study, large granular urea (3–5 mm, N 46%) was used as the fertilizer core, while the tested abrasives included brown-fused alumina, white-fused alumina, zirconia beads, alumina porcelain beads, and aluminum porcelain column. By measuring the repose angle of polished urea after polishing with the abrasives, alumina porcelain beads with a bulk density of 1.336 g/cm3 and a diameter of 6 mm were chosen as the abrasive in the later research stage. 1 kg urea and 1.5 kg alumina porcelain beads were loaded into a drum granulator, discrete element software (EDEM) was used to simulate the motion, collision, force and distribution of abrasive friction and urea particle self-friction. The surface and sectional structure and the roughness of modified urea were scanned using electron microscopy. The microstructure of the coating was observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nutrient release characteristics of polished and ordinary urea, coated with 3%, 5% and 7% of nano-SiO2 modified castor oil-based polyurethane, were determined by static water dissolution method.  Results  According to the simulation of EDEM, the urea particles near the bottom moved fast (1.125 m/s), and those at the edge moved slowly (0.00309 m/s), causing the segregation of small particles at the bottom of the drum during the mixing process. The self-friction force of pure urea was about 0.035N, while the total friction force when mixed with the abrasive increased to about 0.042 N. This enlarged force increased the collision number of urea-abrasive mix system by 13.0% than that of the self-friction system, thus creating more efficient modification. The modification significantly reduced the surface average roughness (Ra) by 79.2% within 1 μm2 of detection area. From the electric micro-morphology images we could see, common urea surface was rough, film material filled into the low parts causing extra consume of film materials and obstructing the close bonding of coating layer with the urea chip, thereby the coating film was fragile during transportation or long-time storage and lost controlling capacity of nutrient release. While the modified urea surface was smooth, preventing the waste of film materials. The film layer was even in thickness and uniform in intersecting surface, and closely bonded with the core. For urea coated nano-SiO2 modified castor oil-based polyurethane with 5% coating rate, the nutrient release period increased by 6 times from 24 days before polishing to 169 days after polishing.  Conclusions  According to the simulation of EDEM discrete element software, the mixture of alumina porcelain beads and urea greatly increased the modification efficiency, reduced the surface roughness of urea significantly. The surface microstructure of the modified urea core of controlled release fertilizer was significantly improved, the amount of coating material was reduced, and the nutrient release period was prolonged under the same coating rate.
Influence of over-expression of AngdhA gene on growth and nitrogen use efficiency of transgenic rice lines
LIANG Cheng-gang, WANG Yan, LI Tian, OHSUGI Ryu, AOKI Naohiro
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022572
Abstract(64) FullText HTML(56) Related Articles
  Objectives  We studied the effect of over-expressing Aspergillus niger gdhA gene on the growth, expression of key enzyme genes related to nitrogen metabolism, carbon and nitrogen contents, nitrogen use efficiency, yield, and salt tolerance of transgenic rice lines, aiming to provide scientific support for breeding rice with high efficiency, yield, and tolerance.   Methods  Transgenic rice lines TG3 and TG13 (expressing Aspergillus niger gdhA gene), and wild-type (WT) were used as materials in hydroponic experiments. Seedling samples at the 3-leaf stage under normal cultural condition were used to analyze gene expression of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase, carbon and nitrogen contents and samples at harvest used for investigation of yield traits and nitrogen use efficiency. Salt stress treatment was simulated by adding 0, 50, and 100 mmol/L NaCl to the nutrient solution, and the relative growth rate, proline content, leaf wilting rate, and organ biomass of seedlings at the 3-leaf stage were analyzed after subjected to salt stress for 0, 2, and 4 days.  Results  PCR amplification and electrophoresis analysis confirmed that Aspergillus niger AngdhA gene was successfully introduced into TG3 and TG13 lines of rice. The expression levels of AngdhA gene in TG3 and TG13 lines were 248-fold and 41-fold compared to the reference gene UBI, respectively by qRT-PCR detection. However, the expression of key enzyme genes in nitrogen metabolism, including OsGS1;1, OsGS1;2 and OsGOGAT, was slightly affected in both TG3 and TG13 lines. Only OsGS2 in TG13 was extremely significantly down-expressed compared to WT. The N, C contents and C/N ratio in leaf and root at seedling stage, and in grain, shoot and root at harvest were not significantly different among the three rice lines. However, TG3 and TG13 had significantly higher C and N accumulation than WT in plants, particularly in grains. TG3 and TG13 increased NUE by 14.67% and 44.12%, NGPE by 26.96% and 39.83%, and NPP by 24.53% and 39.67% over WT, respectively, with significant or highly significant increase in panicle number, grain number, and yield per plant. The relative growth rates of TG3 and TG13 under 50 mmol/L NaCl were higher than that under the control (0 mmol/L NaCl). The proline content in rice was sharply increased under salt stress. Compared to WT, TG3 and TG13 elicited significant higher proline content under 50 mmol/L NaCl, but extremely significant lower proline content under 100 mmol/L NaCl.  Conclusions  Aspergillus niger AngdhA gene was successfully introduced into TG3 and TG13 lines of rice without apparent disturbance of carbon-nitrogen balance. However, the exogenous AngdhA gene promoted nitrogen uptake, utilization, and remobilization, thus improving nitrogen use efficiency, yield, and salt tolerance of rice; while the over-expression of AngdhA gene in TG3 might have increased substrate cycle in glutamate synthesis and catabolic pathway and bring down the increment of nitrogen uptake and utilization and yield. The differential accumulation of proline might be related to the different response and tolerance of rice to salt stress.
Effects of chemical fertilizer reduction on rice yield and soil fertility in yellow-mud paddy field under the continuous return of milkvetch
HE Chun-mei, WANG Fei, HUANG Yi-bin, LIU Cai-ling, CAO Wei-dong, Li Qing-hua, ZHANG Hui
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022516
Abstract(27) FullText HTML(49) Related Articles
  Objectives  We studied the effect of different chemical fertilizer reduction rates on rice yield and paddy field fertility under the long-term return of milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus) for efficient and sustainable rice production.  Methods  The field experiment was carried out in Fujian province from 2009 to 2019, with single-rice cultivation after milkvetch return cropping system. There were seven fertilization treatments: no fertilizer application (CK, control), conventional chemical fertilization rate (100%F), applying 100%, 80%, 60% and 40% of the conventional chemical fertilization rate under the return of milkvetch (M+100%F, M+80%F, M+60%F, M+40%F), and milkvetch (M) only. Rice grain and straw samples were collected at the rice harvest stage to detect the N, P, and K content, rice grain yield and amino acid content from 2017 to 2019. Soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected in 2019 at tillering and maturity stage for the determination of soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and soluble nitrogen.  Results  Compared with CK, the rice grain and straw yields in all the fertilizer treatments (P<0.05) increased by 11.4%~21.3% and 17.1%~39.0%, respectively. Compared with 100%F, M+100%F and M+80%F increased rice yield by 3.7% and 3.0%, straw yield by 5.1% and 5.6%, while the other treatments produced similar grain and straw yields. M+80%F increased N uptake by 22.5% and 5.1% at peak tillering and maturity stage, increased the total and essential amino acid contents in grains by 5.2% and 6.7%, while the M+ less than 60%F decreased the total and essential amino acid contents. Compared with the 100%F treatment, M increased soil nutrient contents by 3.6%−24.1%, soil MBC by 0.3%−23.5%, total N by 9.4%−14.1%, and organic matter by 8.2%−12.0%.  Conclusions  On the basis of annual returning of 18000−22500 kg/hm2 milkvetch to the soil, applying over 60% of the conventional rate of chemical fertilizer in the middle and low paddy field could maintain rice grain and straw yield. Applying 80% of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate improves soil properties, stimulates rice N uptake, yield and nutritional quality, making it the optimum application rate.
Effects of no-tillage mulching and biochar application on the stability and humus properties of black loam soil aggregate
ZHOU Ming-xing, FAN Jun, WANG Xi, DAI Zi-jun, GOU Guo-hua
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022519
Abstract(115) FullText HTML(70) Related Articles
  Objectives  We studied the effects of different soil mulching methods and biochar addition on soil aggregate stability and humus properties under no-tillage conditions in Weibei dryland. We aim to provide a theoretical basis for selecting suitable farming management measures.  Methods  The field experiment lasted 18 consecutive years; we collected soil samples at 0−10 cm and 10−20 cm depth from the five no-tillage treatments, namely, no mulching control (NT), biochar application (NB), straw mulching (NS), plastic film mulching (NP), and straw plastic film binary mulching (NSP). Dry-sieving and wet-sieving methods were used to divide the soil aggregate into four fractions: silty-clay (<0.053 mm), microaggregate (0.053−0.25mm), macroaggregate (0.25−2 mm), and large macroaggregate (>2 mm), and the contents of organic carbon and humus components in the aggregates of each fraction were determined.  Results  1) Compared with NT, NS had the highest humin acid content (0.93%−92.6%) and fulvic acid content (1.8%−327.5%) across the four aggregate sizes; NSP increased the organic carbon by 1.6%−30.5%; organic carbon increased by 39.9%−161.8% in soil aggregate of NB treatment NB recorded a higher increase in humin content in 0−10 cm soil layer (87.2%−271.7%). NB, NS, and NSP improved soil aggregate stability and maize seed yield, with the most remarkable effect recorded for NSP. Compared with NT, NSP increased the mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregate in 0−10 cm and 10−20 cm soil layers by 48.6% and 73.5%, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) in 0−10 cm and 10−20 cm soil layers by 59.2% and 63.1%, and the corn grain yield by 25.8% in 2021. 2) Humin was dominant in the organic carbon, accounting for 37.6%−91.3% of the total organic carbon in the water-stable aggregates in different particle sizes. NB (P<0.05) increased the ratio of humic to fulvic acid (HA/FA) in most water-stable aggregates, with the maximum increase (80.2%) recorded in micro-aggregates in 0−10 cm soil layer. Plastic film mulching (NP and NSP) decreased the HA/FA of humus (6.8%−27.6%), and the humic acid E4/E6 in silty clay (P<0.05 ) decreased (4.2%−6.6%).  Conclusions  Under no-tillage, both straw mulching and biochar application (NS, NSP, and NB) can improve aggregate organic carbon content, stability, and corn yield, but their effect on the humification degree of organic carbon is different. Straw mulching (NS) is the most effective for humic and fulvic acid content in humus. Biochar application is the most effective in increasing the humin content and its proportion in organic carbon. Straw and plastic film binary mulching (NSP) improves aggregate stability, organic carbon content, and corn grain yield, proving the best treatment under the test condition and area.
The study of intelligent fertilizer recommendation method for rice based on yield response and agronomic efficiency
XU Xin-peng, DING Wen-cheng, HE Ping, ZHOU Wei
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023116
Abstract(127) FullText HTML(84) Related Articles
  Objectives  The early version of Nutrient Expert for Rice did not differentiate rice types, reducing the precision of fertilizer recommendation at times. We optimized the version by establishing Nutrient Expert for Rice targeted to specific rice type.  Methods  The yield and nutrient uptake data were collected and summarized from multi-year and -site rice field experiments from International Plant Nutrient Institute (IPNI) China Program, our research group and relevant published articles. QUEFTS model was used to analyze the nutrient uptake of different rice types, to establish the intrinsic relationship between rice yield response and agronomic efficiency, construct a fertilizer application model and develop nutrient expert system for rice. A total of 452 field experiments were conducted in eight provinces in the main rice producing areas from 2013 to 2020 to calibrate and improve the system. Each experiment included six treatments: fertilizer recommendation based on Nutrient Expert (NE), farmers’ practices (FP), conventional recommendation based on soil testing (ST), and N omission, P omission and K omission based on the NE treatment. Rice yield, economic benefit, nutrient use efficiency and fertilizer agronomic efficiency were investigated.   Results  The result of the relationship between rice yield and nutrient uptake based on QUEFTS model showed that the N, P and K requirements at above-ground dry matter to produce 1 ton of grain yield were 14.2, 3.9 and 14.3 kg for single-season rice, respectively, and 16.9, 3.3 and 20.9 kg for early, middle, late rice, respectively. The yield responses to N, P and K fertilizer application were 3.1, 1.1 and 1.0 t/hm2 for single-season rice, 2.3, 1.0 and 1.0 t/hm2 for early rice, 2.3, 0.9 and 1.0 t/hm2 for middle rice, 1.9, 0.8 and 0.8 t/hm2 for late rice, respectively. The agronomic efficiency of N, P and K fertilizer were 17.6, 15.3 and 9.8 kg/kg for single-season rice, 14.6, 15.3 and 10.1 kg/kg for early rice, 11.4, 12.4 and 9.1 kg/kg for middle rice, and 11.5, 14.8 and 9.2 kg/kg for late rice, respectively. The NE treatment applied 12.6%, 9.6% and 21.4% less N, P and K fertilizer than FP treatment, and 7.6% less N and 15.6% less K fertilizer than ST treatment. Compared with FP and ST treatments, the NE treatment increased yield by 0.5 and 0.3 t/hm2; net profit by 1627 and 893 yuan/hm2; increased N recovery rate by 13.1 and 9.3 percentage points, and increase agronomic efficiency by 4.1 and 2.7 kg/kg; increased P recovery rate by 7.8 and 5.0 percentage points; increased agronomic efficiency by 6.6 and 3.3 kg/kg; increased K recovery rate by 14.6 and 9.5 percentage points; and increased agronomic efficiency by 5.6 and 4.9 kg/kg, respectively.  Conclusions  The newly constructed Nutrient Expert for Rice, based on the intrinsic relationship of yield response, agronomic efficiency and relative yield of different rice types, is recommended for efficient in further optimal fertilizer rate, improved rice yield and fertilizer use efficiency, and increased farmers' income. The nutrient expert for rice is a feasible fertilizer application method for small farmers in China
Effects of coupled water and nitrogen on soil organic carbon fractions and enzymes in a drip-irrigated cotton field
HAO Hai-bo, XU Wen-xia, HOU Zhen-an
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022440
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  Objective  The effects of irrigation and nitrogen application on soil organic carbon, nitrogen content, and organic carbon pool stability in drip-irrigated cotton fields were studied to provide a theoretical basis for achieving efficient cotton production and sustainable development in Xinjiang.   Methods  A two-factor three-level complete random field experiment was conducted using cotton as the test material. The three irrigation volumes (W) were low (360 mm), medium (480 mm), and high (600 mm), and the three nitrogen rates (N) were low (0 kg/hm2), medium (300 kg/hm2), and high (450 kg/hm2), giving a total of 9 treatment combinations. After harvesting the cotton, we collected 0– 20 cm soil samples to measure soil organic carbon (SOC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), easily oxidized organic carbon (EOC), stable organic carbon (NOC), soil urease (URE), β- Glucosidase (BG), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase (NAG) activity. The soil organic matter decomposition rate and soil carbon pool management index (CPMI) were measured using the net nylon bag method at the in-situ landfill on the field.   Results  SCompared with W600N450, W480N300 increased soil organic carbon by 8.9% and 10.9%, C/N by 16.2% and 16.3%, EOC and NOC by 11.8%–15.4% and 14.3%–20.8%, while WSOC decreased by 35.5% and 21.8% in 2015 and 2016, respectively. It was shown that reasonable water and nitrogen management was beneficial to increasing soil organic carbon and stable organic carbon content, reducing water-soluble organic carbon, and improving soil carbon pool stability. Compared with W480, W360 (P<0.05) reduced MBC, while W600 reduced WSOC and NOC. The EOC content in W360 (P<0.05) decreased by 2.1% and 5.3% in two years, while that in W600 decreased by 4.1% and 7.6%, respectively. Compared with N300, the N0 treatment reduced MBC by 41.8%, while N450 reduced NOC. The EOC in the N0 treatment decreased by 20.2% and 16.7% in two years, while that in N450 decreased by 3.8% and 2.4%, respectively. The results showed that the effect of nitrogen application rate on soil organic carbon was greater than the irrigation level. Simultaneously, excessive irrigation and nitrogen application reducer stable organic carbon and increased microbial biomass carbon, which was not conducive to soil organic carbon accumulation. High irrigation (600 mm) and nitrogen (450 kg/hm2) (P<0.05) increased soil enzyme activity and decreased soil carbon management index. The activities of urease, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosidase in W480N300 were 1.0%, 22.4%, and 32.6% higher than in W360N0. The correlation analysis showed that CPMI was positively correlate with active organic carbon (MBC, EOC) in different degrees and negatively correlate with NOC.  Conclusion  Under drip irrigation conditions in Xinjiang, excessive irrigation and nitrogen application rates reduce soil organic carbon, stable organic carbon, soil carbon pool activity, and carbon pool management index. In contrast, it increases microbial biomass carbon and enzyme activity, which is not conducive to maintaining soil organic carbon stability. In this study, 480 mm irrigation combined with 300 kg/hm2 nitrogen application is conducive to promoting soil organic carbon accumulation and improving soil organic carbon activity in drip-irrigated cotton fields.
Effects of potassium application rate on the yield and quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)
GU He-he, CUI Xin, LI Jing, ZHOU Yang-guo, LU Zhi-feng, ZHANG Yang-yang, CONG Ri-huan, LI Xiao-kun, REN Tao, LU Jian-wei
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022553
Abstract(108) FullText HTML(84) Related Articles
  Objectives  Most farmlands in China have low effective soil potassium (K), and this deficiency has become a major limiting factor for oilseed rape production in some areas. Here, we investigate the effect of different K fertilizer application rates on oilseed rape yield and seed quality to provide theoretical support for the rational application of K fertilizer in winter oilseed rape production for high yield and quality.  Methods  A field trial was conducted for two consecutive years from 2019−2021 in Wuxue City, Hubei Province, with five K2O application levels of 0 (K0), 60 (K60), 120 (K120), 180 (K180), and 240 (K240) kg K2O /hm2. The yield, yield components, oil content, protein content, fatty acid composition, glucosinolate content, seed nitrogen (N) and K, silique's N and K dynamics, and photosynthetic parameters were analyzed.  Results  (1) K fertilizer application (P<0.05) increased rapeseed yield. Compared with K0, the K application treatments increased rapeseed yield by 62.9%−103.7% and 31.0%−59.2% in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The rapeseed yield (P<0.05) increased with an increase in the K2O application rate, and no further yield increase was observed at K2O 120−180 kg/hm2. K application increased the number of siliques per plant and the number of seeds per silique, thereby increasing rapeseed yield. (2) K fertilization application improved rapeseed's nutritional and feeding quality. Compared with K0, rapeseed oil content in K180 in 2020 and K120 in 2021 (P<0.05) increased by 4.8% and 6.9%, while the protein content showed a decreasing trend with an increasing K2O rate. The protein content of K180 and K240 in 2020 and K240 in 2021 decreased by 9.1%, 14.2%, and 12.1%, respectively, compared with K0. With the increase in K2O rate, the oleic acid in rapeseed showed an increasing trend, while the glucosinolate content decreased. K fertilizer application (P<0.05) increased rapeseed oil and protein yield. There was no further increase in rapeseed oil yield at 180 K2O kg/hm2 and above. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in protein yield between the K application treatments. K application (P<0.05) reduced the seed N content, with 13.1%−21.9% and 15.9%−22.0% reduction in 2020 and 2021, respectively, compared to K0. Seed K content (P<0.05) increased with increasing K2O rate, recording 8.1%−37.8% and 6.3%−27.1% in 2020 and 2021. Seed N and K dynamics during silique development showed that seed N in K0 was higher than in K120, while seed K was lower than in K120. K fertilizer application also increased the photosynthetic capacity of silique, and the net photosynthetic rate (An) of K120 silique increased by 21.1% compared with the K0.  Conclusions  K fertilizer application increased the number of siliques per plant and the number of seeds per silique, thereby increasing rapeseed oil yield. K application reduced rapeseed N, increased the K content and photosynthetic capacity of silique, oil synthesis and rapeseed protein yield, improved the composition of fatty acids, and reduced glucosinolate content. K2O rate between 131−160 kg/hm2 improved rapeseed’s nutrition and feeding quality while recording higher oil and protein yields.
Spatio-temporal variation of relative yield gap of rice and its response to nitrogen fertilizer in China
SHEN Zhe, HAN Tian-fu, HUANG Jing, QU Xiao-lin, MA Chang-bao, LIU Kai-lou, WANG Hui-ying, LIU Li-sheng, LI Dong-chu, LI Ya-zhen, WANG Qiu-ju, ZHANG Hui-min
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022480
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  Objectives  To explore the spatial-temporal variation characteristics and driving factors of relative yield gap of rice across China in 15 years (2004−2019) and the response of relative yield gap to nitrogen application rate under different soil productivity levels, so as to provide theoretical basis for rational application of nitrogen fertilizer in rice.  Methods  Based on the long-term monitoring database of Farmland Fertility, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, the difference of rice yield between fertilized and non-fertilized plot was defined as relative yield (RY), the highest relative yield (HRY), the average relative yield (ARY) and the relative yield gap (GRY) were obtained by using the statistical method of high-yielding households, and the effects of fertilization and soil factors on the relative yield gap were determined using the random forest model, and soil productivity level was divided according to the yield of non-fertilized area. The relationship between the relative yield gap of rice and nitrogen application rate under different soil productivity levels was quantified.   Results  Within the 15 years of observation, the HRY of rice in China was 4.98−6.86 t/hm/2. ARY was 3.06−3.47 t/hm2, and GRY was 1.92−3.41 t/hm2. In terms of different regions, HRY and GRY trends were in order of southwest China (rice−other crop)>Yangtze River Delta (rice−other crop)>south China (early rice)>northeast China (single rice)>middle of the Yangtze River (rice−other crop)>south China (late rice)>middle of the Yangtze River (early rice)>middle of the Yangtze River (late rice). In low and medium soil productivity levels, the GRY decreased and then stabilized with increasing nitrogen fertilizer application rate, but it did not change significantly in high productivity soils. Except the low and medium productivity soils in the southwest China and the low productivity soils in the northeast China, the inflection points of nitrogen application rate appeared in the low and medium productivity soils in other regions. For low and medium productivity soils, the inflection points of nitrogen application rate for early and late rice in the middle of the Yangtze River were 187.5, 165.0 kg/hm2 and 183.5, 152.5 kg/hm2, respectively; early and late rice in south China were 195.0, 153.0 kg/hm2 and 169.0, 157.0 kg/hm2, respectively; rice-other crop rotation system in the middle of Yangtze River and Yangtze River Delta were 199.5 kg/hm2, 184.5 kg/hm2 and 202.0 kg/hm2, 171.0 kg/hm2, respectively; and 146.5 kg/hm2 for the medium productivity soil in northeast China. Nitrogen application rate (NF), soil organic matter (SOM) and total nitrogen (TN) were relatively important factors affecting GRY in low and medium productivity soils. In high productivity soils, SOM and TN had significant effects on GRY, and potassium application (KF) significantly affected GRY of early rice in the middle of the Yangtze River and south China.  Conclusions  The relative yield gap of rice in southwest (rice−other crop) was the highest, and that of late rice in middle reaches of Yangtze River was the lowest. Nitrogen application rate, soil organic matter and total nitrogen are important factors affecting the relative yield of rice. Nitrogen fertilizer should be reduced appropriately in high productivity soil as nitrogen application rate has no significant effect on relative yield gap. For low and medium productivity soils, increasing nitrogen application could significantly reduce the relative yield gap and increase yield potential within the inflection point (146.50−202.00 kg/hm2). Potassium fertilizer application requires more attention at high soil productivity in middle of Yangtze River and south China.
Interactive effects of potassium and magnesium on nutrient uptake, accumulation and allocation of tomato
QU Shuai, LI Hui-xia, ZHANG Tian-yi, KOU Gui-xiang, CHEN Ping, YANG Yan-mei
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022526
Abstract(131) FullText HTML(96) Related Articles
  Objective  The effects of K and Mg and their interactions on nutrient uptake of tomato were studied.   Methods  A hydroponic trial was conducted with cherry tomato 'Bijao' as the test crop. On the base of Yamazaki nutrient solution for tomato, Mg concentrations of 0 and 1.5 mmol/L (Mg0, Mg1.5), and K concentrations of 4, 40 and 200 mmol/L (K4, K40, K200) were tested as individual treatments and as treatment combinations. At seedling, flowering stage, and fruiting setting, the root, stem and leaf samples were collected to analyze biomass, K, Ca and Mg contents.  Results  The average biomass of tomato root, stem, and leaves in all three stages were in the order of K4>K40>K200, and those of root and leaf biomass at flowering and fruit setting stages were Mg1.5>Mg0. The K content in all the plant parts across the three stages was K40>K4 under both Mg levels, while tomato plants were depleted and decayed at fruit setting stage under K200. The Ca and Mg contents in the whole growth period showed K4>K40>K200. The highest Ca content in all organs was recorded in Mg1.5K4 at fruiting stage, while the Mg content in all the plant parts across the three stages was higher in Mg1.5 than in Mg0. Highest K uptake occurred under K40 at flowering and fruit setting stages. K-Mg interactions significantly affected the stem K, leaf Ca content at fruit setting stage, and Mg content in whole plant at flowering and fruit setting stages (P<0.01). At different levels of K concentration, K accumulation at seedling and flowering stages was in order of K40>K4>K200, and Ca and Mg accumulation was in order of K4>K40>K200. K accumulation in all organs at fruiting stage were higher in Mg1.5 than in Mg0. Ca and Mg accumulation in all organs were higher in Mg1.5 than in Mg0. The K and Mg interactive treatments had significant reciprocal effects on K, Ca and Mg accumulation at flowering and fruiting stages (P<0.01). Compared to seedling stage, the K allocation to leaf tent decreased at flowering and fruiting stages, and Mg allocation to roots under K200 tent decreased at flowering stage. The main component scores of Mg1.5K4 at flowering and fruiting were higher than that of other treatments.   Conclusions  Excessive K concentration inhibited the absorption, accumulation and rational distribution of K, Ca and Mg in various organs of tomato, and caused plant death at fruit setting stage. Suitable Mg supply concentration promotes the accumulation of biomass, and K, Ca and Mg nutrients. Mg deficiency aggravated the adverse effects of excess K on tomato plants, especially at fruiting period, while excess K inhibits the absorption of Mg, which in turn affects the absorption of Ca. Therefore, adequate mineral nutrition, especially the balanced supply of K and Mg, should be used for tomato cultivation.
Effects of different amounts of stover mulching on improving photosynthetic characteristics and yield of maize in Mollisol of Northeast China under long-term no-tillage
LU Yue, BAO Xue-lian, HUO Hai-nan, Yang Ya-li, ZHAO Yue, XIE Hong-tu, LIANG Chao, HE Hong-bo
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022507
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  Objectives  This study investigates maize yield and photosynthetic characteristics under the influence of stover mulching and long-term no-tillage in the mollisol of Northeast China. We aim to propose a suitable no-tillage and stover mulching technology system in the study region.  Methods  The conservation tillage field experiment started in 2007 with a single maize cropping system. The treatments included conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage combined with stover mulching at 0, 33%, 67%, and 100% of the harvested maize stovers, denoted as NT-0, NT-33%, NT-67%, and NT-100%, respectively. We measured the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), chlorophyll content, and leaf area at the maize seedling, jointing, and tasselling stages in 2021. Maize yield and yield components were measured at the maturity stage.  Results  Compared with CT, the four no-tillage treatments improved the Pn of seeding stage, Pn, Gs, and Tr across the jointing stage and tasseling stage. NT-67%、NT-100% (P<0.05) decreased the intercellular CO2 concentration at the jointing and tasselling stages, while NT-67% and NT-100% maintained higher chlorophyll content at the tasselling stage. NT-100% recorded the highest photosynthetic efficiency at the jointing and tasselling stages, followed by NT-67%, with (P<0.05) higher values than CT, NT-0, and NT-33%. All the NT with stover mulching (NT-33%, NT-67%, NT-100%) increased the kernel number per row, 100-kernel-weight, and grain yield, and there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in yield between NT-0 and CT. The Pn values were (P<0.01) correlated with maize yield.  Conclusions  No-tillage combined with stover mulching was effective in increasing chlorophyll content, Pn, Gs, Tr, and the capacity of utilize intercellular CO2 at the tasselling stage, which enhances maize yield. No-tillage combined with 67%~100% of the harvested maize stover showed a good potential for maize net photosynthetic efficiency, making it a promising approach under the no-tillage condition in the Mollisol of Northeast China.
Using waterborne polymer coated urea to realize input reduction and one-time basal application of nitrogen fertilizer in summer maize production in Shandong Province
SUN Dong-xu, MA Xiao-xiao, SHANG Qi-huan, BIAN Wen-xin, YANG Yue-chao, SHEN Tian-lin
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022511
Abstract(92) FullText HTML(68) Related Articles
  Objectives  We studied the effect of N nutrition on summer maize across the growth period under one-time basal application and 30% reduction of N input of the two slow-release urea products.   Methods  The release properties of urea coated with waterborne polymers (WF) and polyethylene terephthalate (PF) were studied by field release method, and the theoretical optimal blended ratio of the two coating urea products was calculated. Field experiments were carried out from 2018 to 2020 in Qingzhou and Huantai, Shandong. Conventional N rate (N225 kg/hm2, level 1) and 30% reduction (N157.5 kg/hm2, level 2) were setup, and ordinary urea (BF), WF, PF and WF to PF in 1∶0.52 (MF) were used as N resource treatments under each N level, with no N fertilizer as control (CK). Common urea BF1 and BF2 treatment were applied two times (basal and topdressing), while the coated urea products were all basal-applied one time. Soil N content in the key growing stages of maize were determined. The yield, N uptake and urea use efficiency of summer maize were investigated at harvest.   Results  The total N release rates of WF (>90%) was higher than that of PF (80%) during the whole maize growing period in the two fields, and the release characteristics of WF was more consistent with the nitrogen demand of summer maize at the early growth stage. In Qingzhou and Huantai, the average maize yield of three seasons among the fertilizer treatments, except BF2, were not significantly different. The maize yield in BF2 was significantly lower than in BF1, and only WF2 produced higher (p<0.05) yield than BF2. Compared with BF1, all the six coating urea treatments increased the average apparent nitrogen utilizationof three seasons in the two experimental sites. WF2 and PF2 in Qingzhou increased the average agronomic efficiency by 49% and 32.5%, while only WF2 in Huantai increased that by 40.9%. At tasseling and maturing stages of maize in Qingzhou, the soil NH4+-N content in WF1, WF2, PF1 and PF2 treatments were significantly higher than in BF1; the soil NO3-N content in WF1 and PF1 were higher than BF1, and those in WF2 and PF2 were similar with BF1. In Huantai, the soil NH4+-N contents were similar among all the treatments at tasseling and maturing, while the soil NO3-N contents in the PF and WF treatments were significantly higher than in BF1.   Conclusions  Compared with resin coated urea, the new waterborne-polymer coated urea has higher N release rate, and more consistent release characteristics with the N requirements of summer maize. Under the condition of reducing 30% conventional N input and one-time basal application, both kinds of the coated urea can provide higher N supply at the tasseling and maturing stage of maize, thereby maintaining a stable yield and N uptake of summer maize, and improving the nitrogen use efficiency and agronomic efficiency. The new waterborne-polymer coated urea showed more stable effect on yield and agronomic efficiency than polyethylene terephthalate coated urea.
Soybean-corn intercropping increases fungal community structure and diversity in red soil aggregates
YANG Ji-fen, LI Yong-mei, LI Chun-pei, LU Mei, ZHAO Ji-xia
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022522
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  Objectives  We studied the fungal community structure and diversity in different soil aggregate particle sizes under intercropping conditions. We aimed to understand the beneficial effect of intercropping from the perspective of microbial properties.  Methods  The long-term positioning experiment started in 2013 and was located at the experimental base of Yunnan Agricultural University. The maize and soybean test cultivars were Qiaodan 6 and Diandou 7. The cropping pattern treatments were soybean and maize intercropping (MD), maize monoculture (MM), soybean monoculture (DD), and fallow (CK). At the maize tasselling stage in 2021, 0−20 cm soil samples were collected, and the wet sieving method was used to screen the soil aggregates into 2−1 mm, 1−0.25 mm, and <0.25 mm particle size groups. The percentage of each aggregate group in the total soil aggregate and their mean weight diameter (MWD) were determined. The organic carbon, total N, and available N, P, and K were analyzed in each group. The fungal community structure was analyzed using Illumina MiSeq Next Generation sequencing.  Results  MD (P<0.05) increased the percentage and MWD in 2−1 mm aggregates, the organic carbon content in 2−1 mm aggregates, anf alkali-hydrolyzed N in 1−0.25 mm and <0.25 mm aggregate. All the DD, MM, and MD treatments increased the Chao1 index and OTU number in 2−1 mm and 1−0.25 mm aggregates than CK. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota in 2−1 mm and 1−0.25 mm aggregates in MD was 85.7% and 133.3% higher than in DD, and 194.1% and 69.7% higher than in MM, respectively. The relevant abundance of Chytridiomycotal in MD was 20.0% and 333.3% higher than in MM, Chaetomium in 2−1 mm, 1−0.25 mm, and <0.25 mm aggregates in MD was 68.7%, 80.0%, and 53.2% higher than in MM, respectively. MD had 60.0% and 72.4% higher relative abundance of Mortierellomycotaand Mortierella than MM in 2~1 mm aggregate. PCoA analysis showed that the fungal community significantly differed among particle sizes and planting modes. RDA showed that soil organic carbon, available N, total N, and α-diversity index were significantly correlated. The heatmap analysis showed that basidiomycetes were (P<0.05) correlated with soil total N, alkali-hydrolyzed N, and organic carbon.  Conclusions  Soil organic carbon, total N and alkali-hydrolyzed N are the main drivers of variation in the structure and diversity of the fungal community. Compared with monoculture, intercropping promoted the formation and stability of macroaggregates. It also increased soil organic carbon, available N, dominant fungi and diversity of macroaggregates. Thus, soybean-corn intercropping pattern changes the distribution of aggregates, along with changes in soil fungal community and diversity, which is conducive to improving soil microenvironment, quality, and health.
Effects of boron application rate on double-low rapeseed yield and quality
GENG Guo-tao, LU Zhi-feng, ZHANG Yang-yang, REN Tao, XIAO Guo-bin, LU Jian-wei
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022470
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  Objectives  The main winter oilseed rape production areas in China are generally deficient in boron, which seriously affecting rapeseed yield and quality. This study analyzed the effects of different borax application rates on the yield and quality of rapeseed.  Methods  Field experiments were conducted in Chizhou of Anhui, Wanzhou of Chongqing, and Nanchang of Jiangxi from 2020 to 2021. The soil in the three experimental sites was B-deficient, and the tested rapeseed cultivars were low in erucic acid and sulfur glycosides. Four borax application rates were set up, including 0, 4.5, 9.0, and 13.5 kg/hm2, and denoted as B0, B4.5, B9.0, and B13.5. The yield, seed boron concentration, main quality parameters, and fatty acid fractions of rapeseed were determined, and the correlations among the factors were analyzed.  Results  Compared with B0, B13.5 recorded the highest yields in Chizhou, Wanzhou, and Nanchang, with 296, 818, and 715 kg/hm2 increase, corresponding to 20.7%, 42.6% and 38.3%, respectively. However, the yields among the three B treatments were not (P>0.05) different. The yield increase was attributed to the increased pod number per plant and the seed number per pod. Compared with B0, B4.5, B9.0, and B13.5 (P<0.05) increased harvest density and 1000-seed-weight by 30.5% and 7.4% in Nanchang and Wanzhou, respectively, but not in Chizhou. Compared to B0, all other treatments (P<0.05) increased the oil, oleic, and linolenic acid contents in rapeseed, with a maximum increase of 10.3%, 15.8%, and 22.7%, respectively. Similarly, a maximum reduction of 19.4%, 36.1% and 14.1% in linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid contents were recorded. Whereas rapeseed’s protein content did not change, the oil and protein yield (P<0.05) increased significantly, reaching a maximum of 53.4% and 53.2%, respectively. B application showed the risk of increasing erucic acid and sulfur glycosides. Compared to B0, B4.5 increased erucic acid and sulfur glycosides by 19.1% and −3.0% on average and 57.3% and 35.8% by B13.5. However, the contents were within the designated thresholds by the national standards for edible rapeseed oil and forage cake meal for double-low rapeseed (13.5 kg/hm2). Boron application increased rapeseed B content, with the highest increase of 56.9%, 26.3%, and 33.8% in Wanzhou, Chizhou, and Nanchang, respectively. Rapeseed B content was (P<0.05) positively correlated with oil, protein, oleic, and linolenic acid and negatively correlated with linoleic and palmitic contents. Rapeseed B content indirectly increases the oil or protein yield by increasing yield and oil content.  Conclusions  Boron application effectively enhances the yield of double-low oilseed rape by increasing the plant’s productivity. Further, it improves the quality and quantity of oilseed derived from the plant, which enhances protein yield. Considering the linoleic and palmitic acid risk, the recommended boron application rate is 4.5−9.0 kg/hm2.
Effects of exogenous regulatory substances on physiological characteristics and gene expression of rice seedlings under alkali stress
SHI Ya-fei, MIN Wei-fang, BAI Xiao-rong, SHE Yang-mengfei, TIAN Hao-tian, LUO Cheng-ke
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022582
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  Objectives  High content of alkaline salt is the main obstacle restricting rice growth and development in alkaline soils. Here, we compared the effects of three commonly used exogenous regulatory substances on rice seedling growth, physiological characteristics, and related gene expression under alkali stress.  Methods  The experiment was conducted using a hydroponic method. Zhonghua 11 was used as the test material, and exogenous regulatory substances included glycine betaine (GB), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and melatonin (MT). Standard nutrient solution was used as control (CK), and alkaline nutrient solution with CO32− and HCO3 concentrations of 20 mmol/L and pH 8.65 was used as alkaline stress (AS). Rice seedlings were grown for 21 days and sprayed with distilled water, GB, SNP, and MT under CK and AS conditions including eight treatments. After three days of continuous treatment, rice seedlings were harvested to determine phenotypic, physiological indexes, and gene expression levels. The relief effects of exogenous regulatory substances on rice alkaline stress were evaluated using principal component analysis and weighted comprehensive evaluation combined with membership function.  Results  Compared with AS, AS+GB, AS+SNP, and AS+ MT (P<0.05) reduced leaf curl rate, increased seedling survival rate, and the fresh and dry weight of shoot and root of rice seedlings. These treatments also decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (H2O2, \begin{document}$\rm{O}_{\small 2}^{\overline {\,\cdot\,}} $\end{document}) in rice seedlings while increasing the content of proline (Pro) and soluble sugars (SS), as well as the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in the rice seedlings. Furthermore, the expression levels of proline synthase gene OsP5CS and antioxidant enzyme synthesis genes OsCu/Zn−SOD, OsPOX1, and OsCATC were (P<0.05) induced. Under alkali stress, exogenous regulatory substances affected the expression levels of endogenous GB, NO, and MT-related synthetic enzyme genes in rice seedlings, with the SNP significantly decreasing the expression level of the OsNOA1 gene and increasing that of the OsNIA2 gene. MT (P<0.05) increased the expression level of the OsASMT1 gene and decreased the expression level of the OsSNAT gene, and GB (P<0.05) decreased the expression level of the OsBADH1 and OsCMO genes. Correlation analysis showed that OsCu/Zn−SOD was (P<0.05) positively correlated with SOD, CAT, and shoot fresh weight. Similarly, SOD was significantly and positively correlated with fresh shoot weight, and OsP5CS was positively correlated with Pro and shoot dry weight. H2O2 and \begin{document}$\rm{O}_{\small 2}^{\overline {\,\cdot\,}} $\end{document} were negatively correlated with OsCu/Zn−SOD, SOD, and fresh shoot weight. In contrast, H2O2 was (P<0.05) positively correlated with leaf curl rate, while \begin{document}$\rm{O}_{\small 2}^{\overline {\,\cdot\,}} $\end{document} was negatively correlated with soluble sugars (SS). Principal component analysis integrated the 16 measurement indicators into six components, with a cumulative contribution rate of 87.91%. The membership function combined with the weight method was used for a comprehensive evaluation; the D value of SNP was the largest, followed by those of GB and MT.  Conclusions  GB, SNP, and MT can alleviate alkali stress and enhance rice alkali tolerance by regulating rice seedling morphology, physiological characteristics, and gene expression. The order of efficiency of alkali stress alleviation by the treatments was SNP>GB>MT.
Mechanism of elicitors on increasing plant biomass and bioactive compound accumulation in Cyclocarya paliurus
LIN Quan, WANG Shu-yang, FAN Wen-jie, XU Xian-gang, FU Xiang-xiang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022487
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  Objectives  Cyclocarya paliurus is one of the important herbs in China. In this study, we explored the effects of elicitors on the growth, resistance, and medicinal qualities of C. paliurus to provide a theoretical basis for its efficient cultivation.   Methods  A pot experiment was conducted using 2 years-old container seedlings of C. paliurus. The tested bio-elicitors were fungal elicitor (Trichoderma asperellum, F), bacterial elicitor (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B), and abiotic elicitor was Chitosan (C), and the combination of biotic and abiotic elicitors (FC and BC), and an equal amount of water control (CK). Upon harvesting of C. paliurus, the plant height and ground diameter, root, stem, and leaf biomass were measured. The leaf C, N, and P contents, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) activity, and bioactive compound contents were measured. The cultivation substrate samples were taken to analyze the pH, total N, and available N and P contents.   Results  Compared with CK, the elicitors did not (P>0.05) impact the relative growth rate of seedlings but significantly increased the leaf biomass; F exhibited the highest relative growth increase, B, C, and FC had similar but higher effect than BC. The five elicitors (P<0.05) increased leaf SOD activity in the order FC>F≈C>BC>B>CK; only F and FC (P<0.05) stimulated POD activity. The elicitor treatments showed a different effect on the bioactive component and yield of C. paliurus. F, FC, B, and BC increased the yield and total flavonoids, triterpenes, and polyphenols. Notably, the effect of F and B were higher than FC and BC, respectively. Only F and C treatments increased the total polysaccharides, with the effect of C higher than F. Cyclocaric acid B is a unique triterpenoid monomer in C. paliurus, and F and B increased its content by 77.8% and 200%, compared with CK. The application of elicitors changed the chemical properties of cultivation substrates. F and FC elicited (P<0.05) alterations in the pH of the cultivation substrate, whereas B and BC resulted in substrates with 163% and 167% higher available phosphorus and nitrogen contents, respectively, compared to CK. According to the results of the correlation analysis, the leaf N and P contents were positively correlated with the availability of soil nutrients (P<0.05). The total flavonoids in biologically active substances also showed a significant positive correlation with available soil nutrients, while the total triterpenoid was positively correlated with soil available nutrients and leaf P content (P<0.05). Furthermore, the total polyphenols exhibited a positive correlation (P<0.05) with SOD and POD activities, but negative correlation (P<0.01) with leaf N/P ratio. The total polysaccharide content was positively correlated with SOD activity (P<0.05).   Conclusions  The fungal, bacterial, and chitosan elicitors enhanced the leaf yield and quality of C. paliurus efficiently. The fungal elicitor, Trichoderma asperellum, could improve the soil pH and total N, enhance the SOD and POD activity, and stimulate bioactive compound accumulation in Cyclocarya paliurus leaves. The bacteria elicitor, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, could enhance leaf enzyme activity and bioactive accumulation by improving available soil N and P, which is beneficial for leaf growth. The bacteria elicitor showed a weaker effect than the fungal elicitor in bioactive compound accumulation, while Chitosan did not show a satisfactory effect except for the accumulation of leaf polysaccharides. Fungal elicitor is recommended for C. paliurus cultivation.
Effects of lignin-based humic acid liquid fertilizer on soil biochemistry and banana seedling growth
LIANG Jia-min, HUO Peng-ju, GUO Tao, ZHANG Li-dan, FAN Xiao-lin, SUN Shao-long
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022465
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  Objective  The effects of humic acid liquid fertilizer supplemented with lignin (lignin-based humic acid liquid fertilizer: LHF) on nutrients, enzyme activities, microorganisms of red soil in southern China and banana seedling growth were studied to provide reference for the improvement of soil fertility and the utilization of papermaking by-products.   Methods  The seeds of banana were cultured in pot experiment. The tested soil was red soil of Guangzhou, and the tested banana seedling was at 5-true-leaves stage. There were 6 treatments in the experience, which were no fertilizer (CK), conventional liquid fertilizer (CF), humic acid liquid fertilizer (HF), LHF with ligin 10 g/L (LHF10), 30 g/L (LHF30), and 50 g/L (LHF50), respectively. All kind of fertilizers contain the same amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The plants and soil were sampled and stored when seedlings have been cultivated for three months. And then the physiological indexes of plant growth, soil physical and chemical properties, soil enzyme activities and soil microbial quantity were measured.   Result  1) Compared with CK, all fertilization treatments could significantly increase the contents of soil total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. With increased content of lignin, the content of soil ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen appeared a decreasing trend. Compared with the CF treatment, low concentration of lignin significantly increased content of ammonium and total nitrogen in the soil, while high concentration of lignin clearly decreased content of nitrogen in the soil. The content of available potassium in the soil decreased with increased content of lignin , treatments of LHF30 and LHF50 were obviously lower than treatments of CF and HF. Compared with CF treatment, treatment of HF and all treatments of LHF visibly augmented available P in the soil (10.45%−22.43%), and the content of available P in LHF50 treatment was distinctly higher than that in HF treatment. The organic matter content of soil improved with increased content of lignin, but the organic matter content of lignin-based humic acid liquid fertilizer was lower than that of HF treatment. 2) In terms of soil enzyme activity, compared with the CF treatment, the urease activity of each LHF treatment was markedly decreased (21.58%−31.29%). The activity of sucrase and acid phosphatase were improved by ligin-based humic acid liquid fertilizer. For sucrase activity, treatment of LHF30 visibly enhanced by 49.35% compared with CF treatment. The activity of acid phosphatase in each LHF treatment was higher than that in CF treatment, but lower than that in HF treatment. The nitrate reductase activity of LHF50 treatment was lower than that of CF treatment, and the other fertilization treatments were higher than that of CF treatment. Compared with CF treatment, HF treatment and LHF10 treatment significantly increased the nitrate reductase activity by 40.0% and 32.0%, respectively. 3) The quantity of three kinds of soil microorganisms in the experiment was: CK<CF<HF<LHF. The number of bacteria and actinomycetes in LHF30 treatment was the highest, while the number of fungi in LHF50 treatment was the highest. Both bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, LHF treatments were higher than the number of CF treatment and HF treatment. 4) Regarding the plant height and stem diameter of banana seedlings, treatments of LHF were higher than the CF treatment, among which there was a significant difference in plant height, but no significant difference in stem diameter. Both fresh weight and dry weight of plants in LHF treatments were higher than those in CF treatment, and shoot fresh and dry weight of LHF treatments were higher than that in HF treatment. In both aboveground and underground parts, the absorption and accumulation of phosphorus and potassium in lignin-based humic acid liquid fertilizer treatments were higher than those in CF and HF treatment.  Conclusion  Applying lignin based humic acid liquid fertilizers could improve the contents of mineral nitrogen, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, the activities of sucrase, acid phosphatase and nitrate reductase in soil, but obviously reduced the activity of soil urease, which also markedly promoted the growth and reproduction of soil microorganisms. For crops, the application of lignin-based humic acid liquid fertilizer could promote the growth and development of banana, and promoted the absorption and accumulation of nutrients in banana seedlings.
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2023, 29(4).  
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Combined application of nitrogen and zinc fertilizer affects the yield and quality of fragrant southern japonica rice
CHEN Meng-tao, LIU Shao-qiang, LIU Guo-dong, WEI Hai-yan, ZHANG Hong-cheng, HU Qun, XU Fang-fu, LI Guang-yan, XING Zhi-peng
2023, 29(4): 591-601.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022430
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  Objectives  The effects of nitrogen rate and zinc fertilizer on the yield, processing and appearance quality, cooking taste, and aroma of fragrant southern japonica rice were studied.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted in the experimental base of Yangzhou University, two fragrant japonica rice cultivars, Ningxiangjing 9 and Nanjing 46, were used as experiment materials. The tested N application levels were 0 (N0), 180 (N180), and 270 (N270) kg/hm2 under both applying Zn fertilizer (+Zn) and no Zn fertilizer conditions. At maturing stage, the yield, yield compomemts, grain processing, tasting and fragrance quality were determined.  Results  Higher N rate produced higher rice yield, N270 treatment gave the highest yield in Ningxiangjing 9 (10.48 t/hm2) and Nanjing 46 (10.40 t/hm2), +Zn did not affect rice yield. N270 elicited higher rice processing and appearance quality than N0 and N180, and +Zn improved the processing and appearance quality of rice under the same N fertilizer rate (P<0.05). The highest processing quality of Ningxiangjing 9 and Nanjing 46 rice were recorded under +ZnN270. Compared with N0, N180 and N270 increased the protein content by 9.79%−23.89%, but decreased the amylose content by 8.44%−13.16% as well as the taste value significantly. Under the same N rate, +Zn increased rice protein content and improved taste value. The setback value of rice increased, while other indicators of the rheological viscoelasticity value (RVA) decreased with the increase of N application rate. Under the same N fertilizer rate, +Zn did not affect RVA of rice flour (RVA spectrum), compared with no Zn application. The nitrogen and 2-acetyl-1-pyrrololine (2AP) content in brown rice and milled rice increased with increasing N application rate. Compared with N0, N180 increased the nitrogen content of brown rice in Ningxiangjing 9 and Nanjing 46 by 4.64% and 4.87%, increased the nitrogen content of milled rice by 9.80% and 12.88%; increased 2AP content in brown rice by 8.91% and 41,38%, and increased 2AP content in milled rice by 7.91% and 5.88%, respectively. Compared with N0, N270 increased the nitrogen content of brown rice in two cultivars by 12.17% and 11.00%, increased the nitrogen content of milled rice by 23.89% and 22.98%; increased 2AP content in brown rice by 12.16% and 91.28%, and increased 2AP content in milled rice by 16.24% and 120.78%, respectively. Under N270, compare to Zn0, +Zn treatment increased the Zn content in brown rice of Ningxiangjing 9 and Nanjing 46 by 1.00% and 3.01%, increased the 2AP content in brown rice by 0.47% and 15.27%; increased the Zn content in milled rice by 9.75% and 2.19%, and increased the 2AP content in milled rice by 5.71% and 52.04%, respectively.  Conclusions  A relatively high rate of nitrogen fertilizer is beneficial for the yield, processing quality, and the aroma of milled rice (2AP value). Combined application of N with Zn fertilizer does not decrease the benefit of high N fertilizer, it rather increases the appearance quality and further improves the aroma of milled rice significantly. The recommended fertilization method for fragrant japonica rice is N 270 kg/hm2 combined with zinc fertilizer, for an optimally high yield, good processing quality and cooking taste.
Combined application of different rates of chemical and organic fertilizer increase soil nitrification potential and pH in greenhouse tomato cultivation
WANG Ying, ZHOU Jun, SUN De-long, FU Rui-tong, ZHANG Yu-ling
2023, 29(4): 602-613.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022474
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  Objectives  The effects of nitrogen (N) application rate and combination of chemical and organic fertilizer on soil nitrification potential and pH were studied based a 9-years of tomato positioning experiment, to provide theoretical basis for improving N supply capacity of greenhouse soil and slowing down soil acidification.  Methods  The long-term field experiments of greenhouse tomato cultivation started in 2013 in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, with cropping system of mono-tomato. Four urea N application level of 0, 187.5, 375.0, 562.5 kg/hm2, denoted as N0, N1, N2, N3, were setup, and extra four treatments were setup by combining with organic fertilizer 75000 kg/hm2 in each N level treatment (MN0, MN1, MN2, MN3), with a total of 8 treatments. At the 1st and 2nd fruit expanding period (S1 and S2), harvest period (S3), and the fallow period after harvest (S4) in 2021, 0−10 cm and 10−20 cm soil samples were collected for the determination of nitrification potential (NP), pH, and the NH4+-N and NO3-N content. The soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N (TN) after harvest were also determined for the calculation of mineral N (Nmin) to TN ratio (Nmin/TN).  Results   The application rate of chemical N fertilizer, as well as combination with organic fertilizer, and their interaction significantly affected soil NP, pH and NO3-N content. Compared with the sole chemical fertilizer treatment, the combined application of chemical and organic fertilizer decreased the NP at S1 stage, but increased the NP across S2–S4 stages. N1 treatment had similar soil pH with N0, but N2 and N3 treatment had significantly lower pH at 0–20 cm soil layer, and that N3 treatment was significantly lower than that of N2 treatment (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in soil pH among the four MN treatments at S1 and S2 stages, and the pH at S3 and S4 stages decreased gradually with the increase of N application level, but the decrease range was significantly less than that of sole chemical fertilizer treatments. The decreasing rates of soil pH in sole chemical fertilizer treatments and the combination treatments were 0.00–0.20 ∆pH/yr and 0.00–0.08 ∆pH/yr, respectively. Combined application treatments significantly increased soil NO3-N content across whole growing periods and soil NH4+-N content after harvest, the soil NO3-N content of sole chemical fertilizer and combination treatment was 4.43–197.35 mg/kg and 35.16–400.04 mg/kg, respectively. Compared with the sole application of chemical fertilizer, the combined treatment significantly increased soil SOC and TN, and decreased soil Nmin/TN (P<0.05). In sole chemical fertilizer treatment, NP was positively correlated with NO3-N content and pH, and negatively correlated with NH4+-N content. Under the combination treatment, soil NP was positively correlated with SOC, TN and NO3-N in S2 stage, and negatively correlated with pH in S2 stage and Nmin/TN in fallow period. Soil pH of chemical fertilizer treatment was negatively correlated with NH4+-N and NO3-N content at S3 and S4, pH was negatively correlated with NH4+-N and NO3-N content at S1, S2 and S4 stages of the combination treatments, and soil pH was negatively correlated with Nmin/TN during fallow period both in chemical fertilizer alone and the combination treatments, and there was a negative correlation between soil pH and TN in the combination treatment (P<0.05).  Conclusions  Compared with sole chemical fertilizer treatment, chemical and organic fertilizer combination could increase soil SOC and TN and NO3-N content (nitrification potential) in the middle and later stage of tomato growth, reduce Nmin/TN, and effectively retard the decline rate of soil pH. The combined application of urea N 187.5 kg/hm2 and organic fertilizer 75000 kg/hm2 is recommended as its extrusive effect in N supply capacity and stable soil pH.
Optimum tillage pattern with high crop productivity and soil nitrate-N accumulation in rain-fed summer maize and winter wheat double cropping system
WU Jin-zhi, WANG Hong-tao, HOU Yuan-quan, TIAN Wen-zhong, LI Jun-hong, ZHANG Jie, LI Fang, LÜ Jun-jie, YAO Yu-qing, FU Guo-zhan, HUANG Ming, LI You-jun
2023, 29(4): 614-627.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022472
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  Objectives  We compared the effects of different tillage patterns on crop productivity and nitrate-N accumulation of soil under rain-fed condition, for high yield and less N leaching risk.   Methods  From 2015 to 2021, a field study was conducted at the Luoyang Dry Farming Experimental Plot of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The cropping system was summer maize-winter wheat. The experiment included five treatments: no tillage in both summer and autumn (SNAN), subsoiling in summer and no tillage in autumn (SSAN), no tillage in summer plus consecutive 3-year-no-tillage-1-year plough in autumn (SNA3N1P), subsoiling in summer plus consecutive 3-year-no-tillage-1-year plough in autumn (SSA3N1P), and conventional plough after wheat and maize harvest (CT). The crop yield and water use efficiency were investigated in 2015–2021. The bulk density, nutrient content, and enzyme activity in the 0–40 cm soil layer were determined at maize harvest in 2020. The nitrate-N accumulation in the 0–380 cm soil layer was investigated at wheat harvest in 2019–2020.  Results  1) Compared with CT, SNAN, SSAN, SNA3N1P, and SSA3N1P significantly increased maize yield by 28.4%–33.5%, wheat yield by 23.7%–25.0%, and whole year yield by 27.1%–30.3%; increased maize water use efficiency (WUE) by 19.6%–39.2%, wheat WUE by 20.2%–29.3%, and whole year WUE by 29.5%–34.5%; decreased soil bulk density at 0–5 cm and 20–40 cm soil layer significantly; increased organic matter (OM) at 0–5 cm soil layer and total N (TN), available P (AP), readily available K (AK) content; and increased surcease and urease activity at most measured layer in 0–40 cm soil profile; meanwhile, the nitrite-N accumulation was increased by 44.3%–104.8% in 0–80 cm soil profile but decreased by 22.1%–34.1% in 120–380 cm soil profile. 2) Compared with no tillage in summer (namely SN), subsoiling in summer (namely SS) did not affect the crop yield, but significantly decreased maize WUE, increased OM at 10–20 cm soil layer, TN in 0–20 cm profile, AP at 0–5 cm and 10–20 cm soil layer, AK at 10–20 cm soil layer, urease activity in 5–40 cm profile, sucrase activity in 0–40 cm profile; SS increased soil bulk density at 20–40 cm layer and nitrite-N accumulation at 0–380 cm soil profile. 3) Compared with no tillage in autumn (AN), A3N1P significantly decreased TN and AP contents at 0–5 cm soil layer, but increased OM in 5–20 cm, AK in 5–40 cm soil profile, and increased urease and surcease activity in 0–40 cm soil profile. Compared with AN, A3N1P significantly increased the 6-year-average WUE of wheat by7.1% under SN, while decreased nitrate-N in 0–380 cm soil profile by 12.4% under SS. 4) Comprehensively, SSA3N1P had significant effect on crop yield and WUE, but it had the best soil properties among the five treatments, and exhibited the function of increasing nitrite-N in root layer (0–80 cm) and decreasing it in deeper soil layer (120–380 cm).   Conclusions  Subsoiling in summer exhibited better effect than no tillage in summer in improving soil properties. Consecutive 3 years of no tillage and following 1 year plowing (A3N1P) also performed better than no tillage in autumn. The tillage pattern of subsoiling in summer plus consecutive 3-year-no-tillage-1-year plough in autumn (SSA3N1P) was best in improving soil properties, crop productivity and optimizing soil nitrate-N, and therefore was recommend as an alternative tillage pattern in rainfed maize-wheat double cropping system.
Response of soil organic nitrogen components to nitrogen application rate in a wheat-maize rotation cropland
XU Xiao-feng, LIU Di, FU Sen-lin, CHEN Wen-liang
2023, 29(4): 628-639.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022350
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  Objectives  The composition and availability of soil organic nitrogen (SON) play key roles in soil N retention and supply. Studying the effects of N fertilizer application rate on soil organic N components could provide a reference for rational management of N fertilizer.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted in Wenxian, Henan Province, and lasted for three winter wheat seasons and two summer maize seasons. The N fertilizer application rates on wheat were 300 kg/hm2 (N300), 225 kg/hm2 (N225), 195 kg/hm2 (N195), 165 kg/hm2 (N165), and 0 kg/hm2 (N0). Wheat yield and N uptake were investigated. Before sowing and after wheat harvest, soil samples were collected to determine total N and organic N content.   Results  The minimum N application rate (N165) recorded a stable yield while N195 met the N demand of winter wheat. Acid-soluble nitrogen (TNex) is the main component of SON, accounting for 59.06%−92.26% of total N. TNex was composed of three components, amino sugar nitrogen (ASN), ammonium nitrogen (ANN), and amino acid nitrogen (AAN), which accounted for 18.40%−46.62%, 8.91%−34.40%, and 13.43%−28.52% of TNex, respectively. The reduction of the N application rate led to an increase and decrease in ANN and ASN contents. The results of redundancy analysis indicated the relationship among soil organic N components and ASN before sowing, ANN before sowing, AAN before sowing, and N fertilizer applying rate. Their proportional contribution to the variation in SON was 19.11%, 18.19%, 9.80%, and 17.45%, respectively. The results of the structural equation analysis indicated that the N fertilizer application rate affected the transformation relationship among SON components and their contribution to soil N supply. Under medium and low N application rates, AAN was the key component of soil N supply. The contribution of AAN to the N uptake of winter wheat was 19.11%. ASN was the key component of soil N supply under a high N application rate, and the contribution of ASN to N uptake of winter wheat was 8.65%.   Conclusions  Acid-soluble N is the main organic N component in Wenxian soil. N application rate affects soil organic N component contents and transformation relationship. Low N application rates decrease soil total N, reducing the proportion of acid-soluble nitrogen. High N application rates can maintain the stability of acid-soluble N. Among the acid-soluble N, low N application rates increase the proportion of ANN and decrease the proportion of ASN. Under medium and low N application rates, AAN is the key component of soil N supply. Under high N application rates, ASN is the key component of soil N supply.
Nitrogen competition and recovery effects of maize in different maize/legumes intercropping systems
ZHAO Jian-hua, SUN Jian-hao, CHEN Liang-zhi, LI Wei-qi, CAO Su-zhen, GU Ke-qiang
2023, 29(4): 640-650.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022394
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  Objectives  Interspecific competition and compensation are important mechanisms to showcase the advantage of intercropping systems. The objective of the present study was to explore the N competitive ability of maize relative to legumes during intercropping. We also examined the maize N uptake recovery effect under sole cropping and when intercropped with different legumes.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted at the experimental site of the Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Zhangye, Gansu Province, China, from 2018 to 2019. The experiment included three intercropping systems: maize and pea (M/P), maize and faba bean (M/F), maize and soybean (M/S), and four sole cropping systems, including sole pea (SP), faba bean (SF), soybean (SS), and maize (SM). The crop dry matter weight and N concentration at the maturity stage were investigated, the N uptake equivalent ratio (NER) of the intercropping system and partial N uptake equivalent ratio (pNER) of the crops were calculate. Maize competitive ratio relative to legume (CRml), the relationship between CRml and NER, the partial nitrogen uptake equivalent ratio of legume (pNERl), the partial N uptake equivalent ratio of maize (pNERm), and the N uptake of intercropped maize were assessed.   Results  Over the two years average, NER values of M/P, M/F, and M/S were 1.33, 1.26, and 1.38, respectively. The pNERl value among intercropping systems was not (P>0.05) different. The pNERm value in M/S was (P<0.05) greater than that in M/P and M/F; N uptake of intercropped legumes was (P<0.05) lower than sole legumes, but legume N concentration was not (P>0.05) different between intercrop and sole legumes. Maize N concentration among the intercropping systems was not (P>0.05) different. Maize N uptake in M/P, M/F, and M/S was 62.2%, 51.0%, and 79.9% of the value recorded for sole maize. Maize N uptake in M/S was 33.4% and 62.6% higher than in M/P and M/F, respectively. CRml value in M/S was higher than 1 and (P<0.05) higher than in M/P and M/F, but the CRml value in M/P and M/F were lower than 1. The recorded values for the maize recovery effect in intercropping systems were less than 1. A significant positive correlation was found between CRml and NER, pNERm, and a significant negative correlation between CRml and pNERl.   Conclusions  Based on the two years of study, the maize/pea, maize/faba bean, and maize/soybean intercropping system showed higher N uptake equivalent ratio than the sole maize system in Hexi Corridor. Maize and legumes compete for N during intercropping, with pea and faba bean stronger than soybean in competing for N during the intercropping. After harvesting the legumes, maize did not show any apparent N uptake recovery effect.
Mechanism of co-incorporating wheat straw and hairy vetch in controlling greenhouse gas emissions in Qinghai Plateau of China
JIANG Peng, ZHOU Guo-peng, HAN Mei, LI Zheng-peng, YAN Qing-biao, CHANG Dan-na, LIANG Hao, SUN Xiao-feng, CAO Wei-dong
2023, 29(4): 651-663.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022503
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  Objectives  This study explored soil greenhouse gas emissions and mechanism of carbon and nitrogen transformation under the co-incorporation of wheat straw and leguminous green manure residues in Qinghai Plateau of China, which can provide a theoretical basis for the scientific utilization of straw and green manure in dryland agricultural ecosystems.   Methods  An incubation experiment was carried out using wheat straw and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth L.). There were four treatments: no straw addition control (CK), hairy vetch alone (VS), wheat straw alone (WS), and wheat straw and hairy vetch together (VWS). Greenhouse gas emissions, soil active carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) components, soil enzyme activities and the abundances of bacteria, archaea, fungi, amoA, nirK and narG were determined.   Results  Compared with VS, VWS treatment decreased of cumulative emissions of CO2 and N2O by 24.8% and 74.6%, increased cumulative absorption of CH4 by 9.1%, and significantly reduced global warming potential (GWP) by 76.1% (P<0.05). Compared with WS treatment, VWS increased cumulative CO2 emissions by 33.7%, but decreased cumulative CH4 absorption by 12.0%, and the cumulative N2O emissions by 43.1%, GWP by 49.4%. VWS treatment significantly increased soil pH compared with CK and VS. Compared with VS treatment, VWS increased the contents of the dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (SMBC) by 21.6% and 4.9%, but decreased the mineral N (Nmin), dissolved organic N (DON) and microbial biomass N (SMBN) by 77.3%, 59.5%, and 6.3%. Compared with WS treatment, VWS increased Nmin, DOC, DON, SMBC and SMBN by 64.0%, 22.5%, 56.5%, 23.2%, and 27.8%, respectively. Plant residues significantly increased enzyme activities, and VWS treatment recorded higher α-glucosidase (AG) and β-glucosidase (BG) activities, and lower nitrite reductase (NIR) activity than the other treatments. The abundances of fungi and archaea in VWS treatment were 83.8% and 69.8% higher than those in WS treatment, but 62.6% and 20.3% lower than those in VS treatment, respectively. The bacterial abundance of VWS treatment was 33.4% lower than that of VS treatment. In VWS, the abundances of AOB amoA, nirK and narG genes were decreased by 56.6%, 41.4%, and 16.3%, than those in VS treatment, and by 30.3%, 25.9%, and 12.0% compared with WS treatment, respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that CO2 and CH4 emissions were positively correlated with soil organic C, total N, DOC, SMBC, and SMBN, AG, NAG and NR activities, and the abundances fungi, bacteria, nirK and narG. N2O emission was positively correlated with soil total N, DON, SMBC and SMBN, the AOB amoA and nirK abundances, and was negatively correlated with soil pH and BG activity. Partial Least Squares Path Model analysis (PLS-PM) showed that AOB amoA was the main functional bacteria regulating soil N2O emission.   Conclusions  Both the single and co-application of wheat straw and hairy vetch increases soil CO2 emissions and reduces CH4 absorption. Co-incorporating of wheat straw and hairy vetch is more effective in reducing N2O emission and GWP through the reduced abundance of AOB, so is an effective measure for greenhouse gas emission reduction in dryland soil of Qinghai Plateau in China.
Pyrolysis temperature and nitrogen application rate influence the effects of biochar on greenhouse gas emission reduction and spring maize yield
ZHONG Jia-wang, ZHANG Li, ZHAN Xiang-sheng, LIU Rong, DONG Qin-ge, ZHANG Man, FENG Hao
2023, 29(4): 664-676.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022493
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  Objective  We studied the effects of biochar properties and nitrogen dosage on greenhouse gas emissions and yield of spring maize in the Hetao Irrigation District.  Methods  Both laboratory culture and field experiment was conducted in this research. The test materials were straw biochar and bamboo biochar. The field experiment treatments consisted of control (N) with a conventional nitrogen rate of 300 kg/hm2, straw biochar with a conventional nitrogen rate (SB+N), bamboo biochar with a conventional nitrogen rate (BB+N), straw biochar with nitrogen reduction of 50% (SB+50%N), and bamboo biochar with nitrogen reduction of 50% (BB+50%N). The static chamber-gas chromatography was used to measure the greenhouse gas emission in spring maize field. In the laboratory test, straw biochar (S) and bamboo biochar (B) with pyrolysis temperatures of 200℃, 400℃, and 600℃ were added to the soil. After three days of equilibrium, test soil under constant temperature and humidity was cultured for two weeks under 300 kg/hm2 N addition. N2O, CO2, and CH4 emission fluxes in soil were monitored in the different incubation days.  Results  Compared with N control, treatment SB+N, BB+N, SB+50%N and BB+50%N increased soil temperature in 0−5 cm depth by 0.50℃, 1.84℃, 0.35℃ and 1.37℃ respectively; increased soil temperature in 0−10 cm depth by 0.43℃, 1.83℃, 0.39℃ and 1.11℃, respectively; and increased the moisture content in 0−10 cm soil layer by 13.70%, 8.90%, 12.33%, and 8.90%, respectively. Compared with N control, cumulative N2O emission under SB+N, BB+N, SB+50%N, and BB+50%N decreased by 21.91%, 23.16%, 25.98%, and 28.17%, respectively, during the whole growth period (P<0.05). Cumulative CO2 emission under SB+N and BB+N increased by 7.96% and 9.94% (P<0.05), respectively, while that of SB+50%N and BB+50%N decreased by 11.54% and 10.74% (P<0.05), respectively. Cumulative CH4 emissions under biochar treatments during the growth period were negative and significantly lower than that under N treatment (P<0.05). The global warming potential (GWP) under SB+N, BB+N, SB+50%N, and BB+50%N decreased by 23.26%, 23.98%, 27.00%, and 29.14%, respectively, while the greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) decreased by 27.24%, 28.97%, 32.57%, and 34.68%, respectively (P<0.05). Compared with N treatment, grain yield under SB+N, BB+N, SB+ 50%N, and BB+50%N increased by 5.47%, 7.01%, 8.26%, and 8.47%, respectively (P<0.05). Biochar addition reduced the emission of N2O and CO2 in soil in the laboratory test. The emission fluxes of N2O and CO2 decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature of biochar. At the same pyrolysis temperature, the emission reduction effect of bamboo biochar was better than that of straw biochar. Soil CH4 emissions under all treatments presented carbon sinks, and bamboo biochar produced under 600°C had the highest CH4 absorption.  Conclusions  Biochar addition can improve soil temperature and moisture content, and significantly reduce the cumulative emission of N2O and CH4. However, biochar addition can increase the cumulative emission of CO2 under conventional nitrogen application. Biochar addition can significantly increase spring maize yield and decrease GWP and GHGI. The culture test further demonstrated that the emission reduction effect of bamboo biochar was better than that of straw biochar, and the emission reduction effect of biochar with high pyrolysis temperature was better than that of biochar with low pyrolysis. Considering the results of field experiment and laboratory test and environmental and economic benefits, the treatment of 50% nitrogen reduction combined with bamboo biochar was the suitable choice to increase maize yield and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the Hetao Irrigation District.
Effects of different manures on phosphorus adsorption and desorption of a reclaimed mining soil
SUN Xiao-dong, GAO Wen-jun, HAO Xian-jun, XU Ming-gang, ZHANG Jie, MENG Hui-sheng
2023, 29(4): 677-689.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022450
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  Objectives  The reclaimed calcareous soil is extremely low in P, and the applied P is easily immobilized by cations. The effects of various manures on P adsorption and desorption in reclaimed soil were studied to provide a theoretical foundation for rapid soil reclaimation in a mining area.   Methods  A fertilizer field experiment was conducted in a coal mining subsidence reclamation soil located in Xiaoyi City, Shanxi Province for four years, the fertilizer treatments included three manures (chicken, pig, and cow manures) and two chemical fertilizers (NP and NPK), and the no fertilizer control, with the same total P input (100 kg/hm2). The soils were collected from the treatment plots for isothermal adsorption and adsorption incubation experiment. Additionally, the relationship between the soil physico-chemical properties and the characteristic parameters of P adsorption and desorption was examined.   Results  The P adsorption curve was well fitted by the Langmuir equation (R2=0.924−0.992). Both reclamation years and fertilization, and their interaction had significant effects on P adsorption and desorption. As reclamation years increased, the maximum adsorption capacity of P decreased by 12%−26%, while the P adsorption saturation and P desorption rate increased by 218%−885% and 86%−118%, respectively (P<0.05). Compared with chemical fertilizer treatments, the manures reduced the maximum adsorption capacity and buffer capacity of P by 30% and 31%, and increased the adsorption saturation and desorption rate of P by 34% and 16%−24%, respectively. Among the three manure treatments, their effects on P adsorption were in order of pig manure>chicken manure>cow manure, and desorption were in order of chicken manure>pig manure>cow manure. The results of redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that total P and organic matter were the main factors affecting P adsorption and desorption, explaining 74% and 13% of the total variation, respectively (P<0.01).   Conclusions  Fertilization reduced soil P adsorption while increased P desorption capacity, and the effect of manures were more remarkable than chemical fertilizer even at the same amoFertilization reduced soil P adsorption while increased P desorption capacity, and the effect of manures were more remarkable than chemical fertilizer at the same input amount in the reclaimed mining soil. Total P and organic matter strikingly influence the n saturation increased rapidly with the fertilization years, the soil P adsorption and desorption characteristics should be monitored for the risk of environmental degradation.
Responses of chlorophyll fluorescence of alfalfa with various phosphorus utilization efficiencies to phosphorus deficiency
WEI Xian-wei, PAN Xin-ya, WANG Peng-fei, LIU Jia-xi, LI Jun-bao, WANG Zhi
2023, 29(4): 690-703.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022208
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  Objective  This study was aimed to identify the effects of P deficiency on photosynthetic performance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and reveal the differences in light energy conversion and utilization among different varieties.  Methods  Sand culture method was used, two high-P-efficient varieties, Gannon 6 (G6), and Aurora (JG); and two low-P-efficient alfalfa varieties, Bara 310SC (B310) and Gannon 4 (G4) were selected as test materials. On the basis of 1/4 Hoagland solution, normal P control (0.5 mmol/L) and low P stress (0.05 mmol/L) solution were prepared. At the 30 days of culture, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of alfalfa leaves were measured, then the whole seedlings were harvested for the determination of biomass and P content.  Results  Compared with the control group, P deficiency decreased the biomass and P utilization efficiency of four alfalfa varieties, increased fluorescence intensity at points J and I of the relative variable fluorescence induction curve, increased the maximum rate of QA reduction (Mo) significantly, parameters such as receptor pool capacity (Sm) decreased and impaired the PSII receptor side; the number of active reaction centers (RC/CSo) decreased, light energy absorption (ABS/RC, ABS/CSo), capture (TRo/RC, TRo/CSo), transfer (ETo/RC) and dissipation (DIo/RC, DIo/CSo) increased significantly, performance index (PIabs and PItotal) decreased, photosynthetic electron transfer was hindered, and the overall performance of PSⅠ and PSⅡ decreased. In terms of the differences among varieties, the high-P-efficient varieties G6 and JG showed less variation in these parameters than the low-P-efficient varieties B310 and G4, and had higher biomass and P utilization efficiency under the same P treatment.  Conclusion  P deficiency mainly inhibits the performance of the electron transport chain on the acceptor side and reaction center of alfalfa leaves, which decreases the activity of PSⅠ and PSⅡ and hinders photosynthetic electron transport. These responses result in a reduction of biomass and P utilization efficiency. Compared to P-inefficient varieties, P-efficient varieties have higher photosynthetic electron transfer activity and more stable photosynthetic system. Among rapid chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, PIabs is more sensitive to P deficiency, and shows a significant correlation with P utilization efficiency, which could effectively reflect the status of PSII light energy conversion efficiency, active reaction center and receptor side. All these indicate that PIabs is an effective indicator for evaluating alfalfa photosynthetic performance under P deficiency.
The characteristics of cell wall pectin in roots of cadmium-safe rice line in response to cadmium stress
YANG Fu, YU Hai-ying, HUANG Hua-gang, LI Qin, LI Ting-xuan
2023, 29(4): 704-711.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022448
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  Objectives  We compared the properties of cell wall pectin in roots of cadmium (Cd)-safe and common rice line when exposure to Cd stress, to fully understand the mechanism of Cd retention by root of Cd-safe rice line.   Methods  A hydroponic experiment was conducted using a Cd-safe rice line D62B and a common rice line Luhui17 as the comparing material. The Cd concentration of nutrient solution included 0 (CK), 0.5 mg/L (Cd0.5), 1.0 mg/L (Cd1) and 2.0 mg/L (Cd2). At the tillering stage, root samples were collected. The Cd concentrations in cell wall polysaccharides, including pectin, hemicellulose 1, hemicellulose 2 and residue fraction, were determined respectively. Furthermore, the uronic acid concentration of pectin, pectin esterification degree, pectin methyl esterase activity (PME), root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and cell wall peroxidase (POD) activity were detected, so as to clarify the response characteristics of root cell wall pectin to Cd.   Results  1) Cd treatment promoted the pectin synthesis of root cell wall in both rice lines, and the uronic acid concentrations of low and high esterified pectin in the root cell wall of D62B were higher than those of Luhui17. Compared with CK, the uronic acid concentrations of low esterified and high esterified pectin in the root cell wall of D62B were increased by 13.21%–71.82%, 22.10%–64.27%, and those in Luhui17 were increased by 24.14%–137.86%, 13.12%–41.26%, respectively, under Cd treatment. 2) The pectin esterification degree and PME activity in root cell wall of D62B and Luhui17 were higher than those of CK under Cd1 and Cd2 treatment. The PME activity in root cell wall of D62B was significantly higher than that of Luhui17 under the same Cd stress. 3) Cd induced H2O2 accumulation and influenced peroxidase activity in the roots of both rice lines. Under Cd stress, the H2O2 concentration and peroxidase activity of D62B roots were lower than those of Luhui17, indicating that pectin methyl esterase had stronger demethylation effect on pectin.   Conclusions  When exposed to Cd stress, Cd-safe rice line D62B showed stronger ability of low and high esterified pectin synthesis and had higher PME activity in its root cell wall than that of common material, leading to provide more Cd binding sites and show stronger Cd binding ability, which was conducive to the retention of Cd in D62B roots.
Effects of silicon fertilizer on the growth and silicon partitioning in tea plant parts
YANG Shu-qing, ZHANG Li-xia, CUI Lin-hai, HOU Jian, XIE Xue-ying, HAN Xiao-yang
2023, 29(4): 712-721.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022466
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  Objective  The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Si foliar application on the growth and tea quality, and accumulation of Si in tea plant parts for the safe use of Si fertilizer.  Methods  Pot and field experiments were used in this research, sodium silicate (Na2SiO3·9H2O) was used as the silicon fertilizer. First, seven spraying concentrations of Si (0, 50, 150, 300, 500, 750, and 1500 mg/L) were set up in the indoor pot experiment, sprayed three times in total and once every 7 days. On the seventh day after the third spraying, the chlorophyll content (SPAD), the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and the stomatal characteristics were measured. The biomass of shoot and root was weighed, the phytoalexin content of tea seedlings was measured, and the optimal Si spray concentration was proposed. The second indoor experiment was then conducted using the optimum Si spray concentration as treatment and distilled water as control. The Si concentration in the top 1, 3, and 5 leaves, in stem and root of tea seedlings were measured after the first, second, and third spray treatments, respectively. At the same time, field experiment was conducted in a tea garden located in Shandong Province, taking the same treatment as in the pot experiment. The tea yield and active component contents related to tea quality were investigated in spring, summer and autumn, respectively.  Results  Si300 and Si500 exhibited higher leaf SPAD, qNP, and electron transport rate (ETR) values than other treatments, and contained significantly higher phytoalexin content than Si0. Si500 also elicited the highest bud density and 100-bud weight, thus it was the optimum spraying concentration. The concentration was used as Si treatment and distilled water as control in the following pot and field experiment. After the first spray treatment in the pot experiment, silicon content was found to be higher in leaves than in stems and roots, and the silicon content in different leaves was in order: the top third leaf > the top fifth leaf > the top first leaf. After the third spray treatments, the top fifth leaf had higher silicon content than the top first and third leaves; and root had the highest Si content in tea plants. In the field experiment, Si spray increased the 100-bud weight and budding density of tea plants significantly in all the three seasons. The content of free amino acids in spring tea, summer tea, and autumn tea increased by 17.49%, 94.48%, and 15.06%, respectively; soluble sugar content increased by 2.72%, 91.69%, and 3.33%, while caffeine decreased significantly by 7.07%, 32.91%, and 16.59%, respectively.  Conclusions  Foliar spraying of 500 mg/L silicon is beneficial to the growth of tea seedlings. Spraying silicon fertilizer before picking is beneficial to improve the yield and quality of tea, especially summer tea. After spraying silicon fertilizer, silicon is mainly accumulated in the roots and mature leaves of tea.
Economic and ecological efficiencies of tea plantations under different cultivation models
HE Chen, TIAN Lin-lin, YI Xiao-yun, YANG Xiang-de, LI Hai-tao, CAI Yan-jiang, NI Kang, SHI Yuan-zhi
2023, 29(4): 722-731.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022429
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  Objectives  Investigating the effects of management models on soil fertility and the economic benefit of tea plantations can provide a scientific guidance for optimizing the management and green development of tea plantations in the agricultural industry.   Methods  This study was conducted in Zhejiang Province in 2012. The four tea plantation models surveyed were pure tea (CK), planting grass between tea trees (GT), cultivating mushroom under tea trees (BT), and raising meat chickens in tea garden (PT). All the four models have existed for 10 years. Tea yield, income, and expenditure from 2019 to 2021 were investigated. Soil samples at 0−20 cm, 20−40 cm, and 40−60 cm depth were collected in 2021 to determine pH, soil organic matter (SOM), total and available nutrient contents. The comprehensive soil fertility was evaluated by Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method.   Results  Compared with CK, GT, PT, and BT increased the average tea yield by 63.5%, 79.4%, and 99.2% and enhanced the net income by 66.7%, 99.7%, and 83.7%, respectively. Black fungus and free-walking chicken in BT and PT models contributed additional income of 40.9% and 22.1%, respectively. The ratio of income to investment in CK, GT, PT, and BT models was 2.57, 3.23, 3.69, and 2.51, respectively. GT and PT had higher income and investment ratio while BT recorded similar value to CK. During 10 years experiment, soil pH at 0−20 cm in the CK decreased from 4.23 to 3.69, while in GT, PT, and BT increased to 6.93, 4.55 and 5.41, respectively, alleviating soil acidification. Compared with CK, SOM at 0−20 cm soil depth did not change in GT, PT, and BT. However, SOM at 20−40 cm and 40−60 cm depth increased in GT, PT, and BT, respectively. Overall, SOM in GT, PT, and BT were significantly increased by 39.5%, 21.8%, and 7.54%, respectively at the depth of 0−60 cm. Compared with CK, 0−20 cm soil fertility index in the GT, PT, and BT increased by 77.6%, 68.3%, and 44.8%, respectively, and the effect of GT and PT models was better than BT. Under CK model, NH4+-N and NO3-N content was higher in 40−60 cm soil than 0−20 cm depth, which were 1.58 and 2.57 times of those in the surface soil.   Conclusions  All the three multiple tea plantation models showed higher merits than the pure traditional tea plantation, despite differences in their economic and ecological benefits. Tea-mushroom and tea-chicken plantation had higher tea yield and generated extra income through the sale of chicken and mushroom. The tea-chicken model had the highest production-investment ratio; grass-tea plantation showed higher efficiency in alleviating soil acidification, improved soil fertility, and reduced the risk of N leaching.
Optimization of fertilizer and drip irrigation levels for efficient potato production based on entropy weight method and TOPSIS
ZHANG Fan, CHEN Meng-ru, XING Ying-ying, DANG Fei-fei, LI Yuan, WANG Xiu-kang
2023, 29(4): 732-744.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022426
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  Objective  The effects of drip irrigation and fertilizer levels on the growth, yield, quality, water and fertilizer utilization efficiency and economic benefits of potato were studied under fertigation system.  Methods  The orthogonal test design method was adopted and total of 10 treatments were setup, including three drip irrigation levels of crop evapotranspiration (ETC) of 100% (W1), 80% (W2), and 60% (W3); three fertilizer (N-P2O5-K2O) levels of 240-120-300 kg/hm2 (F1), 180-90-225 kg/hm2 (F2), and 120-60-150 kg/hm2 (F3); three potato cultivars of Feiurita (V1), Longshu 7 (V2) and Qingshu 9 (V3); and a no fertilizer control (W3F0V1). The chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate and water consumption of potato were measured during growing stage, and the dry matter accumulation, yield, yield components, and quality of potato were determined at harvest. The water use efficiency (WUE), fertilizer partial productivity (PFP), and economic benefits were analyzed and calculated.  Results  Irrigation and fertilizer levels affected potato yield components, starch content, vitamin C content, crude protein content, PFP, and net income significantly. F2 treatment had the highest yield, dry matter accumulation, starch content, vitamin C content, crude protein content, and net income, which were 19.28%, 1.13%, 1.62%, 3.79%, 8.79%, 34.64% higher than F1, and 21.48%, 3.07%, 6.27%, 6.08%, 11.18%, 27.94% higher than F3 treatment, respectively. All the above indexes increased with increasing irrigation levels, but the reducing sugar content was the highest under W2. Cultivar Qingshu 9 had higher leaf chlorophyll, starch, crude protein, and vitamin C content, and higher WUE and PFP than the other two cultivars. According to entropy weight method and TOPSIS analysis, the optimum treatment combinations were F2W2V3, F1W1V1 and F3W2V1. Treatment F2W2F3 had the highest yield, tuber weight, commodity potato yield, maximum single tube weight, crude protein content, WUE and net income, which were 49.22 t/hm2, 1096.7 g/plant, 794.3 g/plant, 433.9 g, 0.214 mg/g, 20.21 kg/m3 and 44832 yuan/hm2, respectively. Treatment F1W1V1 and F3W2V1 ranked the second and the third with the yield 41.79 and 37.67 t/hm2, tuber weight 906.5 and 836.7 g, commodity potato yield 711.4 and 607.3 g/plant, maximum tube weight 395.6 and 357.1 g/tube, and net income 34584 and 32023 yuan/hm2.   Conclusion  The optimum combination of high yield, high quality, high water and fertilizer utilization efficiency and high economic benefits is 80% ETC and N-P2O5-K2O 180-90-225 kg/hm2. Under this water and fertilizer combination, cultivar Qingshu 9 produces higher index values than the other two cultivars in northwest Shaanxi.
Effects of thermophilic compound bacteria on composting and microbial community succession
CHEN Qian-qian, CHE Jian-mei, LIU Guo-hong, LIU Bo, WANG Jie-ping, RUAN Chuan-qing, LIAN Heng-ping
2023, 29(4): 745-755.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022363
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  Objectives  To reveal the impact of thermophilic compound bacteria on the composting of chicken manure and sheep manure, and explore the microbial mechanism in composting process.   Methods  The compost was composed of 75% sheep manure and 25% chicken ferment mattress. The initial material C/N was 28, the compost amount was 1.2 t, the height was 70–90 cm. The open windrow composting technique was used in this experiment. The treatment group added 0.1% of B. fordii FJAT-51578 and U. thermosphaericus FJAT-51579 fermentation broth, while the control group added 1% commercially available Bacillus subtilis. The composting period was from September 18 to October 14, 2021, and the temperature was tested once every two days. Turn the composting materials every two days for the first 15 days of composting, and every 5 days in the later period. The water content of compost was kept 50%–60% until the end of the high temperature period. Compost samples were collected at the 1st, 9th and 26th days after composting, the changes in the physicochemical characteristics including N and P content, nitrification index, and germination index of seed were monitored. Microbial succession was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing, and the main environmental factors were explained by RDA (redundancy analysis). Further, the microbial mechanism of available N and available P metabolism in composting was predicted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States).   Results  The application of microbial agent enhanced the composting rate. The addition of thermophilic compound bacteria minimized initial lag time, reduced the nitrification index and C/N, increased germination index, which promoted compost maturity. In addition, the contents of available N and P were 11.8% and 7.7% higher than those in commercially agents group, respectively. Moreover, higher relative content of Saccharomonospora, Streptomyces and Thermostaphylospora was observed in the treatment group. The RDA analysis showed that, pH and C/N were the main factors affecting the diversity of microbial community. Available N was positively correlated with Bacillus and Saccharomonospora. Available P was positively correlated with Thermobifide, lanifilum, and Actinomadura. PICRUSt analysis showed that Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology (KEGG orthology, KO) related to nitrogen and phosphorus cycle increased with the progress of composting. Further, numbers of KOs associated with nitrification, ammonification, ammonia assimilation, dissimilatory nitrate reduction and nitrate assimilation were higher in treatment group. In the phosphorus cycle, treatment group had higher contents of KOs involved in inorganic phosphate solubilizing, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase.   Conclusions  The addition of thermophilic bacteria accelerates and prolongs the thermophilic phase, reduces C/N, increases contents of available N and available P in the compost of livestock manure. Among them, composting indicators including C/N, nitrification index, and GI index reached maturity in the middle stage of composting. The addition of thermophilic bacteria promotes the expression level of KO related to nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism and increases the abundance and diversity of thermophilic bacteria in composting. Available N is positively correlated with the abundance of Bacillus and Saccharomonospora, while available P is positively correlated with Thermobifide, lanifilum, and Actinomadura. Therefore, the addition of thermophilic compound bacteria promotes the maturity of composting and increases the content of available N and P in compost.
Comment on special topic
Research progress in soil organic carbon stabilization mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
QIN Ze-feng, XIE Mu-xi, ZHANG Yun-long, Li Xia, LI Hai-gang, ZHANG Jun-ling
2023, 29(4): 756-766.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022529
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization is a critical process in terrestrial organic carbon dynamics and is important in maintaining soil fertility and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Traditionally, the stable carbon pool was thought to be dominated by the physico-chemical protection of certain recalcitrant organic compounds and the formation of recalcitrant humic substances. However, recent studies have suggested that microbe-mediated carbon cycling plays an important role in soil organic carbon stabilization. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), as one of the most important symbiotic fungi in soil, contribute predominantly to transportation and distribution of plant photosynthetic carbon into the soil, which influence the terrestrial carbon cycling. However, the potential of AMF in SOC stabilization has not been fully explored. Thus, on the basis of estimating the allocation of plant photosynthetic carbon to extraradical hyphae, we reviewed the possible mechanism of AMF promoting the formation of soil stable organic carbon, mainly including the carbon retention in living hyphae, resistance and soil mineral adsorption of exudates and necromass, improvement of the quality and quantity of plant-derived carbon, priming effect of secretions and necromass and stabilization of soil aggregate. Then we reviewed the abiotic (climate, soil nutrition and minerals) and biotic (plant and AMF species) factors influencing the carbon stabilization. Finally, the future research directions of the interaction mechanism between AMF and SOC turnover were proposed, including exploring the mechanism of transformation of photosynthetic carbon into stable SOC in mycorrhizal plants, analyzing the contribution of AMF to stable SOC in different ecosystems and the influencing factors, and clarifying the relationships among AMF biomass, diversity and stable SOC under different management practices. These discussions provide a theoretical basis for fully utilizing AMF to enhance the carbon sink in terrestrial ecosystems and mitigating climate change.
Short communication
Effects of one and multiple-injection fertilization on pecan growth and quality
HUANG Mei, YANG Shui-ping, YAO Xiao-hua, ZHANG Jia-tian, WANG Kai-liang, WU Shuang, CHANG Jun
2023, 29(4): 767-776.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022433
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  Objectives  This study investigated the effect of the injection frequency of liquid fertilizer on pecan growth and quality. We aim to provide the technical basis for the fertilization of pecan.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, using 13-year-old pecan adult trees (Mahan) as test material. Fertilization treatments included no injection control, one injection, and multiple injections (5 times), drilling holes at the base of the trunk from l5 to 25 cm from the ground. Both injection treatments were applied at the same total fertilizer rate. The leaf and fruit biomass and the nutrient contents of the tree parts were determined at harvest. Further, the fruit appearance and nutritional quality indicators were investigated. The contribution of the fertilizer treatments to differences of the fruit indicators was determined by the PLS-DA method.  Results  The accumulation of mineral elements was highest in the leaves, followed by the kernels, with less concentration in the xylem and phloem. Multiple injections (P<0.05) increased pecan fruit weight, diameter, and nut height by 16.99%, 7.52%, and 6.79% compared with the control, and by 13.03%, 4.50%, and 6.26% compared with one injection. Multiple injections had (P<0.05) higher unsaturated fatty acid content in kernels and the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids than one-injection. Multiple injections recorded higher Ca and Fe content in pecan leaves, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn content in kernels, Fe content in phloem, and N and Ca in the xylem than the control. However, fertilizer treatments did not affect (P>0.05) mineral distribution in different tree parts. The PLS-DA results showed the significant differences (P<0.05) between one and multiple injection treatments; the main substances responsible for the differences in pecan quality were palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and kernel Cu content, respectively.  Conclusions  With the same fertilizer rate, multiple injections are more effective than one injection in promoting pecan tree growth, improving kernel quality, and accumulating mineral nutrients in various parts of the tree.
Effects of different drip fertigation regimes on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of cut chrysanthemum
YANG Ke-xin, ZHAO Xin, GE Hong, YANG Shu-hua, JIA Rui-dong, KOU Ya-ping
2023, 29(4): 777-788.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022449
Abstract(557) FullText HTML(298) PDF 540KB(27) Related Articles
  Objectives  Excessive fertilization is common in the production of cut chrysanthemum. We studied the possibility of reducing fertilizer application regime in cut chrysanthemum production using automatic drip fertigation system and the traditional fertilizer tank machine.   Methods  Microplot experiment was conducted using cut chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Iwanohakusen’ as the test material. The four treatments were topdressing 4 and 7 times using drip fertigation equipment (T1 and S1), and fertilizer tank machine (T2, S2), with the same fertilizer rate per topdressing (75 kg/hm2) in each topdressing. At the 35, 62, and 85 days after transplanting, the agronomic and flower indexes, and plant NPK contents of cut chrysanthemum were determined, and the available NPK contents in soil were analyzed at 85 days.  Results  Compared with fertilization tank treatment (S2 and T2), the fertigation equipment treatment (S1 and T1) recorded higher plant height, stem diameter, aboveground fresh weight, aboveground dry weight, underground fresh weight, and underground dry weight of cut chrysanthemum at 62 days, while T1 improved the plant height, aboveground and underground fresh weight of the chrysanthemum than S1. At 85 days, T1 recorded higher plant height than S2 and T2 but similar flower diameter and flowering rate as S1 and S2. T1 also recorded the highest plant K content at 35 days, the highest P and K contents in stems, leaves at 62 days, and the highest root P and K contents at 85 days. Further, T1 significantly increased the contents of available P and readily available K contents in soil at 62 and 85 days.   Conclusions  Using fertigation equipment, reducing topdressing from 7 times to 4 times, i.e., reducing fertilizer rate from 525 kg/hm2 to 375 kg/hm2, improves the agronomic and flower traits of cut chrysanthemum ‘Iwanohakusen’, promotes the absorption and utilization of nutrients by the plant, and increases the available P and readily available K contents in soil, however, using fertilizer tank machine does not have the effect. Therefore, automatic drip fertigation equipment should be promoted to realize the fertilizer reduction and flower production efficiency of cut chrysanthemum.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(9991) PDF 2130KB(2157)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(9706) PDF 2629KB(16035)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(6953) PDF 929KB(1697)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(9247) PDF 1766KB(1193)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(8184) PDF 876KB(2318)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(6595) PDF 1228KB(1367)
Nutrient resource quantity of crop straw and its potential of substituting
SONG Da-li, HOU Sheng-peng, WANG Xiu-bin, LIANG Guo-qing, ZHOU Wei
2018, 24(1): 1-21.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17348
Abstract(5501) FullText HTML(2235) PDF 632KB(519)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(9190) PDF 906KB(2157)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(5616) PDF 1119KB(1209)
Effects of long-term straw return on soil fertility, nitrogen pool fractions and crop yields on a fluvo-aquic soil in North China
ZHAO Shi-cheng, CAO Cai-yun, LI Ke-jiang, QIU Shao-jun, ZHOU Wei, HE Ping
2014, 20(6): 1441-1449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0614
Abstract(7064) PDF 1271KB(1025)