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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994，and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021504
Abstract:
Objectives  We explored the physiological differences and molecular mechanism of sorghum under salt stress by excavating the key regulatory genes of sorghum under salt stress and screening and understanding the mechanisms of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive sorghum materials.  Methods  The salt-tolerant genotype "67B" and salt-sensitive genotype "3560R" sorghums were the researched objects. Plants were treated with 150 mmol/L NaCl, while growth index, leaf growth indexes, transcriptome sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis were measured.   Result  The results show that the growth rate of salt-tolerant sorghum was faster, and there was a significant increase in salt resistance. Salt resistance can improve the selective absorption, accumulation and distribution of Na+ in plants. Salt tolerant materials can maintain high catalase activity under salt stress, increase range of activity after salt stress, maintain a strong scavenging ability, and remove excess accumulated reactive oxygen species in time. There were 5040 differentially expressed genes in the two strains under salt stress, indicating that the response pathways of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant materials to salt stress were similar. The distribution of differentially expressed genes of the two materials in KEGG pathways varied greatly. Of the top five gene entries in the two materials, three are the same and distributed in phenylpylene synthesis, plant hormone signals and carbon metabolism, and the other two in salt-sensitive materials are distributed in starch and sucrose metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis, which are related to basal metabolism. The differential genes in salt-sensitive materials mainly focus on basic metabolism and secondary substance synthesis pathway.  Conclusions  Salt tolerance mechanism in sorghum is a complex process, which is the result of a series of gene expressions in different pathways, and depends on the balanced expression of multiple genes in a complex network.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022245
Abstract:
Objectives  Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can improve plant resistance to stress. This paper reviewed the documented progress of national and international research on how AMF enhance plant stress tolerance (drought, temperature, salinity, heavy metals) based on genomic technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics). The paper also analysed the mechanism regulating plant-mycorrhizal symbionts at the molecular level under stress, which provides a scientific basis for an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of plant stress tolerance.  Main advances  Plants can establish a symbiotic relationship with AMF in the roots to absorb more water and nutrients from the soil, improving their resistance to abiotic stress. Mycorrhizal plants respond to abiotic stresses at the transcriptional, translational, and epigenetic levels. AMF could improve plant resistance to abiotic stress, maintain plant growth and development, and improve water utilization and nutrient absorption efficiency by regulating the transcription of some abiotic stress-related genes or translating and degrading proteins. Analyzing key genes related to proteins and metabolites by transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics could provide a theoretical basis to further explore the mechanism underlying the AMF effect on plant stress resistance.  Outlook  The stress resistance mechanism of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts is not fully understood. This is because the single omics method limits the integrity of information expressed and the accuracy of the deep-rooted network regulation mechanism. With improved sequencing technologies in speed, accuracy, and update and development of bioinformatics, researchers should consider using multiple omics methods simultaneously to enhance understanding of the molecular regulation of plant-related life activities.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022295
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Objectives  China is short in potassium resources but rich in rice straw, which contains sufficient potassium resources for recycling. Here, we assessed the quantity of straw K resources and spatial distribution for keeping the soil K balance in China.   Methods  Based on China Rural Statistical Yearbook and literature, we assessed the rice straw resources in different cropping seasons at provincial and regional levels. The straw K resources were calculated using the grain-to-straw ratio method. We assessed K input from rice straw incorporation and the contribution to soil K apparent balance.   Results  The total output of straw K resources was K2O 4.939 million tons in 2019, with 13.1%, 14.6%, and 72.4% recorded from early, late, and medium-late rice, respectively. The order of straw K resources distribution was Middle Yangtze River (33.4%)˃Lower Yangtze River (21.7%)>Southwest China (15.3%)>Northeast China (13.1%)>South China (12.8%)>North China (3.7%). Early and late rice were mainly cultivated in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Guangxi provinces; the proportion of early and late rice straw K resources were 25.2% and 24.7% in Hunan, 23.8% and 24.4% in Jiangxi, 18.6% and 19.5% in Guangdong, and 17.2% and 14.8% in Guangxi. The medium-late rice was mainly cultivated in Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Sichuan, Anhui, and Hunan; the proportion of medium-late rice K resources in the provinces were 14.3%, 12.9%, 12.2%, 10.7%, 10.5%, and 8.8%, respectively. The annual K2O inputs from early rice straw incorporation in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Guangxi were 148.7, 140.6, 143.9, and 145.0 kg/hm2. The corresponding K2O removed by rice grains were 25.6, 24.2, 24.8, and 25.0 kg/hm2, respectively. The K2O inputs from late rice straw incorporation were 153.4, 145.3, 146.3, and 131.1 kg/hm2; the K2O removed by grains were 30.3, 28.7, 28.9, and 25.9 kg/hm2 in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Guangxi, respectively. Without K fertilization, the soil's apparent K balance under the double rice system had a deficit of 357.9, 338.8, 343.9, and 327.0 kg/hm2 in Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, and Guangxi. Straw incorporation can reduce the deficits to 55.9, 52.9, 53.6, and 50.8 kg/hm2. The K2O inputs by medium-late rice straw returning were 125.8, 203.8, 201.1, and 189.0 kg/hm2, and the K2O removed by rice grains were 32.6, 29.4, 29.0 and 27.3 kg/hm2 in Northeast China, Lower Yangtze River, Middle Yangtze River, and Southwest China, respectively, indicating K surplus if the rice straw was fully returned to the field.   Conclusions  More than 70% of rice straw K resources exist in medium-late rice, and the Middle Yangtze River and Lower Yangtze River regions have the largest straw K resources in China. Early and late rice straw incorporation could reduce the soil K deficits, and the full incorporation of medium-late rice straw leads to a surplus of soil K. Therefore, rice straw incorporation is an important way of keeping soil potassium fertility in China.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022057
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Objectives  This study examines the effects of fertilization patterns on the biochemical components and the accumulation of flavonoids and glycoside metabolites in tea leaves.   Methods  The 3-year field experiment was conducted in Ya’an which is a typical region of tea plant cultivation in Sichuan Provence consisted of four treatments: no fertilization (CK), conventional chemical fertilizer input (N 585 kg/hm2-TF), 25% replacement of chemical fertilizer N with organic manure (OF), and reducing 25% of N supply (SF). The content changes in main quality components of tea leaves with different fertilization patterns were analyzed, as well as the accumulation variations of flavonoids and glycosidic metabolites based on the results of untargeted metabolomics.  Results  Compared with CK treatment, the contents of the anine and free amino acids in tea leaves under TF, OF, and SF treatments significantly increased by 7.22%～13.40%, 23.15%～25.50%, respectively, while soluble sugar and tea polyphenols contents decreased by 8.17%～13.86%, 6.08%～11.49%, respectively. Concurrently, accumulation levels of 10 metabolites including epigallocatechin, epicatechin, and rutin decreased notably. Compared with TF treatment, the contents of theanine, caffeine and water-soluble extracts in tea leaves under SF treatment significantly decreased by 5.45%, 5.97%, 8.91%, respectively, while the content of tea polyphenols exhibited no significant difference as well as soluble sugar and free amino acid content. In addition, accumulation levels of 7 metabolites (e.g. peonidin 3-O-glucoside, cinncassiol C1 19-glucoside and chalconosakuranetin) decreased markedly, while that of 4 metabolites (e.g. nobiletin, vitexin 4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, (S)-Nerolidol 3-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->2)-β-D-glucopyranoside]) increased significantly. The contents of caffeine in tea leaves with OF treatment was 5.73% lower than that in TF. However, accumulation levels of 25 metabolites including 10 kinds of flavonoid glycosides, 2 kinds of flavone, 6 kinds of terpene glycosides, 5 kinds of steroidal glycosides, and 2 kinds of fatty acyl glycosides compounds increased significantly, especially nobiletin and delphinidin 3-(6-p-coumaroylgalactoside) showed the higher increase at 2280.20% and 1355.11%, respectively. Among the four fertilization treatments, 15 kinds of flavonoids and glycosides metabolites demonstrated higher accumulation levels in tea leaves with OF treatment compared with CK, TF, and SF treatments.  Conclusions  Replacing 25% of chemical fertilizer N with organic manure reduced the content of caffeine in tea leaves, and improved the accumulation levels of a variety of flavonoids metabolites (e.g. nobiletin, delphinidin, quercetin, apigenin, kaempferol, vitexin) and glycosylic components (e.g. dehydrosoyasaponin I, majonoside R2, balagyptin). Reducing 25% of N supply decreased the contents of theanine, caffeine and water-soluble extracts as well as the accumulation levels of glycosylic components (e.g. myricetin 3-O-robinobioside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, cinncassiol C1 19-glucoside), and had less effect on tea polyphenols, soluble sugar, and free amino acid content. Partial substitution for chemical fertilizer N with organic manure is beneficial for the accumulation of flavonoids and glycosides in tea leaves. Onefold reduction of N input will reduce the quality of tea.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022131
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Slow/controlled-release fertilizers refer to those fertilizers which are modified by physical, chemical, or physico-chemical methods to slower or control nutrients release. Slow/controlled-release fertilizers have been proved of better meeting the nutrient requirements of plants, improving the utilization efficiencies of nutrients, and reducing environmental risks, so their application is an important way to the attainment of agricultural green development. Nano-materials have the characteristics of small size, large surface area and significant interfacial effect, so as to be used for slow/controlled release fertilizers. We separately overviewed the research and application of slow/controlled release fertilizers containing nano-oxide, nano-cellulose, nano-carbon and nano-clay, etc. Physical blending, chemical grafting and impregnation-adsorption are the main methods for producing slow/controlled release fertilizers containing nano-materials. The important functions of nano-materials are hydrophobicity, adsorption, water retention, environmental responsiveness, and self-repair in slow/controlled-release fertilizer. Abundant functional groups, physical cross-linking points and micro/nano bulges of nano-materials are the key factors to improve the slow/controlled release effect. Developing low-cost natural organic nano-materials, exploring simple and efficient modification methods, and clarifying performance regulation mechanism of nano-materials are still needed in the future.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021680
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Objective   Stable soil moisture is beneficial for improving crop water use efficiency. Here, we investigate the mechanism of how stable soil moisture affect water and nutrient utilization efficiency of romaine lettuce.  Method  The pot experiment was conducted in a screen house using romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) as the experimental crop. Traditional irrigation (TI) and negative pressure irrigation (NPI) were set up to provide fluctuating and stable soil moisture. At the 4-leaf stage of romaine lettuce growth, the treatments were imposed. We used a soil moisture meter to measure the soil moisture content every two days. The crop was harvested 28 days after treatment. The plant height, leaf number, and the most extended leaf length and width were measured on the 1st, 11th, 21st, and 28th day of treatment imposition. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), and stomatal conductance (Gs) of romaine lettuce leaves were measured via a Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system simultaneously. The free proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), soluble protein (SP), soluble sugars (SS), and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and discrimination (Δ13C) in romaine lettuce leaves were determined.  Result  The cumulative amount of irrigation and mean soil moisture content under NPI and TI were similar. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) of soil moisture content under NPI was 5.0%, indicating the stable soil moisture, and was 10.3% under TI, showing fluctuating soil moisture. Plant height, the most extended leaf length, and leaf width of romaine lettuce in NPI were 103.8%, 155.4%, and 62.5% higher than in TI. The Pn, Ci, Tr, and Gs values in NPI were higher than in TI. Similarly, the Tr and Gs on the 11th day and Ci on the 28th day in NPL were (P<0.05) higher than in TI. The yield, water-use-efficiency, leaf P content, the NPK uptake, and the δ13C were (P<0.05) higher in NPI than in TI at harvest, while root/shoot ratio, ABA, SS, and Δ13C were (P<0.05) lower than in TI. Δ13C was positively correlated with water-use efficiency and negatively correlated with the CV of soil moisture.  Conclusions  Compared with the fluctuating soil moisture in TI, the negative pressure irrigation created stable soil moisture, thus avoiding the possible temporal drought stress for romaine lettuce. This promoted photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and water-use-efficiency of romaine lettuce and achieved high shoot growth.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021688
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Objectives  The availability of soil P has a significant influence on the traits of above- and below-ground parts of plants. We studied the changes of shoot and root traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under high and low P supply conditions, to clarify their correlations.   Methods  A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of Hebei Agricultural University. The test soil available P was 5.50 mg/kg, and P application rate of 0 and 200 mg/kg were set up to simulate low and high P supply conditions (LP, HP). 10 wheat varieties, with P efficiency of mid value about 0.12, were selected as test plant materials. Wheat plants were grown for 35 days and harvested for the determination of five above-ground traits (shoot dry weight, relative growth rate, shoot P uptake, shoot P content and SPAD) and nine below-ground traits (root dry weight, root length, root/shoot ratio, specific root length, root diameter, proportion of fine root length, root tissue density, rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity).   Results  Compared with HP, LP treatment significantly reduced shoot dry weight, P uptake and P content of wheat shoot by 57.9%–72.2%, 85.7%–89.8%, 61.3%–71.7%; significantly increased root length, proportion of fine root length, root tissue density, root shoot ratio and specific root length by 50.9%–249.5%, 32.5%–442.5%, –34.5%–400.0%, 27.4%–198.9%, 74.4%–395.3%; significantly increased acid phosphatase activity by –8.1%–120.9%. There were 32 pairs of traits significantly correlated between above- and below-ground part of wheat under LP condition, and only 20 pairs significantly correlated under high P condition. The correlation between above- and below-ground traits of wheat under low P condition was 60% higher than that under HP.   Conclusions  The correlations between the shoot and root traits of wheat are relatively high under low P condition, but high P supply reduced these correlations between above- and below-ground traits.
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Objectives  Urea-formaldehyde slow-release fertilizer prepared by the traditional solution of polycondensation (SUF) usually has a high moisture content, which makes the product adhere strongly to equipment. Consequently, it is difficult to achieve continuous production due lack of automatic discharge from the reactor. Moreover, the high moisture content also increases energy consumption during drying. Therefore, we improved the process technology to overcome this bottleneck.   Methods  Urea-formaldehyde slow-release fertilizer (HUF) was prepared by a high-temperature gas-solid polycondensation process of paraformaldehyde and urea. The principle is that under high temperature and sealing conditions, paraformaldehyde is depolymerized into formaldehyde gas, which combines with urea in the reaction kettle to form urea-formaldehyde and water. A small amount of urea will decompose at a high temperature to produce ammonia gas, which combines with water to form ammonia water and drives the polycondensation reaction to form a urea-formaldehyde molecular chain with a high degree of polymerization. Slow-release fertilizers were prepared by high-temperature gas-solid polycondensation and conventional solution concentration, denoted as HUF and SUF, respectively. Samples with mole ratios of urea to formaldehyde of 2, 4, and 6 were prepared for each method. We studied the drying time of the products and characterized the composition and structure of urea-formaldehyde by the Acetylacetone method, Kjeldahl method, Thermal weight loss (TWL), Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the performance of urea formaldehyde slow-release fertilizer was tested by immersion method.   Results  In a high-temperature gas-solid polycondensation reaction, the higher the reaction temperature, the higher the formaldehyde conversion rate. The formaldehyde conversion rate slightly increased when the reaction temperature was higher than 100℃. Also, the decomposition rate of urea increased sharply beyond 100℃, leading to the reduction of urea-formaldehyde nitrogen content. Therefore, 100℃ was the best reaction temperature for the high-temperature gas-solid polycondensation process. The high-temperature gas-solid polycondensation process significantly reduced the water content of the reaction product; the highest water content was 11.72%, and the drying time was shortened by at least 1 h compared with SUF. The process also improved the raw formaldehyde conversion rate and the average chain length of urea-formaldehyde molecules. When the mole ratio of urea and formaldehyde was 2∶1, the formaldehyde conversion rate of HUF was 88.22%, which was 9.26 percentage points higher than that of SUF. The average molecular weight of HUF and SUF were 4445 and 949, respectively. HUF's slow-release available nitrogen content was 21.05%, which was 12.48 percentage points higher than SUF. The activity coefficient of HUF was 42.33%, which was 20.48 percentage points higher than SUF. HUF's nitrogen release in 24 h was 49.6%, 12.1 percentage points lower than SUF. The cumulative nitrogen release of HUF in 28 days was 73.6%, which was 3.5 percentage points higher than SUF.   Conclusions  Urea formaldehyde slow-release fertilizer prepared by high-temperature gas-solid polycondensation process can effectively reduce the moisture content of the product and thus achieve continuous production of the equipment, without affecting the slow-release performance.
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Objectives  Fragrant rice production is profitable, it has a unique taste and nutritional quality. Here, we studied fragrant rice's yield and quality response to chemical fertilizer application and climatic conditions to provide a reference for its efficient production across China.  Methods  Literature was searched in CNKI and Google Scholar databases using the keywords “rice”, “aroma”, “fragrance”, “fragrant rice”, “fragrish rice”, and their combinations. A total of 501 sets of experimental data were extracted from the literature. We used the meta-analysis method to analyze the response of fragrant rice yield and quality to different fertilizer application rates and climatic conditions.   Results  Applying N, P, and K fertilizer increased rice yield by 23.7%, 25.8%, and 18.0% on average. Compared with no N application, N application increased the yield of japonica and indica rice by 27.6% and 20.2%, respectively. Compared with no K application, K application increased the yield of japonica and indica rice by 29.9% and 7.3%, respectively. N and K fertilization (P<0.05) increased the milling (head rice rate) and cooking quality (crude protein content, gel consistency) of fragrant rice. Further, K application improved fragrant rice appearance (chalkiness) and aroma quality (2-AP content). N application exhibited (P<0.05) quality effect on conventional indica fragrant rice, while K application improved indica hybrid fragrant rice's quality. Under N application conditions, the whole head rice rate generally increased with enhanced effective accumulated temperature during the growing period. The values increased at first and then decreased with increasing accumulated precipitation and sunshine hours. The gel consistency initially showed a decreasing trend, and increasing with increased accumulated temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. Under the condition of K application, the whole head rice rate decreased initially and increased with increasing effective accumulated temperature and sunshine hours during the growing period. However, it showed an opposite trend with the accumulated precipitation. The chalky grain rate decreased initially, and increasing with climate change, and the rate of change in gel consistency showed a decreasing trend with climate change.  Conclusions  The application of nitrogen or potassium fertilizer synergistically increases fragrant rice yield and quality, which is more evident in indica fragrant rice. Similarly, accumulated precipitation, effective accumulated temperature, and sunshine hours affected the yield and quality traits of fragrant rice, ranging from 800–1100 mm, 2900–3400 ℃·d, and 800–1000 h, respectively. N fertilizer regulation can improve rice yield, milling quality, and cooking quality. When accumulated precipitation, effective accumulated temperature, and sunshine hours reach 500–800 mm, 2900–3400 ℃·d, and 400–600 h, respectively, K fertilizer regulation can improve rice yield, milling, cooking, and appearance quality.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022051
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Objectives  We studied the effects of combined straw and organic fertilizer application as replacement for partial chemical fertilizer on crop yield, water use efficiency and soil NO3–N residue to improve soil fertility and reducing environmental risks in dryland.  Methods  A long-term field experiment was conducted at the Luoyang Dry Farming Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Henan province, since 2007. The tested treatments included no fertilizer control (CK), NPK fertilizer (NPK), and replacing 1/3 of NPK input with straw and organic fertilizer (SOR). The yield, water consumption of winter wheat and summer maize were investigated from 2015 to 2020. The soil nutrient content in the 0–60 cm soil layer and nitrate-N content in the 0–380 cm soil profile were analyzed after the harvest of winter wheat in 2020.  Results  Compared to 2007, CK treatment significantly decreased 0–20 cm soil nutrient content, except available K, while NPK and SOR treatments improved soil nutrient content. Compared to NPK, SOR treatment increased organic matter content in 0–60 cm soil layer by 10.4%–16.4%, total N in 0–40 cm soil layer by 16.7%–20.0%, available P and available K in 0–20 cm soil layer by 12.9% and 15.4%, respectively (p<0.05). Compared to NPK, SOR treatment increased maize yield by 35.3% in drought years (2015 and 2017) and by 10.1% on average of 5-years; enhanced maize water use efficiency by 42.7%, 12.3% and 18.5% in dry years, normal year (2016) and 5-year on average; and increased the annual yield and water use efficiency by 20.5% in the dry years and 23.5% on average. However, SOR treatment did not significantly change the yield of winter wheat across the 5-years, but significantly reduced the water use efficiency by 9.8% in the normal years (2015—2016, 2016—2017, 2019—2020) and by 7.9% on average of 5-years. The NO3–N residue in NPK treatment was 738 kg/hm2 and 68.1% of it was retained in 100–230 cm soil profile, while the NO3–N residue in SOR treatment was 833 kg/hm2 and 74.8% stayed in 80–200 cm soil profile. Compared with NPK, SOR treatment decreased NO3–N residue by 54.9% in 200–230 cm, by 21.1% in 260–290 cm, by 25.0% in 320–250 cm, and by 57.9% in 350–380 cm soil layer.   Conclusions  Replacing 1/3 of NPK fertilizer by combined straw and organic fertilizer application did not impact the yield of winter wheat, but significantly increased the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize, and thus increased the annual yield and water use efficiencies. Straw and organic fertilizer application together enhanced the soil organic matter and total N in the 0–60 cm layer, available P and available K in 0–20 cm layer, significantly decreased the nitrate-N residue in 200–380 cm soil layer.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022047
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Objectives  We studied the relationship between mineral nutrient accumulation and the quality of local yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia L.) cultivars in Hebei Province. We aimed to provide baseline information for efficient nutrient management in yam production in the study area.   Methods  A field experiment was conducted in Lixian county, Hebei province. The tested yam cultivars were Bangyao, Dahebaiyu, Ziyao, and Xiaobaizui, receiving the same amount of fertilizer. The whole plant was divided into above-ground and under-ground (tuber) parts to determine biomass and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn). The mineral nutrient quality was assessed by principal component analysis.   Results  The fresh tuber biomass was in the order Dahebaiyu>Bangyao>Ziyao>Xiaobaizui. Ziyao had the highest dry biomass, followed by Dahebaiyu and Xiaobaizui. Dahebaiyu tuber accumulated the highest N, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn, and distribution coefficient of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu and Zn. Ziyao tuber had the highest accumulation of P and K, and the highest distribution coefficient of N and P. Bangyao tuber had the highest accumulation and distribution coefficient of Fe. The nutrients required to produce 1000 kg tuber yield of the different yam cultivars are K2O>N>P2O5 for major elements, Mg>Ca for the intermediate elements, and Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu for micronutrients. The four yam cultivars were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) to examine the nine mineral nutrition indicators for standard yam in China’s food composition (Standard Edition). Three PCAs with eigenvalues >1 were extracted. The PCAs had a cumulative contribution of 96.77% to the variation in the dataset. The first, second, and third PCA contributed 56.45%, 29.09%, and 11.22%. K and Zn were the representatives of the first PCA, Mg and Mn for the second, and Fe for the third. The principal component analysis showed that Dahebaiyu had the best comprehensive quality score of mineral nutrition, followed by Bangyao, Xiaobaizui, and Ziyao. Nevertheless, the qualities of the four tested varieties were all higher than the standard yam in China’s Food Composition (Standard Edition).   Conclusions  Dahebaiyu had the highest mineral nutrition quality, classified as a high-zinc variety. Bangyao was a high-calcium and high-iron variety. The contents of K, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn in soil are the main elements affecting the differences in mineral nutritional quality of yam tubers. In the production of yam, the application of mineral fertilizer should consider the mineral element content in soil and the mineral element demand of different cultivars, and carry out scientific nutrient management to further improve the mineral nutrient quality of yam.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022053
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Objectives  In order to improve the understanding of how biochar reduces N2O emissions, we compared the effects of fresh and aged biochar at different temperatures on N2O emissions from intensive vegetable soils in southern China.  Methods  An incubation experiment was conducted, and the treatments were soil without biochar addition control (CK), addition of fresh biochar (FB), and addition of field-aged biochar (FAB) at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. A parallel treatment was set up for each treatment with and without the addition of 10% volume content of acetylene to measure the N2O emission, and the difference was made to obtain N2 emissions. For the treatments without acetylene addition, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_3^-$\end{document}, \begin{document}${\rm{NH}}_4^+$\end{document}, and \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_2^-$\end{document}, as well as functional genes for denitrification (nirS, nirK, nosZ, and nosZII) were measured.  Results  The elevation of incubation temperature significantly increased N2O and N2 emissions, increased soil pH and \begin{document}${\rm{NH}}_4^+$\end{document}-N content, decreased soil DOC and \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_3^-$\end{document}-N contents (P<0.01), but did not affect the abundance of nirK, nirS, nosZ and nosZII. FB and FAB treatments significantly reduced N2O emissions by 18.8% and 22.3% at 30℃ respectively and the total denitrifying nitrogen amount (N2O + N2) (P<0.01). FAB significantly increased the nirK and nosZII gene abundance at 30℃ (P<0.05). The redundancy analysis showed that soil pH, NO2 and DOC were the main factors affecting denitrification function genes, among which pH was the most important factor. Stepwise regression analysis showed that N2O emission was mainly affected by DOC content in CK treatment, N2O emissions in the FB treatment were mainly influenced by soil \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_3^-$\end{document} content, and N2O emissions in the FAB treatment were influenced by soil \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_3^-$\end{document} and \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_2^-$\end{document} content.  Conclusions  N2O emissions increased with temperature nonlinearly, and the greatest increment occurred from 10°C to 20°C. Fresh biochar enhanced soil pH and retain \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_3^-$\end{document} from participating in denitrification process, thus reduced N2O emission. FAB decreased soil \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_3^-$\end{document} and \begin{document}${\rm{NO}}_2^-$\end{document} contents, nirK and nosZII genes abundance, and soil N loss as NO or N2, not in form of N2O emission. Low temperature inhibited microbial activity, therefore, both fresh and aged biochar perform better in reducing N2O emissions at 30°C than at lower temperatures. Aged biochar can achieve better N2O mitigation effects than fresh biochar.
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Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022050
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Objectives  The effects of different nitrogen application rates on maize yield and nitrogen metabolism after anthesis under shallow buried drip irrigation were studied.  Methods  A three-year field experiment of water and fertilizer integration was carried out in Horqin agricultural high technology demonstration zone, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The test material was maize, and drip irrigation pipes were buried in shallow soil. The study had four N application rates 0, 150, 210 and 300 kg/hm2, and were denoted as N0, N150, N210and N300, respectively. From anthesis to maturity stage, plant samples were regularly collected for the measurement of the activities of enzymes related to N metabolism, the photosynthetic and N use efficiency, and non-structural carbohydrate content. At maturity, the N content, dry matter accumulation, yield and yield components were determined.  Results  The yield of N300 was similar with N210, but significantly higher than that of N150. The grain number per ear in N300 and N210 were significantly higher than N150 treatment, with average increment by 15.70% and 10.85 in grain number, and by 9.78% and 5.82% in 1000-grain weight. The partial productivity, agronomic efficiency, physiological utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer, and nitrogen absorption efficiency of N210 were averagely 28.89% higher than those of N300. The N accumulation after anthesis in N300 was higher than in N210, but the N translocation was similar between N300 and N210. The enzyme activity of N metabolism and photosynthetic N-use efficiency of the three N treatments were not different until 10 days after anthesis, and the non-structural carbohydrate content were not significantly different among the treatments until 30 days after anthesis. N210 and N300 elicited similar enzyme activity of N metabolism, photosynthetic N-use efficiency, and non-structural carbohydrate content after anthesis, but they were both significantly higher than those of N150.  Conclusions  Under the water and nitrogen integration of shallow buried drip irrigation of Xiliaohe plain, the N application rate of 210-300 kg/hm2 could improve the nitrogen absorption and translocation of plant, maize nitrogen use efficiency, enzyme activity of nitrogen metabolism, yield, and maintain nitrogen photosynthetic production capacity after anthesis. While the aforementioned indices were similar for N rates of 210 and 300 kg/hm2, the 210 kg/hm2 N rate can be recommended as the economically and environmentally cost effective rate based on its better fertilizer efficiency.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022021
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Objectives  Appropriate plant density and fertilizer application rate are important factors to achieve high yield and fertilizer efficiency of crop production. We studied the suitable combination of plant density and potash application rate for the spring maize production in Northeast China under semiarid climate area.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted from 2018 to 2019 in Qian'an County, Jilin Province, with maize cultivar ‘Fumin 985’ as tested material. A complete block design was used, including plant densities of 60000 plants/hm2 (D1), 75000 plants/hm2 (D2) and 90000 plants/hm2 (D3), and K2O potassium application rates of 0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg/hm2 (recorded as K0, K1, K2, K3 and K4, respectively). The accumulation, distribution and translocation of NPK, yield, benefit and K utilization efficiency of maize were investigated.   Results  Under the same K2O application rate, the highest maize yield and benefit were recorded in D2 treatment. Compared to D1 and D3, the D2 increased the average maize yield by 8.1% and 5.3%, and increased the benefit by 10.3% and 9.4%. Regardless of plant densities, the maize yield increased with the increase of K2O rate; however, the yield and benefit increase were similar under D1 when K2O was ≥90 kg/hm2, and under D2 and D3 when K2O was ≥120 kg/hm2. The K recovery efficiency, agronomic efficiency and partial factor productivity decreased with increasing K2O application rate, but they remained higher in D2 than in D1 and D3 in the same K rate. The planting density and K2O rate had significant interaction on the accumulation of N, P and K before and after silking stage. D2K3 increased the accumulation and transfer of N, P and K to the grains before silking stage, and increased the assimilation of N, P and K and their contribution rates to grains after silking stage. The correlation analysis showed that the accumulation of N, P and K and the grain yield before and after silking stage were highly significantly correlated (R2=0.636–0.971), and the correlation coefficients after silking stage were higher than that before silking stage.   Conclusions  Planting density and K fertilizer interactions significantly affected maize yield, nutrient uptake, translocation and K-use-efficiency under drip irrigation with integration of water and fertilizer in the semi-arid region of Northeast China. The best combination was planting density of 75000 plants/hm2 and K2O rate of 120 kg/hm2 under fertigation.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022028
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Objectives  The effects of magnesium (Mg) fertilizer on plant growth, nodule and mycorrhizal traits of different soybean genotypes were studied with different phosphorous (P) treatments.  Methods  A three-factor-two-level field experiment was conducted in Ningxi farm, South China Agricultural University. The three factors were P2O5 level in 40 kg/hm2 (P40) and 100 kg/hm2 (P100), MgO level in 0 (Mg0) and 75 kg/hm2 (Mg75), and soybean genotypes of P-efficient Yuechun 03-3 (YC03-3) and P-inefficient Bendi No.2 (BD2). Plant dry weight, pod number, root and nodule traits, mycorrhizal colonization rate, and plant N, P, and Mg contents were measured.   Results  Compared with P40, P100 significantly increased plant dry weight, pod number, total root length, root surface area and volume, and the uptake of N, P, and Mg in the two soybean genotypes. For P-efficient genotype YC03-3, Mg75 treatment significantly increased the plant dry weight, pod number, plant N and Mg uptake under both P40 and P100 levels, and increased plant P uptake, root surface area, root volume, and average root diameter under P100 condition. For P-inefficient genotype BD2, Mg75 significantly increased plant Mg uptake under P40 and P100, and increased plant N uptake under P40. P and Mg treatments markedly affected the symbiosis between soybean and beneficial microorganisms. Mg75 did not affect the nodule number and dry weight of the two soybean genotypes under P40 condition, but increased the nodule number of BD2 and YC03-3 by 135% and 178%, and the nodule dry weight by 308% and 197% under P100 condition, respectively. P40 increased the mycorrhizal infection rate of YC03-3 by 31.6% under Mg0 and increased that of BD2 by 15% under Mg75, compared to the corresponding P100 treatment. Mg75 increased the mycorrhizal colonization rate of BD2 by 16.3 % under P40 condition, and increased that of YC03-3 by 32.1% under P100 condition. Principal component analysis showed that a significant difference existed between Mg0 and Mg75 treatments under P100 condition, but not under P40.  Conclusion  The higher P fertilizer (P100) substantially boosts the growth of the two soybean genotypes, and improves the nutrient status of N, P, and Mg. The Mg fertilizer increases the shoot and root dry weight, pod number, and plant N uptake of P-efficient genotype YC03-3. P and Mg exhibits significant interaction on the nodulation and mycorrhizal traits of two soybean genotypes, the nodule density of YC03-3 is more sensitive than BD2 to P and Mg application. The mycorrhizal colonization rate of BD2 is more sensitive to Mg supply under low P supply (P40), while that of the YC03-3 is more sensitive to Mg application under high P supply (P100). Therefore, soybean genotypes influenced the interaction of P and Mg nutrients.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021683
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Objectives  We studied the nutrient requirements of watermelon for different yield levels in different watermelon production areas in China to propose the key technical measures for reducing fertilizer application rate and increase fertilizer use efficiency.   Methods  We analyzed the nutrient uptake level for producing 1 t economic yield using data from multi-point fertilizer experiments and literature on watermelon yield and nutrient uptake. We surveyed watermelon yield, organic and chemical fertilizer types and application rates, fertilizer and irrigation methods of farmers with large cultivation areas in 22 major watermelon producing provinces, cities and autonomous regions in China, and referred to the watermelon yield of various regions in the national statistical yearbook of China. We proposed recommended fertilizer rate under different yield levels and fertilizer reduction potential in different regions based on the target yield nutrient requirements of watermelon in different regions, the soil fertility level adjustment coefficients, recommended fertilizer rate in literature and the results verified in field experiments.  Results  The average yield range of watermelon across the watermelon producing provinces, cities and autonomous regions was 11.9–58.8 t/hm2 and the fertilizer inputs (N, P2O5 and K2O) range were 190.7–380.7, 162.9–349.5, and 62.7–492.5 kg/hm2 respectively. The average yield of watermelon across provinces and cities in southern China was 32.1 t/hm2 and average fertilizer inputs (N, P2O5, and K2O) were 250.2, 218.0, 236.9 kg/hm2 respectively. The average yield of watermelon across provinces and cities in northern China was 45.6 t/hm2 and the average inputs (N, P2O5, and K2O) were 264.1, 245.8, and 245.8 kg/hm2 respectively. The nutrient demands for N, P2O5, and K2O to produce 1 t watermelon were 2.0, 0.83, 3.3 kg respectively. When the yield level was 30–40, 40–50, 50–60, 60–70, and 70–95 t/hm2, the recommended fertilizer N application rate was 90–120, 110–150, 130–170, 150–205, and 170–230 kg/hm2, the P2O5 application rate was 45–65,55–75, 65–85, 70–95, and 80–110 kg/hm2, and the K2O application rate was 110–150, 125–170, 150–205, 170–230, and 185–250 kg/hm2 respectively. The average fertilizer rates of N, P2O5, and K2O applied by farmers in different regions were 1.3–3.0, 1.9–5.5, and 0.3–2.5 times higher than the recommended rate respectively. The reduction potential of chemical fertilizers (N, P2O5, and K2O) were 22.7%–66.5%, 47.8%–81.7% and –187.1%–59.4% respectively, with an average of 43.0%, 68.7%, and 12.2% respectively. The fertilizer input of nitrogen and phosphorus in the main watermelon producing areas were excessive while both excessive and insufficient were found for potassium fertilizer. The excessive application of phosphorus fertilizer was more common and the fertilizer reduction potential in the southern China was greater than that in the northern China.  Conclusions  In view of different yield levels, fertilization status and the related problems in the different regions, it is urgent to establish the comprehensive technical patterns to match the climate, cultivation season, and cultivation modes. The total recommended fertilizer rate for the watermelon should be based on the target yield and the application rates should be rationally controlled according to the nutrient requirements at the different growth periods. We should establish methods targeted at integration of fertigation management, organic fertilizer alternatives, soil testing for fertilizer formulation and other key technologies based on the amount of effective nutrients that can be provided by organic fertilizer inputs. We can set up models and support technical protocols, large-scale demonstration and promotion, and ultimately achieve the goal of fertilizer reduction, higher efficiency and green sustainable and healthy development of watermelon industry.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021685
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Objective  To explore the effect of exogenous Ca2+ on photosynthetic system of processing tomato seedlings under salt stress, to provide a theoretical basis for the application of Ca against salt stress in vegetable production.   Method  A hydroponic trail was conducted using an in-bred line 'KT-7' of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), with strong salt tolerance, as test material. The Hoagland nutrient solution was added with 100 mmol/L NaCl to make salt stress. The tomato seedlings with four open leaves and one new leaf were grown on the salt stress nutrient solution, and foliar sprayed with CaCl2 of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mmol/L, respectively, on the same day. The fast chlorophyll fluorescence and 820 nm reflection kinetics were measured by M-PEA fluorometer after 3, 6, 9 days of treatment, and the growth indexes were measured after 9 days of treatment.   Result  Treatment - 9 days of salt stress significantly reduced the growth indexes of processing tomato seedlings. The morphology, aboveground and belowground biomass of the seedlings treated with 15 mmol/L CaCl2 were higher than those treated with other calcium concentrations. With the prolongation of salt stress time, the I and P phases of the fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction curves of leaves gradually declined, conversely, the K and J phases gradually rose, and the amplitude of the modulated 820 nm reflection kinetic gradually decreased, primary photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo), maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), light energy absorption performance index (PIabs), PSⅡ ability to transfer electrons downstream (Ψo), electron transfer quantum yield (φEo), energy transferred by electrons per unit leaf cross-sectional area (ETo/CSm), energy transferred by electrons per unit reaction center (ETo/RC), apparent quantum flux per unit leaf cross-sectional area (ABS/CSm, TRo/CSm, ETo/CSm), the number of active reaction centers per unit leaf cross-sectional area (RC/CSm), and PSI redox properties (ΔMRfast/MRo, ΔMRslow/MRo, Vox, Vred) gradually reduced, while the relative variable fluorescence at J point (VJ), heat dissipation efficiency and energy flux (φDo, DIo/CSm, DIo/RC) increased. Compared with the treatment without exogenous CaCl2 under salt stress, the changes of each index amplitude of processing tomato seedlings after application of exogenous CaCl2 were influenced. Among them, the treatment with 15 mmol/L CaCl2 significantly improved the Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm, PIabs, Ψo, φEo and the redox properties of PSI, however significantly reduced VJ and heat dissipation. Principal component analysis was performed on the 19 parameters after treatment 9 days, and the contribution rates of the first and second principal components accounted 82.996% and 8.591% of the variance, respectively, indicating that these two independent principal components could reflect 91.587% of the information of the 19 parameters. According to the order of comprehensive scores of principal components, the ability of exogenous CaCl2 to alleviate salt stress in processing tomato ranged from high to low as 15 mmol/L>10 mmol/L>5 mmol/L>20 mmol/L.   Conclusions  Salt stress significantly inhibited the growth of processing tomato seedlings, damaged the structure and function of photosystem. Exogenous application of 15 mmol/L Ca2+ improves the growth of processing tomato under salt stress, protects photosynthetic apparatus, improves the efficiency of photochemical reaction, optimizes the energy utilization of PSⅡ reaction center, thereby enhances the salt tolerance in the crop.
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Objective  Organic substitution of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and absorb organic wastes is one of the key technologies promoting green rice production. However, the appropriate substitution ratio of organic N fertilizer is yet to be established, requiring urgent attention.  method  In this study, we synthesized 71 published articles on the organic substitution of N fertilizer in rice production. 412 and 133 field trial data were obtained on rice yield and grain N content. We used meta-analysis to quantify the effect of the rate of organic N substitution (RS) on rice yield and grain N content to explore the appropriate RS under different soil conditions and N application levels.  Results  Appropriate replacement of organic N fertilizer improved rice yield and grain N content. The soil organic matter content recorded ranged from high (>25 g/kg), medium (15–25 g/kg), to low (≤15 g/kg) levels. The suitable RS for promoting the highest rice yield were 60%, 70%, and 30%, respectively. When the soil total N was high (>1.5 g/kg), medium (1–1.5 g/kg) or low (≤1 g/kg), the suitable RS was not more than 60%. Under high (>150 mg/kg) and low (≤90 mg/kg) levels of soil available N, the suitable RS was 10%–30%. At the medium level of soil available N (90–150 mg/kg), RS did not influence rice yield (P>0.05). Under the high N application rate (>250 kg/hm2), the RS with the highest yield was 20%, 10% for low N (≤150 mg/kg), and 70% for medium N (150–250 mg/kg). With the increase of RS, the nitrogen content of rice grains increased first and then decreased. The RS with the highest nitrogen content was 30%.  Conclusion  The RS can be appropriately increased to 60%–70% in areas with high soil organic matter and total nitrogen content. The RS needs to be reduced to about 30% in low and medium levels. Under the high and low levels of available soil nitrogen, the RS was more than 30%, with no change in rice yield. The optimum RS for maintaining high rice yield was 20% and 10% under high and low nitrogen application levels, respectively. The N content of rice grains could increase when RS is below 30%.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022035
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Objectives  We investigated the effects of different N application rates on photosynthetic physiology and yield of maize under high temperature stress at ear stage.   Methods  Artificial high temperature stress experiment was carried out in 2020-2021. Three N application rates were low nitrogen (N 90 kg/hm2, N90), medium N (N 180 kg/hm2, N180) and high N (N 270 kg/hm2, N270), while the maize varieties were heat resistant variety Zhengdan 958 (ZD 958) and heat susceptive variety Xianyu 335 (XY 335). High temperature (HT) treatment lasted for 12 days (2020) and 9 days (2021) from the 11th leaf development stage to tasseling stage, and the naturally growing plants were used as the control (CK). The mean daily maximum temperatures of high temperature and control during the treatment period were 41.9℃, 35.9℃ (2020) and 40.8℃, 37.7℃ (2021), and the mean temperature difference between day and night were 19.3℃, 13.0℃ (2020) and 18.1℃, 14.8℃ (2021). The photosynthetic pigment content, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic enzyme activity, grain yield and yield components in ear leaves of the two varieties were investigated, and the interaction between temperature, variety and N application rate was analyzed.  Results  1) From the 11th leaf development stage to tasseling stage, high temperature stress increased the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), and decreased the content of photosynthetic pigment, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of ear leaves, and the two maize varieties yield. The effect of high temperature on heat susceptive variety XY 335 was greater than heat resistant variety ZD 958. 2) Under the control condition, photosynthetic pigment content, Pn, maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), PEPCase activity, Rubisco activity, grain yield and yield components of the two varieties increased with the increase of N application rate. Under the high temperature condition, it showed a trend of rising first and then falling, and N 180 treatment was the highest. 3) Variety, temperature, N application rates and the interaction between temperature and N application rates had significant effects on photosynthetic performance indexes and yield (P<0.01). Compared with the CK, under the high temperature condition, all indexes decreased the most in N 270 treatment. This indicate that high nitrogen aggravates the photosynthetic performance of maize ear leaves and intensifies the damage of high temperature, which was more obvious in XY 335. 4) Correlation analysis showed that the yield of the two varieties was extremely significantly positively correlated with ear diameter, kernels per ear, photosynthetic pigment content, Pn, Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency (YII), apparent electron transfer efficiency (ETR) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) (P<0.01). Ear diameter and kernels per ear were extremely significantly correlated with photosynthetic physiological indexes (P<0.01). Therefore, the results showed that the decrease of photosynthetic performance led to decrease in grain number per spike, which led to decrease in yield.  Conclusions  High temperature stress from the 11th leaf development stage to tasseling stage can significantly inhibit photosynthetic physiology and decrease yield of maize. Medium N application (180 kg/hm2) can alleviate heat stress, improve photosynthetic physiological activity and increase yield, while high nitrogen application (270 kg/hm2) increase the yield loss caused by high temperature.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021673
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Objectives  Extension of slow or controlled-release fertilizer make its simplified application possible in maize production in China. We studied the suitable blending ratios of controlled-release urea with normal urea for waxy maize production.  Methods  Field experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020, using the waxy maize cultivar Lianhuanuo 2 as the test material. Under total N input of 225 kg/hm2, five ratios of normal urea: controlled release urea treatments were set up as 1∶0 (N1), 0∶1 (N2), 1∶2 (N3), 1∶1 (N4), and 2∶1 (N5), taking no N application (N0) as the control. At harvest, the maize grain yield, dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution, and N use efficiency were investigated.  Results  The mixture of controlled-release and normal urea (P<0.05) affected waxy maize yield, N absorption and utilization. The controlled-release urea treatments recorded a higher yield and income increase than the single application of normal urea. N3 had the highest yield (30%) and income (2835 yuan/hm2) increase. N4 and N5 recorded higher yield and income than N1. Similarly, N3 had a higher yield and income than N4 and N5. The mixture of controlled-release and normal urea (P<0.05) increased dry matter and N accumulation at post-silking, but N3 recorded (P<0.05) higher values followed by N2 and N4. However, the yield and income of N5 and N1 did not differ. The mixture of controlled-release and normal urea had a (P<0.05) effect on the rate and quantity of plant N translocation. N2, N3, and N4 recorded similar rates and quantities of N translocation, which was higher than N1 and N5. The average harvest index and grain N content at maturity with the controlled-release treatment were (P<0.05) higher than N1. N3 had the highest harvest index (0.45) and grain N content (57.5%), followed by N2. Compared with N1, mixing controlled-release and normal urea improved NPFP, NAE, and NRE of waxy maize, with N3 having the highest increase, followed by N2 and N4, while those of N5 and N1 did not differ. Compared with N2, N3 increased NPFP by 2.6 kg/kg, NAE by 2.6 kg/kg, and NRE by 6.6%.  Conclusions  Based on the yield, nitrogen absorption and utilization in two years, mixing controlled-release and normal urea (1∶2) can improve grain yield and N use efficiency at 225 kg /ha while increasing the profit from waxy maize production in Jiangsu province.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022008
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Objectives  We studied the effects of foliar selenium spray at different growing stages of tea trees on yield, quality and Se enrichment of summer tea, to provide a technical reference for Se-enriched summer tea production.  Method  A field experiment was carried out in Shengzhou City, Zhejing Province, the green tea cultivar ‘Zhongcha 108’ was used as test material. Split-plot design was used for the experiment, the main plot was Se fertilizer: water control (A0), sodium selenate (A1), sodium selenite (A2) and yeast selenium (A3); while the sub-plot was two spraying periods: before budding stage (May 12, B1) and at one open leaf and one young leaf stage (May 20, B2). All the selenium fertilizer was applied at a concentration of Se 50 mg/L, and the spraying amount of selenium fertilizer solution was 1.8 L/m2. When the new twigs with one bud and two leaves accounted for 30% of the tea tree canopy, 30 cm×30 cm of tea canopy was randomly selected in each plot to investigate the total number of new shoots, the number and length of twigs with one young and two open leaves, and the 100-young biomass. At the same time, the samples of one-young and two-open leaves twigs were taken for the determination of polyphenols, catechins, caffeine, free amino acids and anthocyanins, and Se content.  Results  Compared with A0B1, A3B1 significantly reduced the sprouting value by 0.14±0.04 but did not affect the total number of new shoots; A2B1 treatment significantly reduced the length of new shoots and the 100-bud biomass by 1.04±0.39 cm and 1.94±0.57 g, respectively; A1B2 and A3B2 treatments significantly reduced the total number of new shoots by 17.67±4.16 and 22.33±4.04, respectively, but did not affect the sprouting values significantly; A1B2 treatment significantly reduced the length of new shoots and the 100-bud biomass by 0.88±0.15 cm and 1.7±0.35 g, respectively. The A1B1 and A2B1 treatments significantly increased the leaf total Se content by 1.15±0.29 mg/kg and 1.47±0.10 mg/kg, and significantly increased leaf organic Se content by 1.13±0.19 mg/kg and 1.38±0.08 mg/kg, respectively, while A3B1 treatment did not significantly increase the leaf Se content. The total selenium content of tea leaves in A1B2, A2B2 and A3B2 treatments increased by 5.97±0.85 mg/kg, 7.88±0.68 mg/kg and 2.61±0.65 mg/kg, while the organic Se increased by 5.17±0.75 mg/kg, 7.51±0.63 mg/kg and 2.48±0.59 mg/kg, respectively. A1B1 treatment significantly reduced the content of caffeine, gallate and catechin of tea; A1B2 treatment significantly reduced the content of free amino acids content, but significantly increased the total amount of tea polyphenols and catechins, and the ester-type catechins such as gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate in the composition of catechins were significantly increased.   Conclusion  Foliar selenium fertilizer before budding of summer tea increases the total and organic selenium content of tea leaves and improve the quality of tea leaves, especially the effect of sodium selenate is better.
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Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021661
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Objectives  We studied the influence of phosphorus (P) application level on tiller-earing, yield, and the absorption and utilization of P in winter wheat.   Methods  From 2018 to 2021, a field experiment was conducted in Luoyang, Henan province. Four P2O5 levels (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg/hm2) were setup. The dry matter accumulation, P content in different organs at the main growing stages of wheat, the yield and yield components were recorded. After harvest, 0–20 cm soil samples were collected for the determination of available P.   Results  Among the P treatments, the maximum and effective tiller number, and the dry matter accumulation of winter wheat were in order of P270 > P180 > P90 > P0, while the spike number, the dry matter allocation rate in grains and yield increased first and then decreased. P180 recorded the highest yield (9756.7‒10225.4 kg/hm2), which was 17.3%‒18.2% higher (P < 0.05) than P90, but similar with P270. The P concentration of stems, leaves, glume shells, spike shafts and grains of winter wheat were in order of P270 > P180 > P90 > P0, while the grain P accumulation reached pick under P180 (57.0‒61.1 g/m2). Compared with P90, P180 significantly (P < 0.05) increased grain P accumulation by 27.7%‒39.0%. The partial productivity of P and the agronomic utilization efficiency of P in winter wheat showed a decrease trend with the increase of P application levels. Compared with P90, the partial productivity and P agronomic utilization efficiency of winter wheat at the P180 and P270 levels decreased by 40.0% to 41.1%, 35.3% to 36.1% and 62.1% to 64.7%, 58.6% to 62.8%, respectively. P application levels had linear relationship with soil available P content, but the relationship of wheat yield with P application levels and soil available P content could be fitted with quadratic equations.  Conclusions  Suitable application rate of phosphorus can significantly increase the number of effective tillers and panicles of winter wheat, increase the accumulation of dry matter and phosphorus in stems, leaves, glumes and rachis and their transfer to grains, and increase the number of spikes per unit area, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and yield of winter wheat. For the highest winter wheat yield in the test area, the P2O5 application rate was 194.2‒197.4 kg/hm2, and the soil available P was 25.5‒25.8 mg/kg.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022069
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Objective  This study evaluated the effects of combining application of milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) with different soil conditioners (lime or biochar) on the bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in paddy soil and its accumulation and translocation in rice, in order to provide a theoretical and technical support for the restoration of Cd contaminated paddy fields and the cleaner production of rice in China.  Methods  A pot experiment was carried out in Hunan Province, using moderate Cd contaminated paddy soil (Total Cd 1.27 mg/kg, available Cd 0.15 mg/kg). The four treatments included the control with single cropping rice (CT), and three treatments of milk vetch incorporation as milk vetch alone (GM), milk vetch + lime (GL), and milk vetch + biochar (GB) in a milk vetch - rice rotation. At the tillering and matured stages of rice, soil properties and available Cd content were measured, and the absorption and accumulation of Cd in various parts of rice as well as rice yield were analyzed.   Results  (1) GM increased the available Cd content in soil and Cd enrichment coefficient in rice roots at tillering stage, resulting in an average increase of 187.6% in the Cd uptake rice roots compared with the control, but GM decreased the Cd content in stems and leaves at tillering stage, and had no significant effect on Cd content in rice. (2) Both GL and GB significantly increased soil pH, decreased soil Cd activation rate and available Cd content, and the two treatments reduced the average Cd accumulation in rice roots by 55.4% and 57.8% at tillering stage, respectively. Compared with GM, GL reduced the accumulation of Cd in grain, while GB increased the Cd enrichment coefficient in the roots of rice and Cd transport coefficient from stem and leaf to grain, resulting in a significantly higher Cd content in grains (0.08 mg/kg), but lower than the national standard permitted for rice Cd content. (3) Redundancy analysis (RDA) and random forest model predictions showed that soil pH, the soil soluble organic carbon (DOC), and the available phosphorus (AP) were the most important factors in determining the bioavailability of Cd at 0-15 cm paddy soil depth.   Conclusions  The application of milk vetch combined with lime or biochar effectively reduces soil available cadmium by increasing soil pH thus improving rice yield. Milk vetch combined with lime reduces the content of Cd in rice, while the addition of milk vetch and a large amount biochar increases the risk of Cd contamination in rice.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022029
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Objectives  The property of phosphorus fertilizers affect the movement and distribution of P in soil. We studied the distribution characteristics of different water-soluble P fertilizers in calcareous soil and the absorption and utilization of P by maize in drip irrigation fertilization.  Methods  The field test of drip irrigation corn was carried out at the experimental station of Shihezi City, Xinjiang from 2018 to 2020. The maize variety "Zhengdan 958" was selected as the test material. Six treatments were set up in the experiment: urea phosphate (UP), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (MKP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and no phosphate fertilizer (CK). The irrigation and total NPK input amount were the same for the five fertilizer treatments. Soil samples were collected at 0–10, 10–20, and 20–40 cm in the vertical direction at three sites of the dripper in the horizontal direction, the root system, and the wide row at the flowering and mature stages of maize. The pH value, available phosphorus and total phosphorus content of the samples were measured. The aboveground plant samples of maize were collected, and the phosphorus content in stem, leaf and ear organs were determined. The maize yield was measured at the mature stage of maize, and the fertilizer utilization efficiency and other indicators were calculated.   Results  Compared with DAP and CK, acid water soluble phosphorous fertilizer reduced soil pH to some extent. UP significantly reduced soil pH in 0–40 cm of soil around dripper: the decrements were 0.20 and 0.32 units at flowering stage, and 0.24 and 0.31 units at maturity. APP, ADK and AMP reduced soil pH within 10–20 cm distance to the drippers. UP increased soil available P in 0–40 cm soil depth and the available P evenly distributed across 0-40 cm soil layer. The available P in 0–20 cm soil depth under UP was lower than APP, but higher than that of MAP. Compared with DAP, the soil available P content in 0–20 cm soil of APP, UP and MAP treatments were 65.47%, 44.18% and 23.14% higher at maize flowering stage, and 58.08%, 40.13% and 127.89% higher at mature stage, respectively. APP treatment had the highest P accumulation in ears, leaves and the entire stands of maize, which were 29.22%, 43.97% and 22.43% higher than DAP at flowering stage , and 65.39%, 26.63% and 50.60% higher at mature stages (P < 0.05). The yield in APP, UP and MAP were similar, but were 18.03%, 11.64% and 9.46% higher than DAP. The phosphate fertilizer utilization rate in APP, UP and MAP were 29.62%, 13.65% and 9.93% higher than DAP, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that the yield and P accumulation of maize were significantly correlated with the soil available P content in 0–20 cm layer, not with the soil available P content in 20–40 cm layer.   Conclusions  The distribution of P in soil was highly correlated with that of soil pH. The drip application of acidic water-soluble phosphate fertilizers could reduce the soil pH to varying degrees. Urea phosphate can significantly reduce soil pH in 0 to 40 cm range around dripper, so it had the higher and uniform available P content in 0–40 cm soil layer, while the other fertilizers’ impacts were limited within a distance of 20 cm near the dripper. However, APP had the highest available P in the 0–20 cm soil layer, and recorded the highest P accumulation in maize. APP had higher correlation of soil available P accumulation within 0–20 cm depth and yield , and the highest P fertilizer utilization rate. Overall, ammonium polyphosphate, urea phosphate and monoammonium phosphate could be selected for maize fertigation in Xinjiang, and diammonium phosphate should be avoided.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022020
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Objectives  Effects and key influencing factors of intercropping remediation on maize Cd concentrations in Cd-contaminated maize farmland were analyzed, in order to provide technical parameters for the farmland soil remediation while production.   Methods  The data were obtained by searching from the published papers in “CNKI” and “Web of Science” database from 2006 to 2020, using “Cd contamination”, “intercropping”, “maize” etc. as the main keywords. According to the requirement of meta-analysis, there were 770 sets of data for Cd concentrations in maize from 33 literatures. The effect value of intercropping was defined as the response ratio of its intercropping over monoculture treatment within a same trial, and Meta-analysis method was used to quantitatively analyze the contribution of each factor on remediation response effect.   Results  Compared with monoculture maize, intercropping remediation in field could significantly reduce Cd concentration in maize grain, stem-leaves and root, especially with the highest decrease rates in grain. Centipede grass + Amaranthus paniculatus L., Centipede grass, Amaranthus paniculatus L. and Solanum nigrum significantly inhibited the concentration of Cd in maize grain. And Cd concentrations in grain of Zea mays L. Dongdan, Zea mays L. Haihe 28 and Zea mays L. Lüyu 269 were decreased significantly under intercropping remediation. Weak acid or neutral in soil enhanced the inhibition of intercropping remediation on Cd concentration in maize grain. In both safe utilization and strict control farmland, Cd concentration was significantly reduced with intercropping remediation. Row spacing with 0–30 cm can significantly reduce Cd concentration in roots, but row spacing had no effects in grain and stem-leaves. However, meta-analysis showed that intercropping remediation had no significant effect on the reduction of Cd concentration in maize, for there were many intercropping plants and maize varieties in intercropping remediation under pot culture conditions. In addition, the effects of intercropping plants such as corngrass, ryegrass and alfalfa, as well as the main crop Jinzhumi, were different in field or pot study.   Conclusions  Intercropping remediation can significantly inhibit the concentration of Cd in maize and improve the remediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated maize farmland. The selection of suitable maize varieties and intercropping remediation plants has a significant impact on improving the effect of intercropping remediation. At the same time, the row spacing of maize and intercropping plants, soil pH and Cd concentration before remediation also have a certain impact on the remediation effect of intercropping. The results provide some technical parameters and theoretical basis for the remediation technology of Cd contaminated corn in China.
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2022, 28(8).
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2022, 28(8): 1341-1352.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021663
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Objectives  The production of organic waste in China is huge, so sorting out the total amount of organic waste and the amount of nutrient resources in China is pertinent for an optimum utilization of nutrient resources in organic waste, which is of great significance to ensure the zero growth of chemical fertilizer use and national food security.   Methods  From 2009 to 2019, estimation of nutrient resources and analysis of utilization potential were determined in typical organic wastes in China—straw, livestock manure, rural human manure, sludge, and domestic organic waste, using the statistics and published literature.  Results  The annual amount of organic waste resources and total nutrients was relatively stable from 2009 to 2019. The average total organic waste (dry weight) was 1.29 billion tons, and the average nutrient content (N, P2O5, K2O) was 45.38 million tons. In 2019, waste resources reached 1.31 billion tons (dry weight), an increase of 7.1% compared with 2009. The total amount of nutrients reached 45.04 million tons, an increase of 3.0% compared with 2009. In 2019, the total amount of organic waste returned to the field contained about 16.53 million tons of N, 7.996 million tons of P and 20.51 million tons of K, accounting for 71.8%, 75.9%, and 153.2% of crop nutrient demand, respectively. The N and K contents of straw were the highest, accounting for 46.3% (N) and 65.8% (K2O) of the total nutrients in organic waste, respectively. The P contents of animal manure were the highest, accounting for 54.5% (P2O5) of the total nutrients in organic waste.   Conclusions  The annual production and nutrient resources of organic wastes in China in the last ten years remain at a high level with a broad utilization potential. Under the condition that the nutrient resource structure of organic waste in China remains unchanged and the total amount of organic waste is returned to the field, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients in organic waste can meet 71.8% (N), 75.9% (P2O5) and 100% (K2O) of crop nutrient requirements.
2022, 28(8): 1353-1363.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021621
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Objectives  Studies have shown that continuous straw returning to cropland can improve soil fertility and crop yield and alleviate soil degradation caused by chemical fertilizer application in fluvo-aquic soil of Huang-Huai-Hai region, north China. However, the contribution of the bacterial community (especially the co-occurrence patterns) to soil nutrient availability and enzymatic activity is still unclear. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial community diversity, composition and intraspecific interactions as influenced by chemical fertilizer application and straw returning.   Methods  The tested soils were collected from three fertilization regimes (CK, no fertilization control; NPK, fertilization with chemical N, P, and K fertilizers; NPKS, straw returning combined with chemical N, P, and K fertilizers) in a 10-year field experiment located in Dezhou city, Shandong Province. Bacterial communities were characterized using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4-V5 region. Cross-treatment spearman correlation network was constructed to explore bacterial co-occurrence patterns.   Results  Chemical fertilizer application and straw incorporation (P<0.05) improved soil fertility and enzymatic activity. Compared with CK, NPK and NKPS increased SOM by 23.19% and 34.82%, decreased pH by 0.06, bacterial diversity by 0.90% and 0.91%, and bacterial evenness by 1.11% (P<0.05). NPK (P<0.05) increased the activity of β-glucosidase (β-GC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 47.91% and 50.35%; NPKS (P<0.05) increased the activity of β-GC, ALP and dehydrogenase (DHA) by 78.31%, 46.53%, and 50.91%, respectively. The dominant species in CK were oligotrophic (i.e., Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (i.e., Hyphomicrobiaceae and Burkholderiaceae). The indicator species in NPK belong to Proteobacteria (i.e., Oxalobacteraceae, Rhodanobacteraceae, and Xanthomonadaceae), Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, which play important roles in recalcitrant organic decomposition. Continuous straw returning in NPK stimulated the growth of Firmicutes (i.e., Bacillus), which was famous for cellulose degradation. We explored the distribution patterns of indicator species by co-occurrence network analysis. We found that the indicator species grouped in distinct modules reflecting different fertilization regimes were closely related to soil nutrient content and enzyme activity. The indicator species in NPKS (i.e., Bacillus) formed specific species clusters through a strong symbiotic relationship. This was positively related to β-GC, ALP and DHA, indicating that members in this module could improve soil microbial activity, and promote soil carbon and phosphorus transformation.   Conclusions  These findings suggest that long-term straw returning combined with chemical fertilizer could improve soil fertility, optimize bacterial community composition, regulate the interaction between bacterial species, and improve soil enzyme activity in the Huang-Huai-Hai plain.
2022, 28(8): 1364-1375.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021658
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Objectives  We studied the effects of biogas slurry on soil organic nitrogen (SON) mineralization in paddy fields and its relationship with the change in soil microbial community.   Methods  The field trials were conducted on Jiangsu coastal rice fields in 2017. Four levels of biogas slurry N application were set with constant total nitrogen input (225 kg/hm2) at 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% (BS0, BS33, BS66, BS100). After 3 years of continuous treatment (2019), soil samples were collected to determine the mineralization characteristics of SON. The content of total hydrolyzable N, non-hydrolyzable N, ammonium N, amino acid N, amino sugar N, unknown N in SON and the structure of bacterial composition were analyzed.  Results  BS66 treatment recorded higher soil potential mineralizable organic N (N0) (39.7%) than BS0 treatment. Both amino acid N and non-acid hydrolysis N contents increased with biogas slurry application (P<0.05). BS66 treatment had a higher increase in amino acid N (39.2%) and and BS100 had a higher increase in non-acid hydrolysis N (73.9%) than BS0 treatment. The substitution of fertilizers with biogas slurry increased the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria, and decreased the relative abundance of Nitrospirae (P<0.05). The bacterial genera exhibited a varying response to substituting fertilizers with biogas slurry. As the ratio of biogas slurry to chemical fertilizers increased, the relative abundance of Subgroup_6_unclassified increased and Subgroup_17_unclassified decreased. The relative abundance of KD4-96_unclassified decreased under BS33 treatment and increased under BS66 treatment and BS100 treatment; Subgroup_7_unclassified had a relative abundance ≥1% due to the replacement of chemical fertilizer with biogas slurry. The results of RDA showed that soil N0 and Thermodesulfovibrionia_unclassified had a significant negative correlation (P<0.01), non-acid hydrolysis nitrogen had a positive correlation with Subgroup_6_unclassified (P<0.05), and a significant negative correlation with Betaproteobacteria_unclassified (P<0.05). Amino acid nitrogen and Proteobacteria_unclassified, amino sugar nitrogen and KD4-96_unclassified were all positively correlated (P<0.05). The unknown nitrogen and Desuslfarculaceae_unclassified were significantly negatively correlated (P<0.05).  Conclusions  The substitution of biogas slurry for chemical fertilizers changed the structure of the soil microbial community, increased soil nitrogen storage capacity, improved soil nitrogen mineralization potential, and enhanced soil nitrogen supply capacity.
2022, 28(8): 1376-1387.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021609
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Objectives  The inhibitory effects of Chinese milk vetch (Mv) and rice straw on production and emission of methane in paddy fields were compared.   Methods  Field trials were conducted at Gaoqiao experimental base of Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, under one-season super-hybrid rice planting system. The soil samples were collected in six treatment plots, including no-fertilization control (CK) and five equal-nutrient fertilization treatments, i.e., chemical fertilizer only (CF), CF plus rice straw incorporation (S), CF plus Mv incorporation (M), CF plus both rice straw and Mv incorporation (MS), CF plus rice straw and Mv incorporation and slaked lime (MSC). At the early stage of rice tillering (June 21th, 2021), CH4 flux was monitored using closed-static-chamber method, and the surface water samples were collected below the closed-static-chamber for determination of dissolved methane. At the same time, soil samples (0–20 cm) were taken for the test of physicochemical properties and the laboratory incubation experiment.   Results  1) Soil CH4 daily fluxes fluctuated between 5.70–26.65 mg/(m2·h), fertilized soils recorded higher CH4 emission than CK, and M treatment elicited the lowest CH4 emission among fertilizer treatments. Compared to S treatment, M treatment reduced 13.78% of chemical N input, and reduced CH4 flux by 12.50%. The dissolved CH4 concentration in surface water ranged between 70.02–163.58 mg/kg, the surface water in MSC treatment had 30.68% higher CH4 concentration than others. 2) Compared to S treatment, M treatment increased SOM and total carbon content by 7.60% and 7.55%, but decreased DOC by 25.99%. M treatment exhibited the lowest CH4 production and oxidation potentials, which were 61.04% and 7.56% lower than the other five treatments, and 83.16% and 5.36% lower than S treatment, respectively. Compared with the other five treatments, M treatment markedly decreased the CH4 production through aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway, M treatment decreased the contribution of CH4 to total by 52.52%, and reduced the contribution of CH4 to total by 53.49% in comparison with S treatment.  Conclusions  Compared with rice straw incorporation, Chinese milk vetch incorporation not only reduces soil available N, but also reduces soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration during the early growth stage of rice, it is therefore beneficial to the storage of carbon in soil and decrease of CH4 emission. Milk vetch incorporation mainly inhibits the production of CH4 via aceticlastic methanogenesis.
2022, 28(8): 1388-1397.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021620
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2022, 28(8): 1398-1408.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021659
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Objectives   Long-term abandonment of paddy fields in the reddish soil region is not only a waste of soil resources but also poses a risk to the environment due to the high levels of active phosphorous (P) fertilization. Here, we studied the changes in soil P compositions of abandoned reddish paddy fields.   Methods  The experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2014 in Taoyuan, Hunan Province. Before abandonment, the soil was under an 16-years rice fertilization experiment (1991–2006), including three treatments: no fertilizer control (CK), application of chemical fertilizer nitrogen and potassium (NK) and application of chemical fertilizer nitrogen phosphorus and potassium (NPK). Topsoil samples were collected from the three treatment plots to determine total phosphorus, available phosphorus (Olsen-P), microbial biomass P (MBP), and P fraction.  Results  The abandonment of the paddy field reduced TP and Olsen-P content by 5.4%–23.4% and 11.0%–45.4%, respectively. This corresponds to a reduction of 19.3–160.8 mg/kg total-P and 0.7–14.1 mg/kg Olsen-P. The pre-NPK treatment (high P soil) showed the highest (P<0.05) reduction in total-P (23.4%) and Olsen-P (45.4%) content. The P fractions in the treatments were in the order of Residual-P>NaOH-Po>NaOH-Pi>Sonic-Pi>NaHCO3-Po>HCl-P>Sonic-Po>NaHCO3-Pi>Resin-P. All the P fractions in the pre-NPK treatment were higher than in pre-CK and pre-NK treatments (P<0.05) except Resin-P and Sonic-Po. However, there were no significant differences between the P fractions in the pre-CK and pre-NK treatments (P>0.05). Residual-P was stable P fraction, and abandonment did not affect its content. Labile P (Resin-P + NaHCO3-Pi + NaHCO3-Po), moderately labile P (NaHO-Pi + NaOH-Po + Sonic-Pi + Sonic-Po), and low active P (HCl-P) showed a downward trend after abandonment. Moderately labile P recorded the highest reduction (decreased by 10.0–100.8 mg/kg), accounting for 51.7%–78.6% of the total -P reduction. This was followed by active P (decreased by 2.8–29.1 mg/kg), accounting for a 14.5%–18.1% reduction in total-P. The moderately labile P included inorganic P (NaOH-Pi and Sonic-Pi) and organic P (NaOH-Po and Sonic-Po). Abandonment decreased the content of inorganic P in all abandoned soils and the organic P in the NPK treatment (P<0.05). The abandoned soil maintained a relatively stable and high MBP content (15.1–16.7 mg/kg). For the abandoned soil with low total-P (pre-abandonment CK and NK treatments), the MBP content was 3.0 times that of Olsen-P. P sequestration by weeds ranged from 21.3 to 48.3 kg/hm2, explaining 40.6%–54.9% of the total-P loss in the CK and NK abandoned. However, it only explained 14.9% of the total-P loss in NPK treated abandoned soil.   Conclusions  Paddy field abandonment decreased the surface soil P pool. Soils with high total-P content (NPK treatment) before abandonment were more sensitive to abandonment than soils with low total-P levels. Further, total-P, Olsen-P, and P fractions decreased after abandonment. The moderately labile P (NaOH-P) contributed the most to the loss of the P pool (accounting for 64.3%), while the decrease of NaOH-P was mainly due to the reduction of inorganic P fractions (NaOH-Pi and Sonic-Pi). P removal by weeds did not explain the loss of soil total-P, and the microbial biomass P was not affected by abandonment. Therefore, increasing soil organic matter might be a effective way to prevent the loss of the P pool.
2022, 28(8): 1409-1420.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021637
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Objectives  We assessed the appropriate combination of straw incorporation and phosphorus application for the efficient production and phosphorus utilization in a rape-rice rotation system.  Methods  Field experiment was conducted for two years in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, under the rape-rice rotation system. The treatments were: P application with straw returning (T2) and without straw returning (T1), no P application in both rape–rice seasons (P1), application of 120 kg/hm2 P2O5 on rape and 90 kg/hm2 P2O5 on rice (P2), application of 120 kg/hm2 P2O5 only on rape (P3), and application of 90 kg/hm2 P2O5 only on rice (P4). At heading and maturing stage of rape and rice, plant samples were collected for the analysis of dry matter accumulation (DM), yield and P content.  Results  Among the four treatments, P3 recorded the highest yield, DM and P uptake of rape, two rice cultivars and the rotation system. Compared with P2, P3 increased the yield, DM, post-flowering dry matter transfer and P uptake of rape and rice in two seasons by 10.14%–27.65%, 8.39%–9.71%, and 1.86%–5.65% respectively. Compared with the P2 treatment, P4 treatment increased the DM, post-flowering transport amount and yield of rice, but decreased the DM of rape and P absorption and the rotation system. Compared with P2, P3 increased the apparent P fertilizer efficiency of the system by 92.70%, while P4 did not exhibit significantly higher P efficiency. Under the same P treatment, straw returning improved the yield, DM and P uptake of rape, rice and rotation system and increased the translocation of DM and P accumulated before flowering stage of rape and rice than T1.  Conclusions  In rape-rice rotation system, applying P on rape could satisfy the P nutrition for rape season, the P returned to field by rape straw could be absorbed and used more efficiently by the following rice than P fertilizer, thereby increasing the P use efficiency, dry matter production and translocation, and yield of the rotation system. On the contrary, application of P only in rice season, no matter rice straw returning to field or not, does not provide enough P for rape, and decreases the yield and P efficiency of the system. Therefore, application of P on rape combined with straw incorporation is the best P application mode.
2022, 28(8): 1421-1429.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022022
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Objectives  Silicon (Si) is necessary for the growth and development of rice. We investigated the effects of Si-enriched biochar on Si form, rice yield, and Si uptake of a reddish paddy soil, to provide a scientific basis for a sustainable nutrient cycling in rice production.   Methods  A pot experiment was established, with rice cultivar ‘Meixiangzhan2’ as test material. The treatments included one lower Si biochar (BW3), two medium Si biochar (BH7 and BB7), and two high Si biochar (AH and AB), and each biochar was added at two rates (0.4% and 0.8% of the pot soil weight). No biochar was used as control. The rice yield and Si uptake were analyzed at harvest, and the soil samples were collected at the same time for the extraction and determination of chemical forms of Si in the soil.  Results  The addition of Si-enriched biochar significantly increased the content of soil available Si, organic Si, and Fe/Mn-oxide bound Si, among which the AB treatment exhibited the highest increase, with increments of 184.23%, 59.53%, and 117.54% in the available Si, organic Si, and Fe/Mn-oxide bound Si compared with CK. The biochar types, application rate, and their interactions significantly affected the rice yield, straw biomass, and root biomass (P<0.01). Except for the low rate of BW3, all the biochar treatments significantly increased the rice yield, and there was no significant difference among the treatments (P<0.05), however, the high rate of each biochar elicited higher rice yield than the low rate (P<0.05). The Si accumulation in different parts of rice was in order of straw>grain>root. The total Si uptake of rice under the two addition was AB>AH>BB7>BH7>BW3. At high rate, the total Si uptake of rice attained its maximum in AB treatment, which was 73.68% higher than that of CK, followed by AH biochar.   Conclusions  Silicon-enriched biochar is more effective than medium and low Si biochar in increasing the availability of Si in soil, which translated to increased Si uptake by rice, and improved yield and biomass of rice. Higher application rate of biochar produces better results; therefore, silicon-enriched biochar can serve as a potential Si source of paddy soil.
2022, 28(8): 1430-1443.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022055
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Objectives  We investigated the dynamics of water utilization and yield caused by various fertilizer rates under different rainfall patterns, to provide a scientific basis for precision fertilization in winter wheat on the Loess Plateau.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted from 2017 to 2020 in Wenxi Experimental Demonstration Base of Shanxi Agricultural University, Shanxi Province, the planting system was summer fallow-winter wheat. The three experimental years were typically normal, dry, and wet years, respectively. N application levels at 0, 120, 150, 180, or 210 kg/hm2 were set up (expressed as N0, N120, N150, N180 and N210, respectively). The N absorption, nitrogen and water utilization, yield, and yield components were investigated. The variation in these indices caused by two adjacent N rates was calculated in each year.   Results  N180 significantly increased water consumption of wheat, regardless of precipitation distribution, and the largest variation of water utilization occurred from N 150 kg/hm2 to 180 kg/hm2 in wet and dry years, and from N 120 kg/hm2 to 150 kg/hm2during the normal year. The highest wheat N accumulation from sowing to jointing stage, and the pre-anthesis export of N from leaf and spike + glume were recorded in N180 in wet year, and in N150 in the normal and dry years. The largest variation of export of pre-anthesis accumulated N and the accumulated N at maturity occurred from N 120 kg/hm2 to 150 kg/hm2, regardless of precipitation patterns. N180 exhibited the highest yield in wet year, which was 8.4%–35.6% higher than the other N rates; N150 elicited the highest yield in normal and dry years and was 8.9%–33.7% and 13.4%–48.9% higher than the other N rates, respectively. The largest variation of yield occurred from N 120 kg/hm2 to 150 kg/hm2, regardless of precipitation. However, the yield continued to increase significantly from N 120 kg/hm2 to 150 kg/hm2 in wet year, and the fertilizer efficiency peaked at 14.9 kg/kg at N150–N180 in wet year. While the yield increment from N 120 kg/hm2 to 150 kg/hm2 became negative in normal and dry year, N180 produced the highest water consumption, N absorption and utilization, and N recovery efficiency in the wet year, and N150 did in normal and dry years. Yield and water use efficiency of wheat were significantly correlated with the export of pre-anthesis accumulated N.   Conclusions  In Conclusion, considering the effect of N application level and rainfall gradient, N180 increases water and N utilization, and N recovery efficiency in the wet year, and N150 in normal and dry years, which are the optimum N fertilization level for dryland winter wheat on the Loess Plateau.
2022, 28(8): 1444-1456.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021646
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Objectives  The efficient summer maize production relies on academic management and machinal grain harvesting. The optimum plant density and nitrogen application for efficient summer maize production in North China plain were studied.   Methods  Summer maize cultivar Jingnongke728 was used as the research materials. The split-plot experiment design was adopted: the main plots were two plant densities [7.5×104 plants/hm2 (D7.5) and 9.0×104 plants/hm2 (D9.0)], while five N application rates (0, 180, 240, 300 and 360 kg/hm2 tagged as N0, N180, N240, N300 and N360, respectively) were the sub-plots. The plant’s leaf SPAD value, leaf area index (LAI), dry matter accumulation (DM), grain filling, grain yield and its components, nitrogen partial factor productivity (PFPN) and agronomic efficiency (AEN) of maize under different planting densities and N application were measured.   Results  Compared with D7.5, LAI and DM of D9.0 treatments at V6 and R1 stage were increased by 5.0%–26.3% and 3.7%–34.8% respectively. The maximum grain filling rate (Gmax) of D9.0 treatment was 0.35–1.33 g/(100-grain·d) higher than that of D7.5, and the date of reaching the Gmax (Tmax) was 4.4 d earlier in D9.0. The grain filling duration in D9.0 were shortened by 6.9–12.2 days, but ear grain number reduced by 15.0–51.3 grain. The grain yield of D9.0 was 2.4%–28.3% higher than D7.5, which was 7.36×103–12.22×103 kg/hm2. The D9.0 significantly increased PFPN and AEN by 10.1%–17.2% and 72.0%–94.4%, respectively. Compared with N0, summer maize leaves SPAD values increased significantly with increase in N application. The LAI and DM also increased by 3.5%–171.3% and 5.0%–177.7%, respectively, with increase in N application. The Gmax reached the highest 1.33–1.39 g/(100-grain·d) at N240–N360 levels, and the Tmax of N treatments were 4.1–4.6 days earlier than N0. The Gmax weight (Wmax) also increased by 5.7%–9.4% with increase in N application. Therefore, with increase in N application, 100-grain weight increased by 0.5%–18.4%, grain number per ear increased significantly by 62.8–79.2 grain, and yield increased by 3.2%–115.7% (i.e., 10.10×103–11.33×103 kg/hm2). With increase in N application, PFPN, AEN were reduced by 24.2%–46.6% and 21.2%–43.1%, 21.1%–32.5% and 13.0%–32.9%, respectively, under D7.5 and D9.0 treatments, respectively.   Conclusions  Higher density of summer maize can effectively improve the dry matter accumulation, reduce grain moisture content to 15.4%–24.8%, and satisfied grain mechanical harvesting. Controlling nitrogen application rate at 180–240 kg/hm2 could further reduce the moisture content at grain harvest, improve leaf SPAD value, LAI and dry matter accumulation, improve grain filling and increase grain weight. The yield was stable at 10.5×103–11.2×103 kg/hm2, and the PFPN and AEN were 47.0–59.7 kg/kg and 27.6–30.9 kg/kg. Therefore, the suitable density of summer maize for machinal grain harvesting was 9.0×104 plants/hm2, and the nitrogen application level was 180–240 kg/hm2.
2022, 28(8): 1457-1465.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022045
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Objectives  Nitrogen (N) application regulates nodulation, N2 fixation, yield and quality of soybeans. We studied the effects of N application time and rate for high-yield and high-quality soybean production.  Methods  A pot experiment was conducted using soybean cultivar Dongsheng 35 as the test material. The treatments include two N application periods (V2 and R1) and three nitrogen application rates [0, 5, 100 mg/(kg, soil)]. At R2 stage (full bloom) and R5 stage (beginning seed-setting), the shoot dry matter accumulation, nodule number, nodule dry weight and nitrogenase activity of soybean were analyzed. At R8 stage (full maturity), the grain yield and protein content of soybean were investigated.   Results  Both the N application rate and time had significant effects on shoot dry matter accumulation, nodulation and nitrogenase activity of soybean. N application increased the shoot dry matter accumulation but decreased the nodule dry weight and number. Applying N at R1 stage, the recorded nodule number and dry weight in N100 treatment were 42.3% and 32.8% lower than N0 treatment, while N5 treatment achieved the highest nitrogenase activity. Applying N at V2 stage, the nitrogenase activity in N5 treatment was 15.3% and 27.1% higher than N0 treatment at the R2 and R5 stages, respectively. N5 treatment produced the highest soybean yield and protein content, and the protein content was 6.3% and 9.4% higher than N0 treatment at the N application times of R1 and V2 stages. According to the structural equation model analysis, N application rate positively regulated nitrogenase activity and affected soybean yield indirectly, but negatively regulated the nodule number and affected soybean protein content indirectly. The N application time negatively regulated soybean yield but positively regulated protein content.  Conclusions  In general, earlier N application (V2 stage) is beneficial to soybean yield formation, while later N application (R1 stage) is good for nitrogen fixation and soybean protein content. The effect of nitrogen application rate on soybean yield and protein content is greater than that of application time in pot experiment. And the rate of N application should be controlled at N 5 mg/(kg, soil).
2022, 28(8): 1466-1477.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021657
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Objectives  We assessed the fate of soil nitrogen under single application and combined application of nitrification inhibitors and microbial inoculum in a greenhouse eggplant production system.  Methods  The experimental field was set up with a randomized block design and 6 treatments, including no nitrogen fertilizer (CK), conventional nitrogen application of 720 kg/hm2 (FN), 30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer (N 504 kg/hm2, RN), 30% reduction of nitrogen combined with nitrification inhibitor (RND), microbial inoculum (RNB) and simultaneous application of nitrification inhibitor and microbial inoculum (RNDB). The nitrogen uptake and utilization, NO3-N accumulation in soil profile, N2O emission, gaseous loss of NH3 volatilization and the proportion of each destination in the soil greenhouse eggplant system were assessed.  Results  1) The yield of RNDB treatment was 112.27 t/hm2, which was 11.0% higher than that of RND treatment. The soluble sugar content of RNDB was 0.95%, which was significantly higher than that of RND and RNB by 17.3% and 18.8% respectively. 2) The order of nitrogen uptake in all the treatments was: fruit>stem>leaf >root. The total nitrogen uptake of RNDB treatment was 259.66 kg/hm2, which was 16.1% higher than that of RN. The apparent nitrogen use efficiency of RNDB treatment was the highest (20.87%), which was not significantly different from RND and RNB treatment. The agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer was 99.69 kg/kg, which was only significantly higher than that of RND treatment. 3) Under the same nitrogen application rate, the net gaseous loss (N2O and NH3) and net loss rate in RNDB treatment were 16.05 kg/hm2 and 4.73% respectively. The accumulative N2O emission of RNDB was significantly lower than that of RNB by 28.8%. There was no significant difference in NH3 volatilization accumulation among treatments. 4) The accumulation of NO3-N in 0–60 cm soil profile was FN> RNB>RN>RND>RNDB>CK. Except in CK treatment, the lowest accumulation of RNDB treatment was 873.1 kg/hm2. The accumulation of soil NO3-N in RNDB treatment was 17.6%, 17.7% and 2.2% lower than that in RN, RNB and RNDB treatment, respectively. The accumulation of NO3-N in 60–120 cm soil profile was FN> RN > RNB>RND>RNDB>CK. The NO3-N accumulative amount of RNDB treatment was 744.0 kg/hm2, which was 1.0% and 25.2% lower than that of RND and RNB treatment, respectively.  Conclusions  Reducing nitrogen by 30% combined with nitrification inhibitor and microbial inoculum application could effectively reduce N2O and NH3 gaseous loss, improve nitrogen absorption of eggplant and significantly reduce nitrogen residue in 0–60 cm soil profile. It is an effective measure to realize environment-friendly production of high quality and high yield eggplant.
2022, 28(8): 1478-1493.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021660
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Objectives  We assessed the changes of nitrogen absorption and soil microbial diversity in rhizosphere soil of tomato intercropped with potato onion to understand the biological mechanism of improving nitrogen nutrition of tomato.   Methods  The experiment consisted of two parts: field trials and pot cultivation. The treatments in the field experiment include tomato monocropping, potato onion (Nong'an) and tomato intercropping, and potato onion (Wuchang) and tomato intercropping. We determined the growth index, nitrogen uptake and yield of tomatoes to elucidate the effects of intercropping on tomato nutrient uptake, distribution and yield. The pot experiment included 4 treatments: monoculture of tomato, potato onion (Wuchang) monocropping, potato onion and tomato intercropping, and no seedling (control). The contents of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen and soil enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil of the potted tomato were measured. We used the Miseq high-throughput sequencing technology of soil bacteria and fungi diversity to clarify the effects of intercropping on the rhizosphere soil nutrients.   Results  1) The height of tomato plant increased significantly, and the yield of tomato increased significantly by 8.49%–16.92% after intercropping. 2) The two intercropping treatments showed similar results. After 60 days of intercropping, the dry weight of tomato increased significantly, the distribution index of dry matter to roots decreased, while the distribution index to shoots increased. The distribution index to stems and leaves decreased, but the distribution index to fruit increased. Intercropping for 90 days significantly increased nitrogen distribution to roots and stems, but decreased nitrogen distribution to leaves. 3) After 37 days of intercropping, the ammonium nitrogen content in the rhizosphere soil of tomato increased significantly, while the nitrate nitrogen content decreased significantly. Intercropping changed the ratio of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen in soil and promoted the nitrogen absorption of tomato. The activities of urease and dehydrogenase in tomato rhizosphere soil were significantly higher than those of monoculture and no seedling treatments, and the dehydrogenase of intercropping potato onion rhizosphere soil was significantly higher than that of monoculture and no seedling treatment, and other differences were not significant. 4) The fungal and bacterial community structure in rhizosphere soil of tomato intercropping with potato onion was changed. Intercropping with potato onion increased the abundances of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Flavobacteria, Chlorobia, Chloroflexi, Anaerolineae, Deinococci, Gemmatimonadetes, Clostridia, Mollicutes, Planctomycetacia, Alphaproteobacteria and Opitutae. Moreover, the relative abundances of Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Bacillus and Sphingobium increased in the rhizosphere of tomato in the intercropping system at the genus level. For fungi, the relative abundances of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Chaetomium increased, but decreased the abundance of Eurotium and Thielavia in the rhizosphere of tomato in the intercropping system.   Conclusions  Intercropping two kinds of potato onion increased the plant height and dry weight of tomato, as well as the nitrogen uptake and yield. Intercropping reduces the distribution of nitrogen nutrients to leaves, while increasing the distribution of nitrogen nutrients to roots, flowers and fruits, and improves nitrogen utilization. At the same time, by changing the structure of bacterial and fungal flora in the rhizosphere soil of tomato, the soil nitrogen effectiveness of intercropping potato onions significantly improved, which promoted the nitrogen absorption of tomato and laid the nutrient foundation for the improvement of tomato yield.
2022, 28(8): 1494-1508.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021625
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Objectives  We studied the growth-promoting characteristics of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the growth promoting effect of P. fluorescens from soil microecosystem, to provide theoretical basis for the application of microbials for sustainable orcharding.   Methods  The growth-promoting characteristics of P. fluorescens were identified using different solid culture media and liquid fermentation. A pilot pot experiment was carried out using one-year-old potted peach seedlings, and the suitable concentration of P. fluorescens suspension was found to be 4×108 CFU/mL. Then, a pot experiment was carried out using grafted seedlings of 2-year old ‘Ruiguang39/Prunus’ [P. persica (L.) Batsch] as experimental material, with 4×108 CFU/mL of P. fluorescens suspension as the treatment (PF), and no P. fluorescens (CK) as the control. On the 7th, 14th, 28th, and 42nd days of treatment, soil samples around root zone of peach seedlings were collected for the determination of microbial structure, enzyme activity, nutrient content, and pH. On the 20th and 40th days of treatment, shoot and root samples were collected for the determination of root growth, shoot nutrient content, leaves photosynthetic characteristics and plant growth of peach.  Results  1) P. fluorescens was proven having the following growth-promoting characteristics: producing 6.17 mg/L of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), dissolving inorganic and organic P of 45.98 and 18.52 mg/L, respectively, and the capacity of producing siderophores and releasing slowly-available K. 2) Compared with CK, PF treatment increased the Chao 1 and Shannon index of bacteria and fungus communities, and the increment in the Chao 1 and Shannon index of fungus community were as high as 28.5% and 8.5% (P<0.05); PF treatment altered the soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria were increased, while Bacteroidetes population was reduced. The relative abundance of Ascomycota and Basidiomycetes were decreased, while that of Moridomycetes was increased. The soil pH was decreased by 0.19, available P, N, K and Fe content in PF treatment was significantly increased by 42.3%, 15.9%, 39.5% and 6.6% (P<0.05), and the activities of soil urease, sucrase, phosphatase and catalase were improved by 4.3%, 37.6%, 34.2% and 40.2% (P<0.05), compared to the soil of CK. PF application significantly increased root surface area and volume by 67.3% and 21.3% (P<0.05), and increased the lateral root number. PF treatment significantly increased the net photosynthesis, the contents of total NPK in leaves and roots, and the content of total iron in leaves of peach by 26.0%, thus, significantly increasing the plant height, above- and below ground dry weight by 14.8%, 19.3 % and 19.9% (P<0.05).   Conclusions  P. fluorescens has certain growth-promoting characteristics of IAA and siderophores production, degradation of inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and insoluble potassium. Soil application of P. fluorescens suspension increases soil microbial community diversity, alters soil microbial community structure, reduces soil pH, increases peach rhizospheric soil nutrient content and soil enzyme activities. P. fluorescens increases the lateral root number, improves the root architecture, increases the photosynthetic rate, thus increasing the nutrient content and the biomass, thereby promoting the growth of peach.
2022, 28(8): 1509-1519.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021632
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Objectives  Sweet potato is a potassium-loving crop, and its production relies heavily on K fertilizer application. This study was designed to integrate existing research results and quantitatively analyze the effects of K application on sweet potato yield and K balance. We aim to clarify sweet potato yield's response characteristics to K application under different factors, thus, providing theoretical guidance for K application.  Methods  This study collected literature on the effect of K application on sweet potato yield published in China from 2000 to 2020. In total, 548 datasets were collected and subjected to a meta-analysis to analyze the effect of K application on yield increase and the influence of different K application rates on K balance.  Results  K application increased sweet potato yield by 18.0% compared with no K application (P<0.05) . The increase on sweet potato yield though K fertilizer application was significantly (P<0.001) affected by yield level of the control group. The higher the yield recorded in the control plot, the lower the sweet potato yield's response to K fertilizer application. At low and medium yield levels of the control group (≤25 t/hm2 and 25−35 t/hm2), the optimal K application rate was 225−300 kg/hm2 and 300−375 kg/hm2, respectively. At high yield levels >35 t/hm2), there was no significant (P>0.05) yield response to different K application. Soil organic matter (SOM), total N, available P, and available K (P<0.001) affected the yield increase effect of difference K application. The effect of K application on sweet potato yield was higher when SOM>20 g/kg, total N>1 g/kg, available P=10−20 mg/kg and available K (AK)≤50 mg/kg. The effect of K application on sweet potato yield showed a parabola trend with an increase in the K quantity applied. The appropriate K application rate for maximum yield was 225−300 kg/hm2 when AK≤50 mg/kg, 300−375 kg/hm2 when AK between 50 and 100 mg/kg, and not necessary when AK>100 mg/kg. The required K application rate was >225 kg/hm2 to maintain soil K balance when sweet potato straw was not returned to the field, and that was >75 kg/hm2 when straw was returned to the field.   Conclusions  In China, the K application enhances sweet potato yields. K application has a strong relationship with SOM, total N, available P, and available K. Maintaining soil K equilibrium also necessitates potassium application. Specific soil conditions should dictate the K treatment regime for sweet potato production.
2022, 28(8): 1520-1534.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021670
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Nitrogen (N) is a primary mineral nutrient for plant growth and development as well as the limiting factor for crop yield. Nitrate is one of the major N sources for plant uptake and utilization. Four gene families including NPF, NRT2, CLC and SLAC1/SLAH have been reported to be involved in the process of nitrate uptake and utilization. Among the four gene families, the NPF family has a large number of members and diverse functions, which have attracted more attention and in-depth research in recent years. There are 53, 93, 79 and as many as 331 NPF genes in the model plant Arabidopsis and the main food crops – rice, maize, and wheat, respectively. The biological functions of more than half members (31/53) of Arabidopsis NPF family have been characterized, and reports on the functions of NPF genes in crop such as rice are emerging. Research revealed that NPF genes are widely involved in processes of plant nitrogen uptake and its regulation, transport, distribution and re-distribution, and some members play important roles in the modification and improvement of crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Consequently, it is highly pertinent to unravel the mechanism underlying plant nitrogen utilization and genetic improvement by exploring candidate NPF genes from the perspective of nitrogen flow. This paper reviewed the biological functions of NPF genes in the model plant Arabidopsis and crops. At the moment, only 4 members of NPF genes in maize were reported with biological functions, and none of the NPF genes in wheat were reported with biological function. The exploration and studies on the NPF genes of crops such as maize and wheat will provide gene resources for future researches on crop NUE improvement and high-NUE crop breeding.
2022, 28(8): 1535-1544.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021655
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Objectives  Improper water and fertilizer management is common in watermelon production under gravel-mulched field of Northwest China. We investigated the suitable combination of water, N, and K inputs to attain optimum yield and quality of watermelon, as well as economic and environmental benefits.   Methods  A medium-late maturing watermelon cultivar ‘Jincheng 5’ was used as the test material in a microplot experiment using drip irrigation under gravel-mulching technology. The experiment adopted the three factors’ quadratic saturating D-optimal design method to make water (W), N and K combination treatment, fertilizer effective equations of yield and quality were set up by adopting the condition of drip fertigation of grafted watermelon.   Results  Principal factor effect analysis showed that W, N, and K significantly influenced the watermelon yield and quality parameters, the order of influencing factors on watermelon yield was W>N>K, and the positive effect of water on yield was the most significant, while the negative effect of N was more obvious than that of water, and potassium had lesser effect on watermelon yield. The order of influencing factors on watermelon quality was N>K>W, and nitrogen and potassium markedly improved watermelon quality, while water had significant negative effects. The interactive effect of various factors on watermelon yield were shown as N×W>N×K>W×K. Mean while, W×K was greater than the main effect of nitrogen. Meanwhile regarding watermelon quality, K×W had a greater effect than W×N, and W×N improved crop quality better than N×K. With reference to the model, it was concluded that the water and fertilizer schemes for watermelon yield exceeding 60 t/hm2 under the experimental conditions were as follows: irrigation amount 808–1017 m3/hm2, N 231–293 kg/hm2, K2O 177–258 kg/hm2. And the water and fertilizer schemes for average sugar content of watermelon exceeding 11% were as follows: irrigation amount 555–876 m3/hm2, N 226–279 kg/hm2, K2O 217–271 kg/hm2.   Conclusions  Through comprehensive analysis and comparison, the optimum water and fertilizer scheme for a high yield and good quality of grafted watermelon production under fertigation condition was: irrigation amount 808–876 m3/hm2, N 231–279 kg/hm2, and K2O 217–258 kg/hm2.
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
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2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
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2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
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2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
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2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
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2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
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2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
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2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
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2014, 20(6): 1441-1449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0614
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2018, 24(1): 1-21.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17348
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