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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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2020, (8).  
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Comparison of different monitoring and estimation methods for N2O emissions from greenhouse vegetables production
WANG Chen, YIN Xing, CHEN Meng, HAN Jian, ZHANG Jie, GUO Yan-jie, ZHANG Li-juan
2020, 26(8): 1375-1383.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19489
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  Objectives  In order to introduce an inverse dispersion technique to evaluate N2O emissions from greenhouse with vegetable production, static box gas collection instruments with gas chromatography analysis were used simultaneously to check N2O emission. The results were compared and analyzed to test the feasibility of this new approach.  Methods  In the vegetable greenhouses of the facility, a fertilizing area and a non-fertilizing area were set up. Using box-type method and micro-meteorological method to carry out 72-hour high-frequency monitoring and full-growth monitoring, N2O concentration characteristic curve and emission flux characteristic curve were constructed by measuring results.  Results  The results showed that the N2O concentration at 3.5 m above the shed area of the vacant period was significantly lower than that of the planting period. The nighttime concentration during the vacant period was higher, and the daytime concentration during the planting period was higher. The concentration of N2O in the greenhouse decreased with the increase of height, and the difference of N2O concentration between different heights was significant, which was higher than the external background concentration. The result of the N2O daily emission characteristics by static box/gas chromatogram method and inverse dispersion technique had good consistency, but the former was generally higher than the latter. The average three-day emission flux measured by inverse dispersion technique was 192.2 μg/(m2·h). The average gas emission flux measured by static box/gas chromatogram was 252.5 μg/(m2·h). The difference was 26.8%. In both ways, the flux curve tended to be consistent across the entire growing season of the plant tomato. The cumulative emission flux measured by static box/gas chromatogram was 1817.5 g/hm2, and the emission factor was 0.45%. The cumulative emission flux measured by inverse dispersion technique was 1250.95 g/hm2, and the emission factor was 0.32%, which was 29% lower than that measured by the static box method.  Conclusions  The results of the inversion gas diffusion model and the static box/gas chromatography method on the N2O flux in the vegetable field planting area have good consistency. But the results of the inverse dispersion technique are significantly lower than those of the static box/gas chromatogram method. However, the inversion gas diffusion model has a high degree of automation, which can monitor the whole process of N2O emission in the vegetable field with high density and is suitable for observation in a large area. It provides a reference for the existing measurement methods and provides new ideas for establishing a diversified N2O emission monitoring system.
Effects of different organic resources application combined with chemical fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of main grain crops in China
WEI Wen-liang, LIU Lu, QIU Heng-hao
2020, 26(8): 1384-1394.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19511
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  Objectives  The remarkable growth in agricultural production in China largely relies on the heavy input of chemical fertilizers, which causes ecosystem safety and sustainable concerns. We summarized the field experiment data published across China over the past decades, trying to find out the potential of organic source replacement in total nitrogen fertilizer input in the main grain crop production of China, and to provide a base for the fertilizer reducing project of the country.  Methods  The data of crop yield and nitrogen application rate were only collected in the experiments of ≤ 5 years, and the considered treatments included no fertilizer control (CK), chemical nitrogen (F), organic resources (ORs), organic resources plus chemical nitrogen (F+ORs). The crop yield increment, N use efficiencies were compared between the chemical fertilizer treatments and chemical plus organic resources ones.  Results  Pairwise comparison showed that, compared to the CK, F, ORs and F+ORs significantly increased crop yield by 58.7%, 32.1% and 61.8%, respectively. Compared to F, the crop yields were not significantly changed in ORs treatments, but those of F+ORs were significantly increased (7.4%). According to the results of experiments containing all the four treatments, the average crop yields in CK, F, ORs and F+ORs were 4778, 7000, 6009 and 7422 kg/hm2, respectively. The yields in the fertilization treatments were significantly higher than those of CK, but not significant between F+ORs and F, and those in both F+ORs and F were significantly higher than those in ORs. Yield improving effect depended on crop types and organic resources. In addition, the chemical N input in F+ORs treatments was generally not decreased, while the nitrogen partial factor productivity (PFPN) was improved significantly (32.5%). The PFPN in wheat, maize and rice were increased from 35.0, 45.2, 42.8 kg/kg in the F treatments to 45.2, 60.6, 56.4 kg/kg in F+ORs, respectively. The replacing potential of chemical N were different among the organic resources. The chemical N application rate in treatments of F+ORs containing farm manure and straws were similar to those in F, while the PFPN were significantly increased by 9.4% and 71.7%, respectively. In F+ORs using biogas-residue, the chemical N proportion was often reduced, and the PFPN was thus significantly increased by 90.3%.  Conclusions  Through large number of field experiment results of longer or shorter periods in China, we conclude that proper rate of chemical nitrogen fertilizer application is necessary for maintaining the high and stable yields of wheat, maize and rice in China. Under the current soil fertility levels, combining application of chemical fertilizer and organic resources could further increase the yields and fertility of farmlands, in case of not reducing the chemical N input; otherwise would not decrease the yield but increase the PFPN when there is no extra N input from the organic resources. Among the organic resources, manure and biogas-residue are available to replace a certain proportion of chemical N, while straw returning is not suggested.
Improving winter wheat N utilization efficiency and soil fertility through replacement of chemical N by 20% organic manure
SHEN Chang-wei, YUAN Jing-ping, LI Xin-hua, ZHANG Shuai-lei, REN Xiu-juan, WANG Fei, LIU Xing, ZHANG Ying, OU Xing-qi, CHEN Xi-ling
2020, 26(8): 1395-1406.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19504
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  Objectives  The effects of different proportion of organic N in the total N input on winter wheat yield and soil fertility were explored. The purpose of this study is to provide technical support for selecting suitable replacement proportion of organic fertilizer, improving N use efficiency and high-quality wheat yield for winter wheat in the north of Henan Province.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted in 2018 and 2019 using a new wheat variety Bainong 207 as experimental material. Treatments of no N fertilizer (T1), conventional N fertilizer input (T2) and three proportion of organic N (20%, 30% and 40%, recorded as T3, T4 and T5) were set up in the experiment. The wheat yield, yield components, N accumulation and allocation ratio in different organs, N use efficiency and soil fertility were investigated at harvest.  Results  Compared with T2 treatment in 2018 and 2019, the replacement ratio of 20% (T3) achieved stable increased yield of winter wheat. Under the T3 treatment in 2019, the yield was increased significantly by 16.59%, while T4 and T5 treatments decreased the yield increment. Compared to T2, the total N accumulation of plants under the T3 treatment was significantly increased by 25.71% in 2019; the N accumulation of grains was significantly increased by 14.45% and 22.20% in 2018 and 2019, respectively; under the T3 treatment, the N partial factor productivity, N recovery efficiency, N agronomic efficiency were significantly higher than those under the T2 treatment. Application of organic manure for two consecutive years had little effect on soil total N content. However, the contents of available P, NH4+-N and NO3-N in the soil were significantly increased under the T3 treatment in 2018 and 2019. According to the correlation analysis, wheat yield was significantly and positively correlated with total N accumulation in plant, grain N accumulation and spike number per area. The spike number per area was positively and correlated with the contents of NH4+-N and NO3-N in soil.  Conclusions  At the base of total N input of 300 kg/hm2, replacing a certain proportion of N with organic fertilizers for two consecutive years is capable of increasing soil fertility and winter wheat yield. Under the current soil fertility condition, replacement of chemical N by 20% organic fertilizer could significantly increase the grain N accumulation, improve wheat N use efficiency and yield, and ensure the goal of stable and high yield of winter wheat in northern Henan.
Maintaining yields and improving nitrogen use efficiencies and economic benefits of rice and wheat by double fertilization of combining basal dressing with top dressing at heading stage
NING Yun-wang, ZHANG Hui, WANG Lei, XU Xian-ju, WANG Ji-dong, MA Hong-bo, ZHU De-jin, HUANG Hui, WANG Shao-hua, MA Chao-hong, ZHANG Yong-chun
2020, 26(8): 1407-1419.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19453
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  Objectives  It is generally believed that increasing fertilization times under the same dosage of fertilizer is conducive to improve fertilizer efficiencies, however, too frequent fertilization often leads to excessive fertilizer input in actual production of rice and wheat in Jiangsu. Single fertilization is still controversial, double fertilization pattern of basal dressing with top dressing at tillering stage has been found insufficient N supply during the late growth of rice. It is important to study the effects of fertilization pattern of basal dressing with top dressing at heading stage of rice and wheat, and the availability of reducing chemical fertilizer.  Methods  From 2016 to 2019, a positioning field experiment in rice-wheat rotation was conducted to investigate yield and yield components, cumulative nitrogen (N) efficiencies and surplus. The positioning experiment had seven treatments, including no N control (CK), conventional fertilization (CF), recommended fertilization (compare with CF, nitrogen application rate was reduced by 18.2% in rice and by 22.2% in wheat, RF), and treatments using four types of nitrogen fertilizer as basal combined with topdressing at heading stage (BH) under the recommended N rate, including urea (U), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), polyolefin-coated urea (PCU) and urea + 5% dicyandiamide (NIU). During 2018 to 2019, the BH fertilization pattern were applied in demonstration field experiment, in which, the basal applied N were from two compound fertilizers, improved formula fertilizer (IFF) using U as N source and stable compound fertilizer (SCF) containing nitrification inhibitor. The fertilization costs and planting benefits were compared to that of farmer’s practice (FP).  Results  According to the results of the positioning experiment, the RF had no significant effect on rice and wheat grain yields compared with CF, and the BH treatments of different N sources also had no effects on rice and wheat grain yields compared with RF. As the reduction of N amount, cumulative N efficiencies were significantly increased and the cumulative N surplus was significantly decreased. However, cumulative N efficiencies and N surplus were not affected by the reduction of fertilization times. Under the same N application rate of double fertilization of BH, NIU-BH had a better performance in rice and wheat, PCU-BH had a unstable performance in wheat. According to the results of the demonstration experiment, under the condition of 18.2%–33.8% N reduction in rice, the rice yields in IFF-BH and SCF-BH treatments were respectively increased by 1.8%–4.5% and 2.6%–6.1%, fertilization costs were respectively decreased by 1069–1538 yuan/hm2 and 473–1029 yuan/hm2, and the net incomes were respectively increased by 1950–2270 yuan/hm2 and 1168–2126 yuan/hm2. Under the condition of 30.0% N reduction in wheat, the wheat yield were respectively increased by 0.7% and 9.7%, fertilization costs were respectively decreased by 1132 yuan/hm2 and 495 yuan/hm2, and net incomes were respectively increased by 1387 yuan/hm2 and 2045 yuan/hm2.  Conclusions  Under the condition of this study, both positioning and demonstration experiments had proved that, the double fertilization method was available in keeping rice and wheat yields, improving N efficiencies and planting benefits under the premise of 18.2%–33.8% current N input through basal application with topdressing at heading stage and combining the selection of a suitable type of fertilizer as base fertilizer.
Variation in nitrogen status indicators with grain yield level for winter wheat after rice
DU Yu-xiao, LI Xin-ge, ZHANG Yu, CHENG Tao, LIU Xiao-jun, TIAN Yong-chao, ZHU Yan, CAO Wei-xing, CAO Qiang
2020, 26(8): 1420-1429.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19498
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  Objectives  To identify the variation in N status indicators with different yield levels for winter wheat after rice in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and provide a theoretical basis for the real-time diagnosis of N status in field.  Methods  In this study, the big data of wheat with different yield levels were collected based on the field experiments of different N rates, sowing dates, densities and varieties in Jiangsu Province during past years. The dynamic changes of dry matter accumulation (DMA), plant N accumulation (PNA), and plant N concentration (PNC) of wheat with different yield levels at different growth stages were analyzed. The plant critical N concentration, the accumulated N deficit (Nand) and N nutrition index (NNI) were calculated, and then the characteristics of N status indicators of high-yield wheat were clarified.  Results  With the development of wheat growth, the trends of DMA and PNA were consistent, which showed gradually increasing trends. The PNC decreased gradually while the Nand and NNI were fluctuated. During the whole growth stages, there was no significant difference in DMA and PNA between high and middle yield wheat. The high yield and middle yield wheat had significantly higher PNA than the low-middle yield wheat, and the low-middle yield wheat had significantly higher PNA than the low yield wheat. The high yield and middle yield wheat had significantly higher DMA than the low-middle yield wheat, while the low-middle yield wheat had significantly higher DMA than the low yield wheat. Judging the N nutrition status based on the Nand, the Nand trend of high and middle yield wheat was consistent. During the rising stage, the Nand of high yield wheat decreased from 0.3 kg/hm2 to −23.0 kg/hm2, and the middle yield wheat decreased from 7.0 kg/hm2 to −14.6 kg/hm2, and the booting-heading stage showed a increase trend again, the high yield wheat increased from −23.0 kg/hm2 to −11.4 kg/hm2, and the middle yield wheat increased from −14.6 kg/hm2 to 2.4 kg/hm2, and the fluctuation was small during the flowering-filling stage. It was showed that the N nutrition of high yield wheat was surplus except the rising stage, and the N nutrition of middle yield wheat at the jointing-booting stage was less than 0, which was greater than 0 at the rest stages, but the Nand of this yield level wheat had always been within the appropriate range fluctuation. During the rising-jointing stage, the Nand of low-middle yield level wheat decreased from 14.2 kg/hm2 to 9.5 kg/hm2, and then gradually increased, and the highest value was 43.9 kg/hm2 in filling stage. The Nand of low yield level wheat increased from 17.3 kg/hm2 to 71.1 kg/hm2 in the rising-filling stage. It showed that the nitrogen nutrition of low-middle and low yield level wheat gradually decreased and it was in a deficit state throughout the whole growth stage (Nand > 0). In the jointing, booting, heading and filling stages, the actual PNC of high yield level wheat was higher than the critical PNC, and the actual PNC of middle yield at the booting stage was higher than the critical PNC, while the actual PNC of low-middle and low yield levels wheat was lower than the critical PNC throughout the whole growth stage. The NNI of high yield and middle yield wheat fluctuated around 1. Among them, the NNI of high yield increased from 0.9 to 1.1 during the rising-booting stage. In heading-filling stage, the NNI decreased first and then increased, and the values were 1.0, 0.9 and 1.0, respectively. The change trend of the middle yield and high yield wheat was consistent. The NNI at the rising-booting stage increased from 0.8 to 1.0, and then gradually decreased. The values were both less than 1, and in the heading-filling stage were 0.9, 0.9 and 0.9, respectively. The NNI of low-middle and low yield wheat was always lower than 1, and among them, the NNI of low-middle yield wheat was increased from 0.7 to 0.8 during the rising-jointing stage, and then gradually decreased. The NNI of low yield wheat was gradually decreased from the rising-flowering stage, and the NNI of the two yield level wheat showed a slight upward trend during the filling stage.  Conclusions  With the increase of yield level, DMA, PNA, PNC, NNI increase correspondingly, while the Nand decreases. Higher DMA and PNA are the main reasons for the increase of wheat yield. In the process of wheat growth, both NNI and Nand can be used for diagnosing N status accurately, which can provide theoretical support for precision N management in fields.
Availability of fertilizer recommendation for winter wheat based on Nutrient Expert System in Yangtze River Valley
HUANG Xiao-meng, XU Xin-peng, WANG Xiu-bin, YANG Lan-fang, HE Ping, QIU Shao-jun, ZHAO Shi-cheng, ZHOU Wei
2020, 26(8): 1430-1439.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20179
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  Objectives  In the Yangtze River Valley, winter wheat field experiments were conducted with the NPK application rate recommended by the Nutrient Expert for Winter Wheat (NE), which was based on yield response and agronomic efficiency for wheat in the Yangtze River Valley, to evaluate the effect of the NE on winter wheat in the Yangtze River Valley.  Methods  In 2019, 50 on-farm experiments were conducted in Sichuan, Yunnan, Anhui, Hubei, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, China. Each experiment included five treatments: nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizer input calculated using Nutrient Expert for Winter Wheat (NE), farmers' practices (FP), and N omission, P omission or K omission treatments based on the NE treatment. The difference between NE and FP was compared in terms of yield, economic benefit, fertilizer use efficiency, nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas emissions.  Results  Compared with FP treatment, NE treatment significantly reduced the application rates of N, P and K fertilizers (P < 0.001), with decrement by 57, 10 and 8 kg/hm2, or by about 26.6%, 13.3% and 12.9%. The wheat yield was significantly increased by 365 kg/hm2 or by 7.9% in average (P < 0.001). The fertilizer cost was significantly reduced by an average of 429 yuan/hm2, or by 20.9% (P < 0.001). The economic benefit was significantly increased by an average of 1446 yuan/hm2, or by 17.7%, in which 55.5% of all the increased economic benefit was from the increase in yield (P < 0.001). NE treatment significantly improved the fertilizer use efficiency of winter wheat in the Yangtze River Valley (P < 0.001). Compared with FP treatment, the agronomic efficiency (AE) of N, P and K were increased by 6.5, 8.3 and 8.6 kg/kg, or by 67.7%, 143.1% and 159.3%. The partial factor productivity (PFP) were increased by 10.9, 17.9 and 24.8 kg/kg, or by 49.1%, 28.8% and 34.4%. The recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P and K were increased by 15.3, 11.9 and 27.2 percentage points, or by 52.9%, 132.2% and 87.7%, respectively. NE treatment significantly increased N uptake in aboveground part (P < 0.001) and significantly decreased N loss (P < 0.001). N uptake of aboveground part in NE treatment was 3.0 kg/hm2 higher than that of FP on average, with an increase of 2.5%; by contrast, the reactive N losses intensity of NE was N 4.0 kg/t (37.7%) less than that of FP on average; NE had a decrease of an average of 0.7 kg/hm2 in the total N2O emission compared to FP, with a decrease of 28.0%; the greenhouse gas emissions intensity of NE showed an average decrease of CO2 eq 308.4 kg/t (36.5%), compared with that of FP.  Conclusions  The results of winter wheat field experiments in the Yangtze River Valley have proved the availability of the Nutrient Expert for Winter Wheat (NE). Using the method, the N, P, K fertilizer rates could be reduced by 26.6%, 13.3% and 12.9%, while the yield, economic benefit and fertilizer use efficiencies be improved significantly, and the N loss and greenhouse gas emission are effectively reduced. So the NE method is available with or without soil test results and is suitable for the winter wheat in the Yangtze River Valley of China.
Vertical distribution of soil organic and inorganic carbon pools in soils of northern China and their relationship under different land use types
ZHANG Xu-bo, LI Xiong, XU Meng, SUN Nan, SHI Fei
2020, 26(8): 1440-1450.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19421
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  Objectives  The changes of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) storage strongly influence the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in semi-arid and arid regions. Investigation of the vertical distribution of SIC and its transformation along soil profiles under different land use types will improve the prediction of the response of soil carbon storage to global change and the mitigation of CO2 emission.  Methods  Soil organic carbon (SOC) and SIC data were extracted from published studies conducted in China from 1990 to 2018. Changes in SOC and SIC contents, and SOC/SIC along soil profile of 0–100 cm under deserted land, shrub, grassland, forest and cropland were quantified. The relationships between the SOC and SIC under different land use types were then investigated with correlation analyses.  Results  SOC content decreased with the increase of soil depth, while the characteristics of SIC content changing with soil depth were significantly different among land use types. At 0–60 cm layer, crop and grass lands had higher SOC content, and shrub lands were characterized with higher SIC contents, whereas the contents of SOC and SIC were significantly lower ( P <0.05) in the deserted land. At 60–100 cm layer, the SOC and SIC contents of shrub and deserted lands were significantly lower than those of the other three land use types. At 0–20 cm soil layer, the SOC/SIC of cropland was the highest (0.80 ± 0.05), while those of deserted land (0.40 ± 0.02) and shrub land (0.50 ± 0.03) were significantly lower than the other land use types. At 20–60 cm soil layer, the SOC/SIC of grass and crop lands were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of deserted and shrub lands. At 60–100 cm soil layer, the SOC/SIC of grassland compared to the other four land use types was significantly higher compared to the other four land use types. SOC and SIC contents significantly and positively correlated with each other through the soil profiles under deserted, shrub, forest (except for 60–80 cm) and crop lands, where as they were negatively and correlated under grassland. By calculation, the estimated SIC stock in 0–100 cm soil accounted for 60%–80% of the total soil carbon pool (SOC+SIC). SOC that stored in 0–100 cm of grassland soil was C (56.65 ± 4.00) kg/m2, which was 1.6–3.7 times of the other four land use types. The deserted land possessed the lowest SIC stock [C (51.05 ± 5.11) kg/m2], which was 51.1%–57.5% of those under the other land use types.  Conclusions  In semi-arid and arid regions of China, input of organic carbon sources such as straw, root and litter debris under crop, grass, shrub and forest lands can stimulate the decomposition of soil microorganisms and the transformation of SOC into SIC, which promote the sequestration of atmospheric CO2, whereas the deserted lands have negative effect on atmospheric CO2 sequestration due to the less vegetation cover, weaker biochemical weathering processes and less resistant to disruption. Furthermore, management practices such as irrigation, cultivation and fertilization in cropland can induce the vertical transferring of carbonate into deeper soil layers, which lead to the accumulation of SIC in subsoil and increase the potential of CO2 sequestration. By contrast, the transportation of water from deeper soil by root systems of shrub can drive the transferring of carbonate into surface layer, and result in an decrease of SIC storage and CO2 sequestration in deep soil layers.
Effects of straw returning on soil organic carbon components in ratoon rice field
YOU Jin-wei, WANG Jun, HU Hong-qing, WANG Hui, YE Lei
2020, 26(8): 1451-1458.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19438
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  Objectives  Under the ratoon rice system, the effects of straw returning on the soil organic carbon components and nutrient contents were investigated through field plot trials.  Methods  In a ratoon rice system experiment, four rice straw treatments were designed, including no rice straw returning (CK), straw return of 7500 kg/hm2 (SH), straw return of 15000 kg/hm2 (SW) and organic matter-decomposing inoculant application plus straw of return 15000 kg/hm2 (SWF). The soil organic carbon and its components and soil nutrient contents were analyzed.  Results  Compared with the control, straw returning could improve the contents of soil organic C and its components in ratoon rice fields. Compared with CK treatments at the harvesting stage of the main rice and ratoon rice, the contents of dissolved organic C in the straw returning treatments (SH, SW, SWF) were increased significantly by 19.62%–22.63% and 20.99%–41.48%, respectively. The content of particulate organic C was increased significantly by 8.47%–20.62% and 24.71%–30.90%, respectively. The difference of soil organic C, humic acid and fulvic acid among the three straw treatments was not obvious. The straw returning could change the structures of dissolved organic matter, making them tend to simple. The contents of alkaline N, available P, readily available K and NH4+-N all showed an increasing trend under straw returning. At the main rice harvest, the alkaline N, available P and readily available K in SWF treatment were significantly higher than those in CK. At the ratoon rice harvest, compared with main rice harvest, soil available nutrient content of CK treatment decreased, while those of straw treatments increased.  Conclusions  Straw returning can increase the content of soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and humic acid components in ratoon rice field, the soil dissolved organic matter structure tended to change, and the supply capacity of soil nutrients is improved.
Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on inorganic phosphorus forms of typical farmland soil in the dry farming area of the Loess Plateau
JIAO Ya-peng, QI Peng, WANG Xiao-jiao, YAO Yi-ming, WU Jun, CAI Li-qun, ZHANG Ren-zhi
2020, 26(8): 1459-1472.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20063
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  Objectives  The transformation characteristics of soil inorganic phosphorus forms under different nitrogen and phosphorus application conditions and the factors affecting the conversion of inorganic phosphorus forms were discussed. It provides a reference for the efficient use of phosphorus in farmland and soil nutrient balance in the dry farming area of Longzhong Loess Plateau.  Methods  Based on the long-term positioning experiment of different nitrogen and phosphorus combined application of spring wheat set in Mazichuan Village, Lijiabao Town, Dingxi City, Longzhong Loess Plateau in 2017, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P2O5) were set at 4 levels, respectively, 0, 75.0, 115.0, 190.0 kg/hm2, a total of 16 treatments in pairs. Using Gu Yichu-Jiang Bofan method to determine the content of each form of inorganic phosphorus forms in the soil after harvest (0–20 cm), as well as environmental factors (soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Olsen-P, pH, grain yield, biomass,apparent recovery efficiency of applied phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase).  Results  The distribution order of inorganic phosphorus forms in soil is Ca10-P > Ca8-P > O-P > Fe-P ≈ Al-P > Ca2-P. The content of inorganic phosphorus is mainly Ca-P, and the other three forms of Al-P, Fe-P and O-P account for about 20% of the total inorganic phosphorus. Phosphorus application significantly increased the phosphorus content of each inorganic phosphorus form in the soil. Nitrogen application significantly reduced the phosphorus content of other inorganic phosphorus components except O-P and Ca8-P, and O-P increased significantly. Nitrogen application has little effect on the change of the proportion of each inorganic phosphorus form. The proportion of Ca2-P and Ca8-P in the total inorganic phosphorus increased with the increase of phosphorus application, and the proportion of Ca10-P and O-P showed a significant downward trend with the increase of phosphorus application. The proportion of Fe-P in inorganic phosphorus is basically unchanged with the increase of phosphorus application. In this study, soil available phosphorus was significantly positively correlated with Ca2-P, Ca8-P, Fe-P, O-P (P < 0.01), and significantly positively correlated with Al-P (P < 0.05), while correlated with Ca10-P did not significantly (P > 0.05). Path analysis results show that the direct contribution of various forms of inorganic phosphorus to available phosphorus is Ca2-P > O-P > Al-P > Ca10-P > Fe-P > Ca8-P. In this area, Ca2-P is the main source of available phosphorus in the soil, and Ca8-P and Fe-P are potential sources of phosphorus. Nitrogen application significantly increased soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain yield, biomass, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN),microbial biomass P (MBP), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), apparent recovery efficiency of applied phosphorus, and reduced total phosphorus, available phosphorus, and pH. Phosphorus application significantly increased total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, grain yield, biomass, MBC, MBN, MBP, ALP, and reduced organic carbon. Redundancy analysis results show that soil organic carbon is a key factor affecting the change of soil inorganic phosphorus forms in the farmland layer of spring wheat farmland in the Longzhong Loess Plateau; Ca8-P with total nitrogen, Al-P with apparent recovery efficiency of applied phosphorus, O-P with grain yield, Fe-P with biomass, alkaline phosphatase and microbial biomass nitrogen is significantly and positively correlated, and soil organic carbon is negatively correlated with each inorganic phosphorus form.  Conclusions  The combined application of nitrogen and phosphorus can promote the activation of soil phosphorus, increase the ratio of Ca2-P available for plant direct use and Ca8-P, Al-P with slow-acting effect, and reduce the insoluble Ca10-P in soil. The ratio of O-P improves the potential phosphorus supply capacity of the soil. Soil organic carbon is a key factor regulating the conversion of soil phosphorus forms in the plow layer.
The availability of ammonium polyphosphate in soil and the impacting factors
XIONG Zi-yi, QIU Ye, GUO Lin-yu, GUO Tao, SHI Wen-hao
2020, 26(8): 1473-1480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19486
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Abstract:
  Objectives  The purpose of this study is to clarify the changes of available P when ammonium polyphosphate is applied into soil and the impacting factors to phosphorus availability, and provide a reference for the reasonable and efficient application of ammonium polyphosphate.  Methods   A cultivation experiment and a pot experiment were carried out using two types of soil in different pH value and maize as test material. The cultivation experiment lasted 331 hours (14 days). At the equal nutrient supply (P2O5 83.8 mg/kg), the cultivation experiment included four treatments: no phosphate application (CK), mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), ammonium polyphosphate with polymerization degree of 4 (APP-4) and 6 (APP-6). Soil available P was determined at 0, 3, 24, 96, 144, 240 and 331 h after fertilization. At the equal nutrient supply (N 0.400 g/pot, P2O5 0.764 g/pot, K2O 0.386 g/pot) in the pot experiment, five phosphorous fertilizer treatments were setup: no phosphate application (CK), mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), superphosphate (SSP), ammonium polyphosphate with polymerization degrees of 4 (APP-4) and 6 (APP-6). The plants were harvested after transplanting 30 days for the determination of dry weight and total phosphorus contents. The soil was sampled for measurement of the pH and Olsen-P content.  Results   Compared with the MAP, APP increased the content of Olsen-P in soil. In acid soil, the phosphate utilization rates in APP-4 and APP-6 treatment were 49.5% and 84.3% higher than that in the SSP. Compared with the SSP, the APP-4 and APP-6 increased the phosphate utilization rate by 307.3% and 316.2% in alkaline soil, the APP increased the total phosphorus content of aboveground part of maize by 7.9%–12.4% and the APP-6 increased the total phosphorus content of underground part of maize by 13.5% in acid soil. In alkaline soil, the total phosphorus content of aboveground and underground part of maize in APP treatment were 175.0%–177.6% and 111.2% higher than those in the SSP treatment. The phosphorus uptake by maize in the APP-4 and APP-6 treatment were increased by 43.3% and 74.0% relative to the SSP treatment in acid soil and increased by 244.6% and 251.7% in alkaline soil. The application of APP increased the dry weight of maize significantly. Compared with the SSP, APP increased the dry weight of aboveground and underground part of maize by 17.2%–51.9% and 13.3%–49.5%.  Conclusions  Ammonium polyphosphate can maintain a relatively higher content and longer period of soil available phosphorus compared with mono-ammonium phosphate, so could promote the growth of maize and use efficiency of phosphorous significantly. The degree of polymerization and soil pH affect the availability of ammonium polyphosphate greatly. Polymerization degree of 6 is better than that of 4, and the availability of ammonium polyphosphate performs better in alkaline soil than that in acid soil.
Effects of phosphorus application depth on the growth and root distribution of tartary buckwheat in infertile soil under water stress
XUE Xiao-jiao, ZHANG Yong-qing, MA Xing-xing, YANG Tian, LI Ping-ping, ZHANG Wen-yan, WANG Ru
2020, 26(8): 1481-1491.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19512
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Abstract:
  Objectives  Root morphology affects crop tolerance to drought. We attempted to improve the root growth in deep soil through a suitable application depth of phosphorous fertilizer, in order to provide an effective nutrient management way for the growth of tartary buckwheat.  Methods  Using 'Heifeng1' buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L.) as the test material, an experiment was carried out using root canal soil column cultivation method. Three soil moisture treatments were setup as the field water capacity of 65%–75% (W1), 45%–55% (W2) and 35%–45% (W3), under each water treatment, phosphorous fertilizer were placed at 10 cm (P10), 20 cm (P20), 30 cm (P30) deep and at all the three depth (P-all). Buckwheat seedlings with three-leaves-one-sprout were cultivated for 22 days before sampling. The biomass of shoot and root were weighted, and the growth and root distribution of buckwheat were measured.  Results  Drought stress inhibited the growth, dry biomass accumulation and root development of tartary buckwheat plants. Among them, W3 inhibited the most. Compared with W1, the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area of tartary buckwheat in W3 were decreased by 17.20%, 18.03% and 23.17%, respectively. The root length, root surface area and root volume were decreased by 16.97%, 20.39% and 17.39%, respectively. The dry mass of above-ground and root decreased by 39.16% and 28.60%, respectively. Drought stress promoted root infiltration and increased root distribution in deep soil. Compared with W1, the average root length of 0–10 and 10–20 cm soil layers under W2 and W3 were decreased by 30.18% and 27.55%, 41.83% and 41.02%, and the root dry mass decreased by 36.62% and 33.61%, 49.72% and 48.11%, respectively, while the average root length of tartary buckwheat in 20–30 cm and 30–45 cm soil layers were increased by 33.53% and 42.52%, 31.74% and 50.95%, and the root dry mass were increased by 13.70% and 26.84%, 5.85% and 28.64%, respectively. P application could increase the root growth in the layer of P placement. Compared with the P-all treatment, the root length in 10–20 cm soil layer under the P10 treatment, that at 20–30 cm soil layer under P20 treatment and that at 30–45 cm soil layer under P30 treatment were increased by 18.96%, 32.39% and 28.73%, respectively, the root dry mass of the three placement depths were increased by 26.62%, 30.74% and 24.65%, respectively. Under all the three water conditions, the dry root mass in both 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm soil layers of P10 were significantly higher than those of the other P treatments, and the difference of dry root mass among the other P treatments was significant as well.  Conclusions  Under drought stress, the placement depth of phosphorous significantly affects the distribution of tartary buckwheat roots in soil, suitable application depth could stimulate the roots access to deeper soil layers, which provides the roots with larger room to absorb soil nutrients and water, and ultimately promoting the growth of tartary buckwheat. Under the experimental conditions, applying P at 10 cm depth is recommended.
Mitigative effect of biochar on saline-alkali stress in sugar beet under reduced nitrogen condition
CHEN Jing-ting, WU Pei-ran, LIU Xin-yu, ZHANG Shu-you, LIU Lei, WANG Yu-bo, LI Cai-feng
2020, 26(8): 1492-1500.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19503
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  Objectives  The paper studied the effects of biochar on soil microbial population, the activities of enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism, yield and sugar content of sugar beet under saline-alkali stress, in order to clarify the mitigation effect of biochar on saline-alkali stress and the possibility of reducing nitrogen fertilizer input.  Methods  A pot experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Northeast Agricultural University in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province in 2018. The sugar beet cultivar of KWS0143 was used as the test material, and neutral and alkaline salts were added to make a saline-alkali stress soil for the experiment. There were total of six treatments, among them, saline-alkali soil applied with N 180 kg/hm2 was used as control (CK), and in the other five treatments, biochar were added in rate of 30 g/kg soil, and N were applied in rates of 180, 162, 144, 126 and 108 kg/hm2 in turn. The seedling emergence rate of sugar beet was measured when cotyledon was fully expanded. The population of soil bacteria and fungi were measured every 20 days since the six-leaf stage of sugar beet, and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) in leaves were analyzed at the same time. Sugar content was analyzed after harvest.  Results  The population of soil fungi and bacteria were significantly increased by the application of biochar under saline-alkali stress. BC+N180 treatment significantly increased the amount of actinomycetes, BC+N126 treatment increased the amount of bacteria, but BC+N162 treatment was more suitable for the survival of fungi in the soil. After the application of biochar, the activities of enzymes were significantly improved, and the activities of NR in BC+N162 and BC+N144 treatments were higher than that in CK. Except the 117th and 138th day after sowing, the activity of GS in BC+N144 treatment was significantly higher than that in control, and the activity of GOGAT in BC+N144 treatment was always significantly higher than that in CK. Except the 53th and 138th day after sowing, the activity of GOGAT in BC+N126 treatment was significantly higher than that in CK. Applying biochar increased the sugar beet root yield and sugar content significantly, except that in BC+N108 treatment. At the base of applying biochar, BC+N162 treatment obtained similar root and sugar yield as BC+N180 treatment, and significantly higher root and sugar yield than BC+N144 and BC+N108 treatments.  Conclusions  The application of biochar is effective to alleviate the saline-alkali stress on the population of soil microorganisms and increase the activities of enzymes related to the metabolism of beet nitrogen, and improve the yield and sugar content consequently. Under the condition of the experiment, the application of 3% biochar in soil can save 10%–20% of nitrogen fertilizer input.
Effects of NPK fertilization on the response of root growth and nutrient absorption of seedlings of Cypress funebris to calcium addition in low fertility soil
ZHENG Yi, ZHANG Zhen, JIN Guo-qing, FENG Zhong-ping, ZHOU Zhi-chun, DUAN Bing
2020, 26(8): 1501-1512.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19468
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  Objectives  To explore the response of root development and nutrient absorption of Cupressus funebris families to calcium addition under different nutrients, to provide theoretical basis for improving cypress seedling quality, forest productivity and forestland selection.  Methods  1-year-old seedlings of 5 cypress families were used as materials to set up CaSO4 0, 3 and 6 g/kg treatments (Ca0, Ca3 and Ca6) in 3 g/kg NPK and no NPK fertilizer plot. The responses of cypress family growth, root morphology and N, P and Ca absorption to CaSO4 fertilizer were analyzed.  Results  In 3 g/kg NPK fertilizer plot, the addition of calcium had no significant effect on the seedling height, dry matter weight, N and P absorption of cypress, but inhibited the development of D2 and D3 roots, the Ca absorption of cypress was the highest under Ca6 treatment, which was higher than Ca0 treatment by 73.86%. There was significant difference in seedling height, dry matter weight and N, P and Ca absorption among 5 cypress families, and T2 families performed best. In no NPK fertilizer plot, Ca3 treatment significantly increased the seedling height and root and stem dry matter weight, P and Ca absorption, which were respectively higher than Ca0 treatment by 9.15%, 19.85%, 16.67%, 27.46% and 44.02%. Ca6 treatment increased Ca absorption, which was higher than Ca0 treatment by 39.95%, but inhibited the seedling height and the development of D1–D4 root system. With or without NPK fertilizer application, families and CaSO4 treatments had significant interaction effects on cypress height and root dry matter weight.  Conclusions  When NPK fertilizer is applied in low fertility soil, Ca fertilizer will not affect the growth of aboveground and root parts of cypress seedlings, but cypress families will. Without application of NPK fertilizer, applying a certain rate of Ca fertilizer could improve the Ca and P absorption, and the development of fine roots of the cypress seedlings. Therefore, good families should be considered firstly for seedling cultivation and afforestation, the supply of CaSO4 is not so necessary under application of NPK fertilizer and can add a certain rate of Ca fertilizer under no NPK fertilization.
Transcriptome and alternative splicing analysis of cadmium response mechanisms in the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Tor-1
XIAO Yan, YAO Jun-yue, LIAO Qiong, WU Xiu-wen, SONG Hai-xing, LUO Jin-song, ZHANG Zhen-hua
2020, 26(8): 1513-1525.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19510
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  Objectives  The Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype was used to study the adaptive mechanism of root system to cadmium (Cd) stress, providing physiological basis and theoretical guidance for the development of Cd resistance gene and the cultivation of phytoremediation materials.  Methods  The Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Tor-1, with high Cd accumulation and high tolerance to Cd, was used to study the adaptive molecular mechanism of Tor-1 roots to Cd by analyzing the physiological changes, oxidative stress response and antioxidant enzyme activities, combining the transcriptome and alternative splicing analysis.  Results  Under Cd treatment, there was no significant difference in the length of main root and number of root tips in Tor-1, while the total root volume and surface area decreased, and the total root length decreased significantly, which all indicated that the roots of Tor-1 were damaged. Compared with the control, the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was slightly increased while proline concentration decreased significantly, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly under Cd treatment. GO enrichment showed that differential expression genes (DEGs) most significantly enriched in “the metabolic process” and “response to chemical” in the biological process category; in the cell components category, DEGs most significantly enriched in “the extracellular component function”; in the molecular function category, DEGs most significantly enriched in “antioxidant activity” and “heme binding function”. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway showed that a high proportion of induced DEGs was enriched in seven KEGG pathways, which were phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (4.49%); biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (14.45%); metabolic pathway (20.57%); glucosinolate biosynthesis (0.89%); glutathione metabolism (2.04%); henylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis (1.39%); and phenylalanine metabolism (1.14%). Under Cd treatment, the expression of most genes, which were related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and metabolism and glutathione (GSH) metabolism, were significantly up-regulated, while the expression of genes related to glucoside (GS) synthesis was inhibited, and alternative splicing was occurred simultaneously in the roots, in which the intron retention events occurred frequently.  Conclusions  Although the root morphology of Tor-1 will be damaged under Cd stress, it could still increase antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT), and actively reduce the damage of Cd to plants by regulating the biosynthesis and metabolism of phenylpropanoid, glucosinolate biosynthesis and glutathione metabolism, and through alternative splicing to actively adapt to Cd stress.
Activation of Se-enriched coal gangue and the efficient use of coal gangue Se fertilizer
LIU Xin-ping, WU Shao-wei, ZHANG Chi
2020, 26(8): 1526-1535.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19260
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  Objectives   The technology of producing Se fertilizer was studied using Se-rich coal gangue from solid waste ore.  Methods  The tested coal gangue was from Enshi, where was famous for rich of Se in the environment, and grounded to pass 0.038 mm for the experiment. Preliminary experiments were conducted with 6 levels of each single factor for the activation of Se, and three levels of each were accordingly selected for the following response surface optimization, which would give the optimal activation parameters eventually. The IR spectroscopy and TG thermogravimetry methods were employed to observe and analyze the activating and thermal effects of the bonds of Se with other metals before and after the activation in the coal gangue. The activated coal gangue was then blended with farm manure in ratio of 1∶1, 2∶1, 3∶1 and 4∶1, and fermented for one month to make activated coal gangue selenium organic fertilizers (organic Se fertilizer). A garlic field trial was conducted using the four organic Se fertilizers as treatments, and pure activated coal gangue Se and farm manure as controls. The total and organic Se contents in the garlic bulbs were measured at harvest.   Results  The single factor levels obtained from the single factor experiments were 10%, 20% and 30% for Na2CO3, 2.5 h, 3.5 h and 4.5 h for the activation time, 75℃, 85℃ and 95℃ for the activation temperature, and 1∶5, 1∶10 and 1∶15 for solid-liquid ratio (g/mL). The optimized activation condition by the response surface optimization were Na2CO3 22%, the activation time 3.9 h, the solid-liquid ratio 1∶9 g/mL and the activation temperature 85℃. Under the condition, the pH of the activated coal gangue was 7.6, and the maximum activation rate of Se was about 81.24%, and the active Se content was 170.82 mg/kg. Through the IR spectroscopy image, it could be seen that the bonds between Se and other symbiotic metal and nonmetal elements were broken, and the original crystalline network were broken too, indicating the Se in the coal gangue was unleashed. The derivative thermogravimetry curve had 2 peaks before activation within 100℃, while only 1 peak left near 100℃ after activation, the weightlessness situation was weaker than the non-activated as well, indicating the improved heat stability of the coal gangue. According to the Se content in the activated coal gangue, the Se contents in the prepared 4 Se organic fertilizers were roughly 85.41, 113.88, 128.05 and 136.66 mg/kg in turn. The total Se contents of the garlic bulbs applied with the coal gangue fertilizer and the four Se organic fertilizers were 1.033, 1.306, 1.480, 1.382, and 1.355 μg/g, respectively, which were all significantly higher than that in the none-selenium fertilizer control (P < 0.05). The organic Se rate of the garlic bulbs in the five fertilizer treatments reached 99%, which was higher than the 60% of the control. The four Se organic fertilizers produced significantly higher Se contents in garlic bulbs than the activated coal gangue did, with the highest Se content by the 2∶1 ratio mixed Se organic fertilizer.  Conclusions  The optimum process conditions of coal gangue using Na2CO3 as activator are: the Na2CO3 22%, activation time for 3.9 h, the solid-liquid ratio of 1∶9 g/mL at 85℃. Under the condition, the activation ratio of Se can be as high as 81.24%, and with good thermal stability. The preparation of Se organic fertilizer made by co-fermentation of farm manure and activated coal gangue can greatly increase the efficiency of the activated Se, and the optimum effect is under the mix ratio of 1∶2.
Effects of low protein feeding technology on maturity of the pig manure composting
XU Zhang-yi, ZHAO Shuai-xiang, MA Dong-li, ZHANG Wei-feng
2020, 26(8): 1536-1545.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19437
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  Objectives  It is difficult to store and treat pig manure due to its large production, low C/N and high water content. The aerobic stacking of pig manure results in low stacking efficiency due to the poor microbial activity environment provided by raw materials. The low protein feeding technology can reduce the nitrogen input in the feed without affecting the growth and development of pigs, and can change the nutrient composition of pig manure. This study analyzed whether pig manure produced by low protein diet feed could quickly and effectively reach maturity through different stacking methods and judging various organic manure maturity indexes, which met the safety application standards.  Methods  In animal experiments, 72 castrated boars with an initial weight of 50 kg were selected and divided into high and low protein feeding groups with 6 replicates for each group and 6 pigs for each replicate. The experimental pigs took 7 days to get used to the diets before the dung collection was started, and the whole collection period was 60 days long. The dung produced by both the high and low protein feeding groups were composted under static and aerobic conditions, the four treatments were namely high protein feeding static stacking (MH), low protein feeding static stacking (ML), high protein feeding aerobic stacking (CH), low protein feeding aerobic stacking (CL). The stack temperature, and the carbon and nitrogen contents were monitored during composting.  Results  The duration of high temperature, NH4+-N content, T value (ratio of final to initial C/N) and seed germination index (GI) are generally used as the judging indices of the maturity of composting. In a short period (14 days), the four indices in the composting of pig manure produced by traditional high protein feeding under static composting condition (MH) were 0 d, 0.43 g/kg, 0.91 and 0, respectively, failed to meet the maturity standard. Those of the pig manure compost produced by high protein feeding under aerobic condition were 5 d, 0.33 g/kg, 0.70 and 0.31, and the T value and GI value failed to meet the maturity standard. The four indices of pig manure produced by low protein feeding in static compost (ML) were 0 d, 0.54 g/kg, 0.81, 0.25, and failed to meet the standard of maturity, while in aerobic compost (CL), the four indexes were 6 d, 0.14 g/kg, 0.57, 0.96.  Conclusions  Neither manure produced by high protein feeding pigs under static and aerobic fermentation conditions nor manure produced by low protein feeding pigs under static condition can reach the standard of maturity within 14 days. Only the pig manures produced by low-protein feeding can be decomposed in 14 days under aerobic conditions. Therefore, decreasing protein content in feeding of pigs properly will help the rapid maturity of composting in the downstream of intensive farming.
Short communication
Oxygenated compound fertilizer could effectively increase redox potential of paddy soil and nutrient uptake of rice
HOU Jun, XU Zhou, ZHANG Ding-yue, ZHU Jian-qiang
2020, 26(8): 1546-1555.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19500
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  Objectives   Poor aeration in paddy soil is one of the main limiting factors for the growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). We tried to prepare oxygenated compound fertilizers to deal with the limitation.   Methods   Calcium peroxide, used as an oxygenous agent, was amended into a compound fertilizer (4.5–4.5–4.5) in ratio of 3.6% (OCF1), 4.8% (OCF2) and 6.1% (OCF3), and those new fertilizers were named oxygenated compound fertilizers (OCFs). A pot experiment was conducted using two rice cultivars of Q681 and EK1 as tested materials. In the experiment, water logging throughout whole rice growing (WL), irrigation with micro-bubble aerated water (MBWI) and fertilizing calcium peroxide 4 times (FCP) were used as controls, the three compound fertilizers were once basal applied separately. At the main growing stages of rice, soil samples were collected for determination of soil Eh, pH and mineral N content. The photosynthetic efficiency was measured, and the yield and NPK contents of rice were measured at the harvest stage.   Results   oxygenated treatments OCF2 and OCF3 could increase soil Eh without changing soil pH at the transplanting, tillering, full heading and milky stage. The Eh in the OCF1, OCF2 and OCF3 treatments at tillering stage and full heading stage were significantly higher than those in WL, MBWI and FCP treatments. OCFs also increased the activity of soil catalase at the full heading stage of rice. Compared with WL treatment, all the oxygenation treatments could maintain or improve the ammonium N content in the surface soil, and OCF2 and OCF3 treatments had the best effect. However, all the oxygenation treatments did not significantly increase soil nitrate N content, and OCFs only could keep or slightly increase soil nitrate N content. Compared with WL treatment, the photosynthetic rates in all oxygenation treatmentsof rice leaves were increased at different degrees, among which OCF3 treatment increased the most (> 11%), and significantly higher than that in FCP treatment. In OCF3 treatment, more than 25% higher effective panicle number, 38% higher 1000-grain weight and 107% higher yield were obtained than those in WL treatment, and the rice yield was 29%–58% higher than those in MBWI and FCP treatments. OCF3 treatment had highest yield response among the three OCFs.   Conclusions   Oxygenation is effective in keeping high soil aeration (Eh values) for long periods. Compared with irrigation with micro-bubble aerated water and applying CaO2 for several times, the application of oxygenated compound fertilizers is more effective and easier to operate, especially when the ratio of added CaO2 reaches 6.1%, which is an alternative way to increase the efficiency of special compound fertilizer for rice.
Effect analysis of garden waste compost and cow manure substituting peat in Calendula officinalis cultivation
HAO Dan, ZHANG Lu, SUN Xiang-yang, GONG Xiao-qiang
2020, 26(8): 1556-1564.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19475
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  Objectives   Using garden waste compost and cow manure instead of imported peat to carry out soilless cultivation of Calendula officinalis, expecting to verify the availability of using garden waste compost and cow manure to replace imported peat.   Methods   In all the substrate, 10% perlite and 10% vermiculite (in volume) were added firstly, then the left 80% were garden waste compost and cow manure in mixed volume ratio of 4∶0 (T1), 3∶1 (T2), 2∶2 (T3), 1∶3 (T4) and 0∶4 (T5), and using 80% imported peat as control (T0). The marigold seedlings (Calendula officinalis L.) were grown for 180 days in a greenhouse before sampled. The root and aboveground parts fresh weight, root length, flower number, crown width and plant height of the samples were measured. The importance of these indexes was ranked by RDA analysis.   Results   The development of marigold roots in T0 and T1 treatment were better than that in T2 –T5 treatments; the growth of the aboveground part in T1 –T5 treatments was better than that in T0, with the highest plant height and crown width in T5 treatment, and the most flower number in T2 treatment. The biomass accumulation of marigold of T1 –T5 treatments was higher than that of T0. According to the RDA analysis, the growth, total fresh weight and aboveground fresh weight of marigold were mainly affected by the available P, readily available K, total N, pH, EC and bulk density of the cultivation substrate. The growth of the underground part was mainly affected by the EC, organic matter, total porosity, aeration pore and water holding pore of the cultivation substrate. The main morphological indexes were all the highest under the T1 treatment (0.72).   Conclusions   The mixture of garden waste compost and cow manure is suitable to all right to replace imported peat to make substrates for soilless cultivation of marigold. The best substrate is the composition of 10% vermiculite + 10% perlite + 80% garden waste compost, which has the best chemical and physical properties for the growth of both shoot and root development of Calendula officinalis, thus is recommended as the best cultivation substrate for Calendula officinalis production.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(5203) PDF 2130KB(1941)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(4953) PDF 2629KB(15551)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(3282) PDF 929KB(1655)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(4454) PDF 876KB(2203)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(5348) PDF 1767KB(1076)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(2532) PDF 1119KB(1166)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(6082) PDF 906KB(2089)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(3797) PDF 1163KB(1556)
Effects of  green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 19(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(4378) PDF 1194KB(724)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(3419) PDF 1228KB(1272)