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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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2020, (12): 1-5.  
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2020, 26(12): 2107-2107.  
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Comment on special topic
Situation and development direction for microbial fertilizer industry in the near future of China
LI Jun, JIANG Xin, MA Ming-chao
2020, 26(12): 2108-2114.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20638
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High efficiency, sustainability and brand establishment are becoming the main trend of agricultural development in China. Microbial fertilizers are listed as the new biological products for reaching the target and have the priority supports by the Chinese government. As a result, microbial fertilizer industry has achieved rapid development and progress in product quality. In this paper, the industry scale, recent development status and product characteristics of microbial fertilizers in China was reviewed and summarized. The crux, as well as bottle-neck, of its development, was analyzed from the perspectives of industry, government, market, manufacturing enterprise, and the user. A list of new technologies and new products was provided as a reference for the product development and technical innovation of microbial fertilizer industry in China.
Effects of milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) as winter green manure on rice yield and rate of fertilizer application in rice paddies in south China
GAO Song-juan, ZhOU Guo-peng, CAO Wei-dong
2020, 26(12): 2115-2126.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20375
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In this paper, we collected data from previous investigations on milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) as winter green manure, and co-incorporation of milk vetch and rice straw in rice paddy fields in south China to study the effects of milk vetch green manure on rice yield and chemical fertilizer application, and the mechanisms of plant nutrition and microbial ecology. Thus, a total of 930 datasets obtained from 11 joint experiments conducted from 2008 to 2019 were analyzed to address this objective. The results showed that incorporation of milk vetch together with application of 100% and 80% of conventional amounts of chemical fertilizer significantly increased rice yield by 6.53% and 4.15%, respectively. The incorporation of milk vetch into paddy fields also prevented decrease in the rice yield at 40% reduction in conventional chemical fertilizer application. The positive effects of milk vetch incorporation on rice yield and chemical fertilizer application increased with the planting years of milk vetch. For instance, a 7-year results of 5 joint experiments showed that milk vetch plants combined with 40% reduction of conventional chemical fertilizer increased rice yield by 0.87% in the first year, compared with conventional fertilization, and the increase rate reached 3.98% in the 7th year. Co-incorporation of milk vetch and rice straw was also an important management practice in rice-planting regions, and widely promoted in south China. A total of 342 datasets obtained from 7 joint experiments conducted from 2016 to 2019 showed that co-incorporation of milk vetch and rice straw increased rice yield by 11.71%, compared with rice straw incorporation alone. We also analyzed the data of rice yield composition, rice nutrient absorption, soil fertility and microbial ecology to understand the mechanisms underlying the increase in rice yield and reduction in chemical fertilizer due to milk vetch green manure. Winter planting of milk vetch increased the effective panicle number and number of grains per panicle, thus optimized rice yield composition. Compared with conventional fertilization, milk vetch combined with reduced chemical fertilizer increased rice N absorption by 6.4%–6.9%, and increased N use efficiency by 6.6%–31.1%. Planting of milk vetch increased soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pool, promoted soil labile organic C contents and enzymatic activities in C transformation, increased soil available nutrients contents and improved soil structure. For example, incorporation of milk vetch combined with 20% and 40% of conventional chemical fertilizer reduction increased soil organic matter by 3.95% and 4.15%, respectively, and soil total N by 1.22% and 1.74%, respectively. The results also showed milk vetch incorporation regulated soil microbes and N transformation. Incorporation of milk vetch influenced soil nutrient cycling by promoting the growth of soil microorganisms and enzymatic activities associated with soil microorganisms, and changing the community structures and functional microbes. Milk vetch combined with reduced amount of chemical fertilizer increased the abundance of azotobacter, and the N fixation process of milk vetch could be optimized through reasonable regulation methods. Responses of nitrification to winter green manuring varied a lot in different soil types. For example, in alkaline paddy soil, winter green manuring inhibited nitrification potential thus reduced the risk of nitrate leaching, and the community changes in ammonia oxidizers was the important mechanisms. Overall, the incorporation of milk vetch as winter green manure has showed reliable effects in increasing rice yield and reducing chemical fertilizer application. The mechanism study also serves as an important reference for further studies on impacts of green manures in rice fields.
Analysis of patents on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
LIANG Lin-zhou, CHEN Xiang, DONG Xiao-ying, SHEN Ren-fang
2020, 26(12): 2127-2136.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20412
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant symbiosis plays a key role in improving plant resistance and disease resistance, and maintaining plant health. Their applications in agriculture, forestry and ecological environment have received widespread attention. Based on the incoPat, a technology innovation information platform, retrievals were made of output of patents on AMF at home and abroad before 2019, for analysis of number of applications, technology composition, major applicants, etc. of the patents, in an attempt to reveal R&D status, technology development trends and industry-university-research cooperation in the field of AMF. In recent years, the number of patents has been increasing significantly in China. AMF propagation techniques have been continuously strengthened. Application fields of AMF have extended from agriculture to soil pollution remediation. Testing and research methods are being developed in combination with emerging technologies such as modern information technology, and integration of AMF commercialization and application is fully considered in the new R&D. At present, most of the patent applicants in this aspect in China are from universities and scientific research institutions, fewer from enterprises. AMF strain propagation and application in pollution remediation have become a focus. Novel technological achieved in the fields of biology and information science are being introduced into the development of AMF detection technology. In China, the industry-university-research cooperation in this field needs to be strengthened urgently.
Research article
Spatio-temporal evolution of soil pH and its driving factors in the main Chinese farmland during past 30 years
HAN Tian-fu, LIU Kai-lou, HUANG Jing, MA Chang-bao, ZHENG Lei, WANG Hui-ying, QU Xiao-lin, REN Yi, YU Zi-kun, ZHANG Hui-min
2020, 26(12): 2137-2149.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20399
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  Objectives  Exploration of the temporal and spatial changes of soil pH in Chinese farmland and the main driving factors are of great significance in alleviating acidification, soil quality improvement and sustainable land use.  Methods  Based on the national long-term farmland fertilization monitoring data from the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs (950 experiments), we analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of soil pH in upland field, paddy field and paddy-upland rotation field. The main factors affecting the change of soil pH were analyzed using boosted regression tree model.  Results  The soil pH value and coefficient of variation in China followed the sequence of upland (6.74 ± 1.19 and 17.63%) > upland-paddy rotation field (6.54 ± 0.93 and 14.26%) > paddy field (5.80 ± 0.81 and 13.95%). While the paddy soil pH (5.74 ± 0.79) was higher than that of upland-paddy field and upland field in South China. From the initial stage of monitoring (I, 1988–2000) to the middle stage (II, 2001–2010), the pH of upland and paddy soils showed a decreasing trend, and the decreasing rates were 0.065 and 0.054 units per year, respectively (P < 0.05). From stage II to III (2001–2018), pH of upland and upland-paddy soil increased with time, and the rising rates were 0.022 and 0.016 units per year, respectively (P < 0.05), but there was no significant change in paddy soils. The soil pH of uplands in Northeast, North China, Southwest, Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River decreased linearly with time (P < 0.05), while opposite trend was found in South China from stage II to III (P < 0.01). The pH of paddy soils in Southwest, Middle Reaches of Yangtze River and South China decreased linearly from stage I to III (P < 0.01), but increased linearly from stage II to III (P < 0.01) in Northeast, Southwest and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River. The pH of upland-paddy soil in Southwest China decreased linearly from stage I to III (P < 0.01), while opposite result was observed in North China, Lower Reaches of Yangtze River and South China from stage II to III (P < 0.05). Pearson’s correlation and boosted regression tree model revealed that mean annual precipitation was the most important factor driving regional soil pH change, followed by soil texture, bulk density and organic matter content. Moreover, the long-term inputs of nitrogen fertilizer in upland and the input of potassium fertilizer in paddy and upland-paddy fields also played key roles in soil pH change.  Conclusions  Overall, soil pH shows a trend of decreasing from the initial stage to the middle stage in upland and paddy soil, then slow increasing from the middle stage to 2018 in upland and upland-paddy soils, except that the pH in upland soil of Northeast China shows durative decrease. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in upland and potash in paddy field has caused soil pH decrease, so reasonable nutrient management, and the soil bulk density and organic matter amelioration should be considered to alleviate the decrease of soil pH in Chinese farmlands.
Characterization of soil pore structure of paddy soils under different long-term rice straw biochar incorporation
AN Ning, LI Dong, LI Na, WU Zheng-chao, REN Bin-bin, YANG Jin-feng, HAN Wei, HAN Xiao-ri
2020, 26(12): 2150-2157.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20403
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  Objectives  The application of biochar as a soil amendment method for improving carbon sequestration, improving soil structure, and mitigation of global climate change has received considerable attentions over the last decade. Soil pores play a key role in transportation of air, water, and heat. However, knowledge of the long-term effects of biochar on soil pore characteristics under field conditions is limited.   Methods  We investigated the effect of successive addition of low-dose rice straw-derived biochar [1.5 t/(hm2∙a), C1.5], high-dose rice straw-derived biochar [3.0 t/(hm2 ∙a), C3.0], and no biochar addition (control, C0) on soil pore structure in a paddy field over a 6-year (2013‒2018) period. Porosity, pore size distribution, connectivity, anisotropy, fractal dimension, porosity, and mean macropore diameter of the limiting layer were measured by X-ray computed tomography (CT) and image processing.  Results  We found that biochar amendment significantly increased soil organic carbon content and total porosity by 15.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and decreased soil bulk density by 7.4%. There was no significant difference in soil total porosity under the two biochar amendment treatments (C1.5, C3.0), but the proportion of macropores was significantly different between them. Compared with C0, C1.5 treatment significantly increased porosity of 100‒500 μm and >500 μm macropores by 81.6% and 275.3%, respectively, while C3.0 treatment significantly decreased the porosity of 100‒500 μm macropores by 32.9%. C3.0 treatment had higher porosity of <25 μm micropores than C0 and C1.5. Meanwhile, connectivity, fractal dimension, porosity, and mean macropore diameter of the compacted layer were highest under C1.5, but anisotropy was similar for the three treatments.  Conclusions  Our results indicate that the application of rice straw-derived biochar could increase the soil organic carbon content, total porosity, and decrease the soil bulk density. Proper application rate of biochar could increase the soil macroporosity and connectivity, but excessive application rate of biochar would reduce the soil macroporosity, soil hydraulic conductivity, and gas diffusivity. These results enhance our understanding of the relationship between soil pore structure and biochar application, and provide evidence for decision making process in choosing proper straw management.
Effects of long-term fertilization on the microbial community structure and the population of N cycle-related functional microorganism in paddy soil
ZOU Xiang, YI Bo, ZHANG Qi-chun, DI Hong-jie
2020, 26(12): 2158-2167.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20418
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  Objectives   Paddy field is regarded as one of the important terrestrial nitrogen (N) reservoirs. Microorganism community and quantity play an essential role in N biogeochemical cycle and are regarded as indicators of soil fertility. Thus, we studied the effects of different fertilizer treatments on the structure and function of soil microbial communities in a paddy field.   Methods   This study was conducted in a long-term paddy field experiment in Jinhua City, Jiangsu Province. The treatments on the field include: no fertilizer application (control, CK), pure chemical fertilizer (CF), chemical fertilizer plus crop straw (CSF), and chemical fertilizer plus pig manure (CMF). Soil samples were taken in the sixth year of the experiment, while the microbial community structure and the population of N cycle-related functional microorganisms were measured using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing.   Results   The CMF and CSF treatments significantly increased the total carbon (TC) and soluble organic carbon (DOC) contents more than CF did, whereas total nitrogen (TN), NH4+-N and NO3-N increased in similar pattern under the three fertilization treatments. Cluster analysis showed there were differences in soil bacterial community structure between CK and fertilization treatments while soil pH and NH4+-N and NO3-N content were the dominant factors. The bacterial community clusters of CK and CMF treatments were close, while the bacterial community structure of CF and CSF treatments were also close. Compared with CK, the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and iron ammonia oxidizing microorganism (Feammox A6) significantly increased in CF, CMF and CSF treatments. Feammox A6 increased by 87.6%, 158% and 157%, respectively.   Conclusions   Long-term fertilization affected soil chemical properties, and the NH4+, NO3 contents and soil pH were dominantly responsible for the soil microbial community succession and composition. The cluster of microorganism community under combined application of chemical fertilizer and pig manure was close to that of control, while the clusters of soil microorganism community structure under both pure chemical fertilization and combined application of chemical and crop straw were close. Abundance of AOA did not change with long-term fertilization, but abundance of AOB and Feammox A6 increased. Chemical fertilizer plus pig manure or straw increased Feammox A6 population more than pure chemical fertilizer. The gene copies of denitrification functional groups ( nirK , nosZ ) were significantly higher under pure chemical fertilization compared to other treatments.
Mechanism of long-term integrated rice-crayfish farming increasing soil biological fertility of paddy fields
SI Guo-han, YUAN Jia-fu, PENG Cheng-lin, ZHAO Shu-jun, XU Da-bing, YU Yong-bing, XIE Yuan-yuan, ZHOU Jian-xiong
2020, 26(12): 2168-2176.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20374
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  Objectives  Rice-crayfish farming is a well-advised practice for efficient rice production and soil fertility maintenance. We studied the change of the soil organic carbon pool and some enzyme activities caused by the practice, for further understanding the mechanism of fertility improvement.  Methods  Rice-crayfish farming (CR) experiment had been conducted for 10 consecutive years (2005–2015), with single rice planting (MR) as control. The soil samples were collected in soil layers of 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, 20–30 cm, 30–40 cm after rice harvesting in mid-October 2015. The contents of total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), easily-oxidized organic carbon (EOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) were analyzed. The contents of organic carbon in the soil water-stable aggregates were determined, and the soil carbon pool management index (CPMI) was calculated. The soil cellulase, sucrase, urease and acid phosphatase activities which waere closely related to soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism were also analyzed.  Results  1) Compared with the rice monoculture, the rice-crayfish farming significantly increased the contents of TOC, POC and DOC in the 0–40 cm soil layer, significantly increased the content of MBC in the 30–40 cm soil layer, and significantly increased the content of EOC in the 10–40 cm soil layer. 2) The rice-crayfish farming significantly improved the soil carbon pool management index in the soil layer of 10–30 cm, with increase rate of 52.7% and 58.2% in the soil layer of 10–20 cm and 20–30 cm, compared with the rice monoculture, respectively. 3) The rice-crayfish farming significantly increased the organic carbon contents of < 0.053 mm silt-clay aggregate in the 0–20 cm soil layer, and those of all the particle size of aggregates in the 20–30 cm soil layer. 4) The urease activity in the 10–20 cm soil layer of the CR system was significantly decreased by 16.7%, while the cellulase activity in the 20–30 cm soil layer was significantly increased by 28.0%, compared with the rice monoculture. 5) Except DOC, the contents of TOC, POC and MBC were significantly and positively correlated with the activities of cellulase, sucrase, urease and acid phosphatase.  Conclusions  The long-term rice-crayfish co-culture could significantly increase the contents of soil organic carbon and the active organic carbon components, increase the organic carbon contents in all sizes of water stable aggregates and soil cellulose enzyme activities in 20–30 cm soil layer, which is beneficial to the improvement of soil texture, deep growth of rice root and maintenance of available nutrients, consequently improve the soil biological fertility of paddy fields.
Effects of different nitrogen inputs on rice yield and soil nitrogen forms under incorporation of rice straw and Chinese milk vetch
ZHU Qiang, ZHANG Jing, GUO Zai-hua, GENG Ming-jian
2020, 26(12): 2177-2183.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20384
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  Objectives  The decompostion and nutrient release of Chinese milk vetch (CMV) and rice straw are complementary when jointly incorporated into soil. Thus, the effect of nitrogen application rates on rice yield, nitrogen-use efficiency, and soil organic nitrogen under incorporation of CMV and rice straw was studied.  Methods  A two-factor complete split field trial was conducted for two years in Jianghan plain. The two factors were: 1) combined incorporation of CMV and rice straw (SM) or incorporation of rice straw alone (S); 2) N application rate [50% (N50), 100% (N100), and 150% (N150) of the conventional N input (165 kg/hm2), and no N input (N0)]. The grain yield and biomass were weighed, grain N concentration, plant N concentration, and inorganic and organic N concentrations in surface soil were analyzed   Results  The rice yield of SMN50 treatment was 21%‒23% higher than that of SN50 treatment, but similar to those of SMN100 and SMN150. The grain N uptake in SMN0, SMN50, and SMN100 treatments were significantly higher than those recorded in SN0, SN50, and SN100 treatments, with increase rate of 65%, 27%, and 22%, respectively. The soil total N and non-acid-hydrolysable N concentrations after rice harvest were similar for all treatments, but the acid-hydrolysable N contents varied significantly. Among the four forms of the acid-hydrolysable N, the unidentified N increased significantly in SN150 treatment than that in other treatments.  Conclusions  Compared with rice straw returning alone, the co-incorporation of rice straw and CMV increased rice yield and grain N uptake under 50% reduction of conventional N application rate, while conventional rate or 50% increase in N input did not. The co-incorporation of CMV and rice straw could improve the availability of soil N and significantly decrease the residual acid-hydrolysable unidentified N content under high N input.
Nitrogen fixation and transfer efficiency of common vetch and hairy vetch in wheat-vetch intercropping system in northwest China
LIU Rui, CHANG Dan-na, GAO Song-juan, ZHOU Guo-peng, HAN Mei, ZHANG Jiu-dong, CAO Wei-dong, SUN Xiao-feng
2020, 26(12): 2184-2194.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20387
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  Objectives  Intercropping wheat with common vetch or hairy vetch is a new crop production system in northwest China. To provide theoretical base for the nutrient management of this intercropping system, we studied the effect of N fixation and N transfer efficiency of two legumes (common vetch and hairy vetch) on wheat.  Methods  Identical pot experiments were conducted in two sites: Xining and Wuwei in Qinghai and Gansu Provinces of China, respectively. The treatments in the experiments included wheat monoculture (WC); common vetch monoculture (MC); hairy vetch monoculture (MH); wheat and common vetch intercropping (IWC); and wheat and hairy vetch intercropping (IWH). We did not apply N fertilizer in all the treatments. 15N natural abundance method was used to analyze the amount of N from biological fixation and the amount transferred to wheat.  Results  The aboveground dry biomass of wheat and the two legumes in intercropping treatments were significantly lower than their biomass in monoculture treatments. Similarly, the individual N accumulation of the two legumes and wheat in intercropping treatments were significantly lower than their N accumulation in monoculture treatments. The total N accumulation in legume monoculture (MH and MC) and wheat-legume intercropping treatments (IWC and IWH) were higher than that of WC. The amount of N fixed by common vetch in IWC treatment in the two sites (Xining: 0.24 g/pot and Wuwei: 0.48 g/pot) were lower than that fixed in MC treatment (Xining: 0.88 g/pot and Wuwei: 0.78 g/pot). The amount of N fixed by hairy vetch in IWH (0.38 g/pot) was lower than that fixed in MH treatment (0.81 g/pot) in Xining, while those of Wuwei were similar. Both the amount of N fixed by hairy vetch and N transferred to wheat in Xining were significantly higher than those in Wuwei, whereas both N fixed by common vetch and N transferred to wheat were higher in Wuwei than Xining. The amount of N transferred from N fixation to wheat under IWC (Xining: 0.13 g/pot and Wuwei: 0.19 g/pot) accounted for 31.6% and 24.7% of the total N uptake by wheat in IWC treatment in Xining and Wuwei, respectively. The N transferred to wheat under IWH (Xining: 0.09 g/pot and Wuwei: 0.06 g/pot) accounted for 23.8% and 11.4% of the total N uptake by wheat in IWH treatment in Xining and Wuwei, respectively. Path analysis showed that shoot dry biomass was the most important factor affecting N fixation and N transfer from legumes to wheat.   Conclusions  Overall, intercropping decreases the aboveground biomass of legumes and amount of fixed N. Our results also suggest that cultivar and growing environment affect N fixation of the two legumes. About 11.4%–31.6% of the N uptake by wheat is from leguminous N fixation, and the N transfer ability of common vetch is generally higher than that of hairy vetch. Therefore, further study is needed to identify the best techniques for efficient intercropping of wheat and vetch legumes.
Potential of nitrogen reduction for maintaining wheat grain yield under multiple cropping with leguminous green manure in irrigated oasis
GOU Zhi-wen, YIN Wen, XU Long-long, HE Xiao-qi, WANG Qi-ming, CHAI Qiang
2020, 26(12): 2195-2203.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20379
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  Objectives  We studied the potential of N reduction on yield and yield components of wheat under multiple cropping with leguminous green manure. This study aims to provide a scientific and practical basis for efficient wheat production when green manure replaces chemical N fertilizer in irrigated oasis.  Methods  A split plot design field experiment was conducted at Wuwei, Gansu Province, China, in 2018–2019. Cropping pattern [i.e., planting hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, HV) after wheat harvest (W-G) or planting of sole wheat (W)] was the main plot/factor, while N application rate [i.e., 45% (N1), 30% (N2), 15% (N3), 0 (N4) reduction of the conventional N input (180 kg/hm2), and no N input (Control, N0)] was the sub-factor. Dry matter accumulation during the whole growth period, grain yield, and yield components were measured. A successive interpolation method was adopted to quantify the potential of N reduction.  Results  Compared with W treatments, W-G increased grain yield by 10.8% in average. The wheat yield in W-G-N3 was similar to that in W-G-N4, but was 6.9% and 7.9% higher than those in W-N3 and W-N4, respectively. The harvest index in W-G-N3 was 27.2% and 16.7% higher than those in W-N3 and W-N4, respectively. The N replacement potential in W-G-N3 treatment was 27.5% and 39.0% higher than that in W-G-N2 and W-G-N1, respectively. The maximum growth rate of wheat in W-G-N3 treatment was 6.0%, 28.4%, and 23.8% higher than those in W-G-N4, W-N3, and W-N4, respectively. The W-G-N3 treatment increased spike number per area, kernel number per spike, and thousand-kernel weight. According to the grey correlation analysis, the correlations of thousand-kernel weight, maximum growth rate, kernel number per spike, and spike number with wheat yield were in descending order.  Conclusions  The maximum growth rate, highest thousand-kernel weight, and relatively high yield and harvest index of wheat were obtained under 15% reduction in conventional N application rate. Therefore, 15% reduction in conventional nitrogen application rate in a multiple cropping system is suitable for optimal wheat production in irrigated oasis of Gansu Province.
Long-term combined application of chemical and organic fertilizers decrease net greenhouse gas emission in wheat-soybean system in Huang-Huai-Hai region
ZHANG Xin, ZHENG Cheng-yan, LI Sheng-ming, XIE Fang-jing, DENG Ai-xing, ZHANG Jun, SONG Zhen-wei, ZHANG Wei-jian
2020, 26(12): 2204-2215.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20392
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  Objectives  Wheat-soybean system is a popular gramineae-legume multiple cropping system in Huang-Huai-Hai region, China. Comprehensive evaluation of the net carbon emissions of this cropping system is of great significance for carbon sequestration and emission reduction in farmland of China. Thus, in search for sustainable fertilization method that concurrently improves yield and lower carbon emissions, we studied the effects of different fertilizers on crop yield and net carbon emissions in a 30-years wheat-soybean system.  Methods  The seven fertilization treatments in the experiment were sole cattle manure (M); balanced chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); combined application of NPK with cattle manure (NPKM), rapeseed cake (NPKC), or both (NPKMC); chemical NP plus wheat straw (NPS); and no fertilizer application (control, CK). The net carbon emissions under each fertilization treatment was estimated as the total direct greenhouse gas (N2O and CH4) emissions in the field, indirect carbon emissions caused by agricultural inputs and soil organic carbon sequestration. The net greenhouse effect in each fertilization treatment was evaluated as the total carbon emissions from crop yield and soil organic matter (SOM).  Results  Compared with NPK treatment, the NPKM, NPKC and NPKMC treatments increased soybean yield by 31.0%, 16.8% and 24.0%, respectively, while soybean and wheat yields under M and NPS treatments were not significantly different from those of NPK. Compared with NPK treatment, M, NPKM and NPKMC treatments increased direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the field by 49.4%, 17.7% and 12.4% respectively and annual soil organic carbon sequestration by 282.2%, 137.3% and 169.1% respectively. The indirect carbon emissions in M and NPKM treatments were similar to that of NPK, whereas those of NPS, NPKC and NPKMC were lower than that of NPK treatment. The carbon emissions caused by fertilizer input accounted for the largest proportion of total indirect emissions, followed by electricity for irrigation and mechanical diesel. All treatments, except M, were carbon source, but the net carbon emissions under combined application of NPK and organic materials were lower than that of NPK only. The carbon emission intensity and ratio of δGHG/δSOM under combined application of NPK and organic materials were lesser than that of NPK by 36.5%‒113.2%, and 69.4%‒93.2%, respectively.  Conclusions  Combined application of NPK and organic fertilizer (cattle manure or cake fertilizer) could reduce the net greenhouse gas emission while ensuring optimal crop yield in wheat-soybean cropping system in Huang-Huai-Hai region.
Optimum N applcation rate for high yield and nitrogen use efficiency of early maturing potato cultivar in red soil
HU Zhi-hua, XU Xiao-lin, LI Da-ming, HU Dan-dan, SONG Hui-jie, HU Hui-wen, YU Xi-chu
2020, 26(12): 2216-2223.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20373
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Abstract:
  Objects   T he response of yield and nitrogen use efficiency of potato, and the distribution of mineral nitrogen in soil were studied under different nitrogen application levels, aiming to propose a optimum nitrogen application rate in the potato production in red soil area of China.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted in typical red soil area of south China in 2018 and 2019, and using a early maturing potato cultiva as test material. The treatments were seven N application levels (N 0, 60, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240 kg/hm2). At maturing stage, the yield and N contents of potato tuber and stalk, and the soil examples in 0–20, 20–40 and 40–60 cm deep were collected for determination of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen contents.  Results  The potato yield, dry matter accumulation, N absorption and utilizationin varied greatly under different N application rates. Both the tuber yield and N accumulation were increased first and then decreased with rise in N rate, and the highest tuber yield (26250 kg/hm2 in 2018 and 27915 kg/hm2 in 2019) and the highest N accumulation (97.65 kg/hm2 in 2018 and 101.09 kg/hm2 in 2019) were achieved under N 180 kg/hm2 treatment, while the stalk yield and N accumulation kept increased with the rise in N rate. The highest N harvest index was achieved at N150 kg/hm2 treatment, and the highest agronomic efficiency and recovery rate of nitrogen were all under N 180 kg/hm2 treatment, wherease the patial factor productivity of nitrogen kept decreased as the N rate increasing. The effect of N application rate on the content and distribution of mineral nitrogen in soil was different. The N 150 kg/hm2 and N 180 kg/hm2 treatment led significantly higher NH4+-N contents than other treatments in 0–20 cm soil layer, but not in 20–60 cm layer; while the N 210 kg/hm2 and N 240 kg/hm2 treatment significantly increased the NH4+-N contents in 20–60 cm layer. N rate of less than N 210 kg/hm2 did not increase the NO3-N contents in 0–60 cm soil layer, while the N 240 kg/hm2 significantly increased that in 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm layers.  Conclusions  The optimum range of N application rate is very narrow for early maturing potato cultivar. In red soil area, the highest buber yield, N use efficiency and relative high harvest index could only be achieved at N rate of 180 kg/hm2, less or higher than the rate will decrease these indexes significantly. Also, the soil mineral N contents is high in 0–20 cm and not in deeper layer under N rate of 180 kg/hm2, thus less possible of leaching into water.
Effect of fertilizer recommendation based on Nutrient Expert system on yield and quality of melon and soil nitrogen leaching
WEN Mei-juan, YANG Si-cun, WANG Cheng-bao, HUO Lin, JIANG Wan-li
2020, 26(12): 2224-2234.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20416
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Abstract:
  Objectives  The Nutrient Expert (NE) system is thought feasible and practical in fertilizer recommendation as it does not need soil or plant test. We verified the effects of the NE system in melon production through yield and quality effect and soil N behavior in the ecologically fragile area.  Methods  Melon field experiments were carried out in Guazhou County, Gansu Province in 2017 and 2018, using melon cultivar Loulan17 as materials. On the base of NE recommended N rate of 300 kg/hm2 (N300), the N application rate treatments were set up by ± 25% (N225, N375) and ± 50% (N150 and N450). At harvest, melon yield, quality, above-ground N uptake and fertilizer N use efficiencies were measured. Soil samples were collected at 0–100 and 100–200 cm depth, and NO3-N content were determined, at last the total nitrogen loss were calculated.  Results  In the both year 2017 and 2018, the melon yield was highest in N300 treatment recommended by NE, with an average increase of 24.7% compared with N0 treatment for two years. When N rate was <300 kg/hm2, the melon yield increased with the N rate increased; when N rate was > 300 kg/hm2, melon yield didn’t continue increasing with N rate. The melon quality and commodity rate was the best at N application rate of 300 kg/hm2, and insufficient or excessive N application was not conducive to the formation of quality. N use efficiency and internal efficiency of N decreased with the N application, but there was no significant difference between N225 and N300. N harvest index was highest in N300. The accumulation of nitrate N in 0–200 cm soil layer increased with the N application, the highest soil NO3--N content were observed in 0–100 cm soil layers, account for 43.9%–55.3% of 0–200 cm layer in 2017, while in 2018, the highest soil NO3--N content was observed at 100–200 cm soil layers, account for 44.8%–69.9% of 0–200 cm layer. Soil NO3--N accumulation and N apparent loss were increased with the N application rates , and melon N uptakes, NO3--N accumulation and N apparent loss accounted for 33.2%, 33.1% and 42.1% respectively. Multi-curve analysis of melon yield, N uptake and nitrate N residue showed that the highest N uptake rate of N application was 323 kg/hm2 and maximum yield of N application was 293 kg/hm2. The yield increased by 886.5 kg/hm2 or 2.1% and nitrate N increased by 8.5 kg/hm2 or 37.6% with the increase of N application rate per 30 kg/hm2.  Conclusions  The NE recommended N rate of 300 kg/hm2 has achieved the highest yield and quality of melon and the highest nitrogen harvest index. With N rate of 300 kg/hm2, the NO3--N accumulation in 0–100 cm and 100–200 cm soil layers are significantly lower the higher N rates, and not significantly higher than the lower N rates. Higher than N rate of 300 kg/hm2 will only increase the biomass of veins and leaves, and decrease the yield and quality of melon, and increase the N loss significantly. The satisfactory yield, quality and environmental outcomes indicate the feasible and practical effect of the NE system in fertilizer recommendation for melon production in Gansu Oasis.
Effects of long-term potassium fertilization on potassium uptake, utilization and soil potassium balance in double maize cropping system
LIU Kai-lou, HUANG Jing, YE Hui-cai, HAN Miao, HAN Tian-fu, SONG Hui-jie, HU Zhi-hua, HU Dan-dan, LI Da-ming, YU Xi-chu, HUANG Qing-hai, LI Wen-jun, CHEN Guo-jun
2020, 26(12): 2235-2245.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20383
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  Objectives  Potassium (K) nutrition is fundamental to maize ( Zea mays L.) productivity. The effect of long-term, large-scale exogenous K input on the K absorption and utilization of maize and the soil K balance were studied to determine the corresponding optimum yield of maize and efficiency of K fertilizer.  Methods  The long-term fertilization experiment was established in 1986 on a red soil of Jinxian County of Jiangxi Province, the planting system is annually double maize cropping. Test treatments included no fertilizer control (CK), chemical N and P fertilizer (NP), chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK), double amount of chemical NPK fertilizer (DNPK), chemical NPK fertilizer with manure (NPKM) and manure alone (OM). The maize grain yield and biomass, and the K contents in plants and soil were measured at each harvest; K uptake and K use efficiency (KUE) were as well calculated.  Results  The annual average grain yield and K uptake of maize in NPK, DNPK, NPKM and OM treatments were higher than NP treatment during the 33 years. There was no significant difference in grain yield and K uptake of maize among NPKM, DNPK, OM and NPK treatments during 1986‒1995. However, during 2006‒2015 and 2016‒2018, the grain yield and K uptake of maize in NPKM were increased by 129.9%‒246.7% and 55.2%‒62.1% than NPK treatment, respectively. During the 33 years of observation, OM treatment gave the highest KUE while DNPK had the least. During 2016‒2018, the KUE of NPKM treatment was 56.0% and 119.2% higher than NPK and DNPK treatments, respectively. Compared with NPK in 1996‒2005, 2006‒2015 and 2016‒2018, the K harvest index of NPKM treatment was increased by 61.6%, 53.5% and 35.8% and the K agronomic efficiency increased by 23.3%, 227.8% and 445.5% respectively. The soil K was in excess throughout the 33 years in all K fertilization treatments, except for OM and NPKM treatments during 1986‒1995, which had 53.2%‒211.6% higher residual K than NPK treatment. Every 1 kg/hm2 increase of residual K resulted to a respective increase in available K content by 1.40, 1.18 and 2.60 mg/kg in 1996‒2005, 2006‒2015 and 2016‒2018.   Conclusions  Under the tested K fertilization program for double maize cropping system of south China, the K budget was surplus, except for the single manure application during the first 10 years of the study. However, the amount of potassium fertilizer and the source of potassium fertilizer had no significant effect on the uptake of potassium in maize. Combining application of chemical N‒P‒K of 100‒26‒100 kg/hm2 and 15000 kg/hm2 of fresh pig manure in long-term are effective in keeping maize yield optimum, enhancing K uptake and K-use efficiency. K surplus increase available K content in acid soil, and with the extension of experiment years, the increasing effect of K surplus on soil available potassium increased gradually.
Short communication
Optimal nitrogen rate and the down movement of soil nitrate nitrogen in wheat-maize rotation system in fluvo-aquic soil
TANG Ji-wei, LIN Zhi-an, LI Juan, YUAN Liang, XU Jiu-kai, TIAN Chang-yu, WEN Yan-chen, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2020, 26(12): 2246-2252.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20455
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  Objectives  Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer plays important roles in maintaining soil fertility and crop production. Responses of grain yield and soil NO3-N concentration to N application rates were studied to guide efficient and sustainable fertilization under winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in Huang-Huai-Hai region of China.  Methods  The objective of this study was achieved through a long-term (2006‒2013) winter wheat-summer maize rotation experiment conducted on a fluvo-aquic soil in Huang-Huai-Hai region of China. The ten N application rates were: 0 (control), 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, 500, and 600 kg/hm2. The wheat and maize yields were recorded, and soil NO3-N in 0–200 cm profile were measured.  Results  Nitrogen application rate, fertilization year, as well as interaction between fertilization year and N application rate significantly affected the yields of both wheat and maize. Winter wheat yield increased with increase in N application rate, but N 300 kg/hm2 reached the highest wheat yield. Increase in N application rate increased summer maize yield, but the increment became stable from N 120 to 600 kg/hm2. The N rate increased the sustainable yield index of winter wheat, but did not affect that of summer maize. The N rates above 300 kg/hm2 increased the soil NO3-N content. The cumulative peak of soil NO3-N content gradually decreased with increase in the year of experiment, and the peak of soil NO3-N content in 2008, 2011 and 2017 were found in 40–60 cm, 80–120 cm and 80–160 cm soil depths, respectively.  Conclusions  Based on our results, N 240 kg/hm2 and 180 kg/hm2 could be recommended as optimal nitrogen application rates for winter wheat and summer maize cultivation in fluvo-aquic soil of Huang-Huai-Hai region. These N application levels could ensure the stability of wheat and maize yield and prevent the increment and accumulation of nitrate N in deep soil.
Screening of drought-resistance index and drought-resistance evaluation of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) germplasms at germination stage
BAI Jin-shun, WANG Xue-cui, WANG Yan-qiu
2020, 26(12): 2253-2263.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20498
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Abstract:
  Objectives  Common vetch ( Vicia sativa L.) growth is easily inhibited by drought at germination stage. Thus, there is need for screening of critical, sensitive drought-resistance indicators and assessing the drought-resistance capacity of common vetch germplasms for identification and breeding of drought-resistant germplasms.   Methods  Fourteen common vetch germplasms were collected from the dominant common vetch planting regions in China. Four different PEG-6000 concentrations (2.5%, 5%,10% and 15%) were prepared to simulate different drought stress levels, while distilled water treatment was the control. Indicators such as germination rate, germination potential, germination index, seed germination index, radicle length, embryo length, radicle weight, embryo weight, ratio of radicle length to embryo length, ratio of radicle weight to embryo weight, vigour index and their drought-resistance indexes (DRI) were measured and calculated.  Results  All the four stress treatments significantly decreased the values of tested indicators and drought-resistance coefficients of all tested germplasms, with CV range of 11.40%‒48.71% and 10.20%‒46.56% for indicators and drought-resistance coefficients, respectively. Most measured indicators showed significant correlation with r value range of 0.182 to 0.956. Based on the principal component analysis, the DRI of the measured indicators were reduced to three independent integrated indicators, of which three contributed 85.9% of the cumulative variance. According to fuzzy mathematics membership function, the average drought-resistance comprehensive evaluation index (D value) of the tested germplasms was 0.420 with CV of 50.6%, while the maximum and the minimum D values were recorded for code 9 and code 10 germplasms, respectively. The 14 tested germplasms were clustered into four drought-resistance grades, and the grade of each germplasm was in accordance with its D value. The highest drought-resistant germplasms were those with code 9 and code 14, respectively, while 85.8% of the germplasms fell into the moderate and weak drought-resistance category. Stepwise regression produced a significant relationship between D value and drought-resistance coefficients of indicators (D = 1.31X1 + 0.566X2 + 0.183X3–1.068; R2 = 0.991; P< 0.001; X1, X2, and X3 represent DRI for germination index, embryo weight and embryo length, respectively).  Conclusions  The D value is an effective index for indicating drought-resistance characteristics at germination stage. The drought-resistance coefficients of germination index, embryo weight, and embryo length explained 99.1% of drought-resistance variation of the assessed germplasms. Two common vetch germplasms with high drought-resistance were identified, while more than 85% of the tested germplasms exhibited moderate and weak drought-resistance at germination stage. Overall, this study demonstrates that drought-resistance screening and evaluation are highly important for choosing drought-resistant germplasm and efficient growth and production of common vetch.
Effects of cultivation methods and potash fertilizer on seed yield, qualityand potassium use efficiency of sunflower
DUAN Yu, ZHANG Jun, FAN Xia, LI Shu-tian, LIANG Jun-mei, AN Hao, ZHANG Ting-ting
2020, 26(12): 2264-2275.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20426
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  Objectives  Effects of potassium (K) application levels and different cultivation methods on seed yield and quality, and K fertilizer efficiency of sunflower were studied. The aim was to identify efficient and sustainable K nutrient management.  Methods  The field experiment was conducted in north Yinshan area, Inner Mongolia, China, over a 2-year period (2014‒2016). Sunflower of 3638C for comsuming seeds was used as the test material. The experimental plots were mulched with plastic film. The sunflower was subjected to three different cultivation conditions [planting in flat field without irrigation (R), planting in furrow between ridges without drip irrigation (RC), and planting in furrow between ridges with drip irrigation (I)] and four K levels (0, 48, 84 and 120 kg/hm2). At harvest, the seed yield and yield components, the K contents in stalk, eeds, and soil were measured.  Results  Water supply, which is affected by the cultivation method, was the main factor that affected sunflower seed yield and yield traits. The disc diameter, 1000-seed weight, seed kernel ratio, K uptake, potash fertilizer efficiency were all in order of I>RC>R. The seed yield, yield traits and K uptake increased with increase in K rate under I treatment, but did not change under R treatment. The utilization rate and agronomic efficiency of potash fertilizer decreased with increase in K rate in all the three cultivation conditions. K rate had significant effect on the seed oil content, especially the linoleic acid content. The basic K balance of soil under I, RC and R conditions were K2O rate of 120 kg/hm2, 84 kg/hm2 and 48 kg/hm2, respectively.  Conclusions  Our results showed that furrow planting of sunflower is preferred to flat planting, especially under irrigation. For high seed yield, quality and potash fertilizer efficiency, and balanced soil K in north Yinshan area, Inner Mongolia, about 120, 84 and 48 kg/hm2 of K2O should be applied under furrow planting with irrigation, furrow planting without irrigation, and flat planting under rainfed condition, respectively.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(5633) PDF 2130KB(2029)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(5484) PDF 2629KB(15607)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(3644) PDF 929KB(1658)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(5750) PDF 1767KB(1132)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(4888) PDF 876KB(2263)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(2889) PDF 1119KB(1174)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(6453) PDF 906KB(2096)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(4209) PDF 1163KB(1607)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(3805) PDF 1228KB(1325)
Effects of  green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 19(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(4765) PDF 1194KB(725)