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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Association profiles between the expression of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene ZmPAO and dynamic variation of chlorophyll contents in maize
WEI Ning-ning, NIE Jia-wei, WANG Ya-hui, LI Ting, ZHAO Zi-xin, ZHANG Xin-hua, XUE Ji-quan, XU Shu-tu
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18268
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ObjectivesTo better understand the polymorphism of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) in maize and the functional sites related to the contents of chlorophyll components in maize ear leaves, the structural information used for the development of ZmPAO functional markers was analyzed to clarify the genetic mechanism of chlorophyll metabolism at late maturity stage of maize.MethodsA total of 141 of maize inbred lines with extensive genetic variation was used as a related population. The chlorophyll component contents in two sites from 7 time points were measured as phenotypic data. Tassel 5.0 was used to analyze the relationship between the expression profiles of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) and the changes of chlorophyll components at different periods after maturity by the mixed linear model (MLM, Mixed linear model), and the effective association sites were investigated by haplotype analysis.ResultsThe chlorophyll contents at the late growth stage of maize revealed greater variation, and chlorophyll a generally has lower accumulation than chlorophyll b, but the total chlorophyll (the sum of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) showed a downward trend. A total of 19 of effective functional sites were identified, in which 4 sites were existed in the exon region, one of them located at UTR and others settled in the intron. The phenotypic interpretation rate in the functional site for chlorophyll component content variation was ranged from 3.89% to 16.57%, the total phenotypic effect ranged from 5.24% to 41.78%. Site S3235 from the sixth intron had a phenotypic interpretation rate of 16.57% for Yang-chlb6; Site S3675 of the seventh exon represented 12.16% phenotypic interpretation rate for the phenotypic variation for Yang-chla1 and 14.14% for Yang-chlb1, respectively. The favorable trait sites with obvious haplotypes was the same as preferred variation sites in association analysis.ConclusionsThe excavation of effective functional sites and haplotype analysis of traits showed that two amino acids mutated in the ZmPAO exon, and the hydrophobic amino acids were transformed into hydrophilic amino acids, indicating that the ZmPAO gene might be regulated by the protein structure variation and as well as the transcriptional level because more related sites appeared in noncoding regions, although they are not yet identified. However, the transcription level is greatly affected by environmental factors which usually lead to the inconsistency of the related sites that found in different locations of the gene at different growth stages, but the existence of effective mutation sites is universal.
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2019, 25(12): 1-5.  
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Technological innovation of controlled-release and stabilized fertilizers drives the improvement of fertilizer industry in China —Preface for special issue“preparation and efficient use of new types of fertilizers”
YANG Xiang-dong, ZHANG Min
2019, 25(12): 2029-2031.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19506
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In a bid to improve the quality of manufactured fertilizers and the fertilizer usage efficiency in the country, the central government of China set up programs consecutively for 20 years, which began during the tenth “Five-Year-Plan". This sustained investment has been driving the rapid development of China’ s fertilizer industry, contributing more than 30% of the total increase in the foodstuff and industrial raw material production. In 2016, the government further set a target for gradual reduction in fertilizer usage increase and total stoppage by year 2020 to achieve a sustainable and healthy environment. Realization of this goal largely depends on the scientific and technological innovations. So far, the cost effective and high-quality slow/controlled release and stabilized fertilizers have been studied as one of the key technologies for past decades. During the 13th “Five-Year-Plan”, the research on these new slow/controlled release and stabilized fertilizers specifically made some technological breakthroughs in the knowledge of degradable membrane materials, continuous coating of urea in large-scale, application methods and environmental assessment. However, more work is still needed in this field, especially in the integration of the emerging technologies in coating materials for continuous production and efficiency of slow/controlled release fertilizer, and the user-friendly principles of applying biological inhibitors suitable for different soils, climates and crops. Thus, there is still a long way to go to sustain the development and demand of China’ s fertilizer industry.
Morphological structure and pore property of polyethylene controlled-release film sprayed on urea
YANG Xiang-dong, LI Juan, SUN Ming-xue, QIAO Dan, ZHANG Jian-jun, LI Chun-hua
2019, 25(12): 2032-2043.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19315
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ObjectivesThe morphology and pore properties of the controlled-release film directly affect the nutrient release rate of polyethylene (PE) -coated fertilizer. The study on them will help predicting the relationship between the structure parameters of PE films and nutrient release rate of a coated fertilizer more precisely.MethodsPolyethylene coating fertilizer samples were all prepared by spraying process in the study. The surface morphology, pore structure and maximum membrane pore sizes of the obtained controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) were quantitatively measured using scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimeter and water immersion method.ResultsThe films of CRFs were smooth, uniform and loose, a few of holes were observed, which were mainly distributed in the range of 1000–50 nm. The thickness of the controlled-release film was about 60–100 μm, and the inner surface of the film was rough. The total pore volume of the film was in range of 0.4686–1.2260 mL/g, and the average pore diameter was in range of 25.1–86.8 nm, the porosity rate was in range of 33.0%–50.6%, and the structure was loose. The maximum pore size of CRFs ranged from 990 to 480 nm with a release period of 1 to 6 months.ConclusionsComprehensively considering the results from the three measurement methods, the controlled-release PE film is generally an even and closed spherical shell, and about 50 microns in thickness. The membrane is roughly continuous and evenly compact with diameter of 3 mm. However, there are pores of average 50 nm in the partial position, and the maximum pore is about 1 μm. The maximum pores are the main pass of water and nutrient, determining the release rate of nutrients in the CRFs.
Preparation and properties of nano-SiO2–polyvinyl alcohol–γ-polyglutamic acid composite film materials
BAI Yang, CHEN Song-ling, FAN Li-juan, YANG Ming, ZOU Hong-tao, ZHANG Yu-long
2019, 25(12): 2044-2052.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19121
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ObjectivesPolyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as a coating material of slow-released fertilizer, has advantages of low price, good permeability and friendly to environment. However, the water resistance of PVA film is poor. The slow-released effectiveness of fertilizer coated with the PVA does not last long in soil. γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a kind of environmental-friendly fertilizer synergist and easily obtained. In this study, we modified PVA properties by adding nano-SiO2, γ-PGA and glutaraldehyde, then prepared composite coating films using the modified PVA. The processing parameters were optimized.MethodsThe experiment adopted L9(33) orthogonal experimental design. The concentrations of PVA (factor A) were 4%(A1), 6%(A2), 8%(A3); the mass ratios of γ-PGA to PVA (factor B) were 0.8∶3(B1), 1∶3(B2), 1.2∶3(B3); the volume fractions of glutaraldehyde in γ-PGA and PVA (factor C) were 0.1%(C1), 0.2%(C2), 0.3%(C3). Meanwhile, nine treatments without cross-linker were conducted as blank control. Organic high molecular polymerization method was used to prepare the composite materials, and the hydrophilism and permeability of composite materials were tested. Then composite films were prepared by adding 5, 10 and 20 g/kg of nano-SiO2 and anhydrous ethanol. The hydrophilism, permeability, infrared spectrum characteristics and surface microstructure of composite materials were measured.ResultsThe hydrophilism and permeability of the composite materials were significantly reduced after adding crosslinking agent. Under condition of factor A 4%, B 1.2∶3 and C 0.3%, the hydrophilism of composite materials was the lowest (118%), and the NH4+ and water permeability were reduced by 46.8% and 23.0%, compared with the control. With increasing of nano-SiO2 addition, the hydrophilism of each treatment showed an up-and-down trend. When adding 20 g/kg of nano-SiO2, the hydrophilism and NH4+ permeability of composite films were the lowest, which were decreased by 6.8%–38.2% and 23.8%–53.2%, respectively, compared with no nano-SiO2 treatment. However, the water permeability was increased by 38.4%–67.7%. The results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that new ether bonds between PVA and γ-PGA were generated during the reaction. With nano-SiO2 addition, the stretching vibration peak of―OH was widened, the transmittance was increased, new rocking vibration of Si ―O―Si and antisymmetric stretching vibration of Si―O―Si appeared. Additionally, unreacted γ-PGA still existed in composite films according to the functional groups characteristics. The surface of the nano-SiO2–PVA–γ-PGA composite film material was getting smoother and more uniform.ConclusionsIn the composite film materials, which is prepared by crosslinking nano-SiO2 with PVA, γ-PGA and glutaraldehyde, the number of hydrophilic groups is significantly decreased, resulting in the decreased water absorbency and improved sustained-release property. Thus, the composite film materials become more suitable for fertilizer coating materials. Besides, the residual γ-PGA could still play the role of fertilizer synergist.
Preparation and properties of polyurethane/montmorillonite composite films for controlled-release fertilizer
WU Xian-dong, WANG Meng, QIAN Jia-fan, YANG Shao-ding, LIU Li, XIAO Jing-shui, LIAO Yun
2019, 25(12): 2053-2060.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19339
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ObjectivesMontmorillonite (MMT) is a kind of clay mineral having accumulation texture of nanosilicate sheets, so it has excellent mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties. Three organic ion exchangers were tested in this paper in order to make MMT fully dispersed in polyurethane (PU) matrix, and then used for preparing polyurethane/montmorillonite (PU/MMT) composite materials with excellent mechanical and controlled-release properties.MethodsThree organic modifiers, octadecyl trimethyl ammonium ammoniate (SA1), dodecyl dihydroxyethyl methyl ammonium chloride (SA2) and dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride (SA3), were used to intercalate the montmorillonite. Then the castor oil-based PU/MMT composite films were prepared by in-situ polymerization. SEM, IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the morphology and structure of nanoparticles and composite films. The dynamic mechanical properties, the thermal stability and controlled-release performance of PU/MMT composite films were also investigated.ResultsThe MMT were modified by organic intercalation of the three organic ion exchangers, which brought good dispersal and compatibility of MMT in the matrix of PU matrix. Furthermore, the dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability of PU/MMT composites were significantly improved due to the addition of nanoparticles. Among the three composites, the PU/SA2-MMT showed the most improvement on the dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of membrane increased from 30℃ to 80℃, and decomposition temperature increased from 300℃ to 330℃, the reason for it was the double hydroxyethyl structure in SA2 modifier which made MMT more tightly bound to PU. While the PU/SA3-MMT composite coating material performed the best controlled-release property, the time needed for 75% of urea release was increased from 30 d to 75 d, which was mainly caused by the double long chain organic structure of SA3.ConclusionsIntercalation modification of MMT with ion exchangers of dodecyl dihydroxyethyl methyl ammonium chloride and dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium chloride can effectively loosen its structure and increase its dispersal in polymers. The addition of the modified MMT makes the PU/MMT composite film have excellent thermal stability and satisfactory release properties, which can be used for the manufacture of low price and high quality controlled-release fertilizers.
Water absorbing capacity and nutrients adsorption characterization of super absorbent polymer in the presence of urea or cations
KAN Yu-jing, HUANG Bang-yu, WANG Xin-ai, LI Yong-sheng, ZHANG Sheng-chu, YANG Jie-wen, DU Jian-jun
2019, 25(12): 2061-2068.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19306
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ObjectivesWater absorbing capacity of super absorbent polymer (SAP) is impacted by the type and concentration of co-existing electrolyte ions. Study of the interaction between SAP and urea or cations will help the correct choice of SAPs when use them in the coating materials of fertilizers.MethodsPoly acrylate-co-acrylamide [P(AA-AM)] and polyacrylate (PAA) were used as the tested SAPs in this study. 1–256 mmol/L serious cation (urea) solutions were prepared using analytical purity grade urea, NH4Cl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3 individually. 0.3000 g of the SPAs into nylon bags (75 μm) were put into 300 mL of above solutions and deionized water and stood for 12 h. Then take the bags out of the solution and dried at air for 30 min. Difference subtraction methods were used to calculate the relative absorbance capacity to water and all the tested solutes.ResultsWhen the concentration of solute was increased from 1 to 256 mmol/L, the water absorbency of SAPs in urea solution was not decreased obviously, while in all the cation solutions decreased sharply. The relationship between the relative water absorbency of SAPs and the concentrations of cations could be fitted by power function. The decrease effects on water absorption capacity was in order of urea,monovalent catioans(NH4+, Na+, K+) bivalent cations(Mg2+, Ca2+) and trivalent cations(Fe3+, Al3+). With the increase of solute concentration, the absorbed amount of solutes increased. The largest absorption of P(AA-AM) was urea 64.66 mmol/g, Na+ 45.24 mmol/g, K+ 34.26 mmol/g, NH4+ 32.63 mmol/g, Mg2+ 30.09 mmol/g, Ca2+ 23.96 mmol/g, Fe3+ 8.07 mmol/g and Al3+ 12.74 mmol/g. The adsorption of SAPs to urea, monovalent and bivalent cations could be well described with Freundlich isotherm model, and that to trivalent cations with Langmuir isotherm model. The impaction of monovalent cations on the water absorbency of P (AA-AM) and PAA was not significantly different, while the impaction of divalent and trivalent cations on P(AA-AM) was less than that on PAA (P < 0.05). The adsorption capacity of P (AA-AM) for urea and cations was higher than that of PAA (P < 0.05).ConclusionsThe adsorption capacity of SAPs to urea is much higher than that to cation, and the concentration of urea does not affect the water retention property of SAPs. The maximum adorption capacity of SAPs to monovalent cation is larger than that of divalent cation and also much larger than that of trivalent cation. Cations can significantly reduce the water absobency of SAPs, and the relationship between the concentration of cation and the water absobency of SAPs is a power function. Both the tolerance and adsorption of P(AA-AM) to cations are slightly higher than those of PAA. Generally, SPAs are suitable to be added into the coating material for urea, and not for salt-based fertilizers.
Using response surface simulation method to optimize reaction conditions of hydrogen peroxide to increase carboxyl content of humic acid
MA Ming-kun, YUAN Liang, ZHANG Shui-qin, LI Yan-ting, GAO Qiang, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2019, 25(12): 2069-2075.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19043
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ObjectivesThe bioactivity of humic acid is closely related to its carboxyl content. In this paper, the optimal processing parameters of increasing the humic acid carboxyl group content with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant were studied by using the method of response surface simulation.MethodsWeathered coal humic acid was used as raw material and 6% hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, the oxidantion process of humic acids was conducted in a three-factorial experiment, each factor having four-levels. The pH during the reaction were 1, 4, 7 and 10 under liquid/solid ratio of 0.2∶1, 0.4∶1, 0.6∶1, 0.8∶1, and reaction time of 60, 120, 180 and 240 min. The peak area of carboxyl group in the reaction products was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and calculated by Origin 2018. According the single factor experimental result, the response of surface methodology (Box-Benhnken) test was used for the optimization of the reacting parameters.ResultsIn the single pH experiment, the highest humic acid carboxyl content was obtained in solution pH 7, which was 192.2% higher than that in untreated humic acid. In the reaction time experiment, the highest carboxyl content was obtained in 120 min. Then followed by 180 and 240 min during which the carboxyl contents were 83.0% and 48.5% higher than that in untreated humic acid. In the response surface optimization test, the model was highly significant, and the established regression equation for carboxyl content had an excellent goodness of fit. Therefore, the humic acid carboxyl content could be analyzed and predicted by the model. The effects of size of each independent variable on the carboxyl group content were shown in the following descending order: extraction pH > liquid/solid ratio > reaction time. The response surface plots indicated that solution pH had a significant effect on the humic acid carboxyl content, while the interaction between any two independent factors was not significant.ConclusionspH is the most important factor influencing the carboxyl content during the oxidation of humic acids using H2O2 as dissolvent. Under the reaction temperature of 100°C, the optimum reaction parameters to increase the humic acid carboxyl content are: pH 7.49, reaction time 114.84 min, liquid/solid ratio 0.39∶1, and under this optimum reaction condition, the error rate between the predicted and actual value of carboxyl content is only 1.4%.
Meta-analysis on the effects of low molecular weight organic acids on increasing availability of soil phosphorus
ZHANG Nai-yu, YAN Shuang-dui, LI Juan, WANG Ya-nan, LIU Yue, BU Yu-shan
2019, 25(12): 2076-2083.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19330
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ObjectivesLong term phosphorus fertilization has resulted in accumulation of phosphorus in soil. However, most of the phosphorous is immobilized to become difficult for plant use. Low molecular weight organic acids (LMOA) have been found as effective “P activator”, which has become one of the research hotspot at present. In this paper, literature was searched and analyzed for the rational application of low molecular weight organic acids to improve the availability of phosphorus in soil.Methods831 published studies in the past 30 years (1990–2018) were found using the key words containing “available P”, and a database was established based on the papers related to activation of soil fixed P by LMOA. Using Meta-analysis method, the activation effect of LMOA was analyzed under different soil pH, total P content and available P content, incubation types and time, and organic acid kind and their concentrations.ResultsThe LMOA concentration was 0–1 mol/L in the literatures. Comparing to controls without adding LMOA, LMOA decreased the content of calcium-P (Ca-P), aluminum-P (Al-P), iron-P (Fe-P), Occluded-P (O-P), and organic-P by 27.1%, 21.3%, 15.5%, 8.22% and 5.42%, respectively, and increased the content of available P by 213%. In calcareous soils, LMOA transformed the octacalcium P (Ca8-P) and decandin P (Ca10-P) to labile dicalcium P (Ca2-P), with the content of Ca8-P and Ca10-P decreased by 8.36% and 11.8%, and the content of Ca2-P increased by 7.90%. In the soil with total P content less than 1 g/kg or available P content less than 20 mg/kg, the LMOA increased the available P content by 331% and 343%, respectively, and the increasing effects on total P and available P were 107% and 189% higher than those obtained in soils with total P greater than 1 g/kg and available P higher than 20 mg/kg, respectively. In acid (pH < 6) and neutral (pH 6–8) soils, LMOA addition increased the available P by 329% and 320%, which were much higher than the value of 56.9% in calcareous soils (pH > 8). The P activation effect was influenced by incubation period greatly. The soil available P contents were increased by 257% in the 1st day of incubation, and by 372% during the incubation period of 10–20 days, but decreased after 20 days. The activation effect of P was also affected by incubation method. The soil available P contents were higher in shaking culture than those in normal culture. The P activation effect of oxalic and citric acids was better than others, and when their concentration was below 90 mmol/L, the available P contents were increased by 288% and 185%, respectively.ConclusionsThe activation effect of LMOA depends on soil pH, total P, and available P content, as well as the adding acid types and adding time. Generally speaking the activation effect of LMOA on soil insoluble P is better in acid and neutral soils than in calcareous soils, and more effective in soils with lower total P. Moreover, the activation effect on soil insoluble P normally lasts for 10 to 20 days, and decreases afterwards. It is concluded that oxalic acid and citric acid perform better in activiting soil insoluble P than other LMOA.
Combined appilcation of controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer and water-soluble fertilizer to reduce N2O emission in greenhouse soil
WANG Xue-xia, CAO Bing, LIANG Hong-sheng, WANG Jia-chen, CHEN Yan-hua, LIU Dong-sheng, YUE Jian-quan
2019, 25(12): 2084-2094.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19344
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ObjectivesControlling N2O emission is an important task in nitrogen management during crop production. Under drip irrigation condition, we studied the mechanism of controlled release fertilizer reducing N2O emission, and the possibility of reducing total nitrogen input through replacement of basal applied urea by controlled-release fertilizer.MethodsA micro-plot field experiment was conducted inside greenhouse for consecutive three years, using tomato cultivar of 'Shengshihuihuang' as test material. 40% of nitrogen were basal applied before transplanting and 60% were top dressed with drip irrigation. Five treatments included no nitrogen input control (CK), routine N rate with urea basal applied (N 440 kg/hm2, U), 20% less N input with urea basal applied (N 376 kg/hm2, –20%U), routine N rate with controlled-release fertilizer basal applied (N 440 kg/hm2, CRU) and 20% less N input with CRU basal applied (N 376 kg/hm2, –20%CRU). Within the 15 days of basal application, soil gas samples were collected every day, within 8 days of each topdressing, the gas sample were collected every other days and collected three times, and the N2O emission flux was measured by static box-chromatography method. Soil samples were collected at the 40, 80 and 120 days after transplanting, and soil physical and chemical properties were measured using conventional methods, and the number of related microbe and functional genes were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative method. At harvest, the tomato yields were investigated and the nitrogen contents were determined.ResultsCompared with U treatment, CRU treatments postponed the appearance of peak N2O emission after basal fertilization from 8–13 days to 28–32 days, and significantly reduced peak emission flux. After topdressing, the peak emission occurred in 3–5 days in all treatments, while the two CRU treatments reduced the peak N2O emission flux. Under the same amount of N input, the CRUs significantly reduced N2O emission flux and NO3 accumulation in soil during basal and topdressing fertilizer stages. The total soil N2O emission was significantly reduced by 24.8% in CRU treatment, and by 22.1% in –20%CRU treatment during the whole growing season; the content of NH4+-N and NO3-N and the number of AOA amoA, AOB amoA and nirK were significantly reduced, the number of nirS was also reduced during growing season. Compared with U treatment, the yield and economic benefit of tomato were significantly increased in CRU treatment, and the yield in –20%U treatment was not changed significantly, while the economic benefit were increased.ConclusionsReplacing urea with controlled-release fertilizer as basal fertilizer could significantly delay the appearance of peak N2O emission and emission intensity at the early stage of tomato growth, and reduce more than 20% of total N2O emission during the whole growth period. The reason for it is the decreased NH4+-N and NO3-N contents and the number of microbial related to nitrification and denitrification in soil. The total nitrogen fertilizer input could be properly reduced if use slow-release fertilizer as basal fertilizer in tomato under drip irrigation.
Comparison of nitrification inhibitors on N2O emission and abundances of nitrifier and denitrifier in paddy soil
LI Jie, SHI Yuan-liang, WANG Ling-li, SUN Yi, LI Zhong, WEI Zhan-bo, SHI Hao-xin
2019, 25(12): 2095-2101.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19361
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ObjectivesThe effects of two nitrification inhibitors on nitrogen turnover in paddy soils were compared, aiming to differentiate their inhibiting mechanism and choose efficient one for the rice production in Northeast Black soil.MethodsThe paddy soil, originated from meadow black soil, in Northeast China was used in a incubation experiment at 25℃. The incubation had two groups and lasted 150 days long. The treatments included no urea control (CK), adding urea 0.8 g/kg soil (Urea), and adding DCD (Urea+ DCD) and DMPP (Urea+ DMPP). In one group of experiment, the gas samples were collected everyday during the whole incubation period, and the N2O contents were determined using gas chromatography; in the other group, soil samples were collected since the first day of incubation, the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and the gene copies of nirK and nirS were measured using fluorescence quantitative PCR technologies.ResultsThe urea application significantly increased N2O emissions, 85% of which occurred within 2 weeks of incubation. Compared with Urea treatment, Urea + DMPP could decrease N2O emission by 78.3%, with and emission factor of 0.05%, while Urea + DCD could decrease N2O emission by 21.6%, with an emission factor of 0.18%, which was significantly different from Urea + DMPP. Adding urea could stimulate the abundance of AOA and decrease that of AOB. Both addition of DCD and DMPP had significant inhibition on the AOB abundance but not on the AOA. At the 3rd, 30th and 90th day of incubation, the AOB abundance in Urea + DMPP treatment was significantly lower than in Urea + DCD by 30%, 56% and 60%. For denitrifying bacteria, the copy number of nirK genes was significantly higher than that of nirS ones in all treatments. The Urea + DMPP treatment reduced the copy number of both nirK and nirS genes (3rd and 30th day), but Urea + DCD had no significant effect on them.ConclusionsIn the paddy soil originated from meadow black soil in Northeast China, the nitrification inhibitor DMPP is much more effective in reducing N2O emission and emission factor than DCD does. The main reason is that DMPP can inhibit the multiplication of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and reduce the number of denitrifying bacteria within 30 days of urea addition.
Mechanism and suitable application dosage of controlled-release urea effectively reducing ammonia volatilization in double-cropping paddy fields
HUANG Si-yi, TIAN Chang, XIE Gui-xian, OU Zhen, LIU Qiang, PENG Jian-wei
2019, 25(12): 2102-2112.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19297
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ObjectivesThe main pathways of controlled-release urea in decreasing ammonia volatilization in paddy fields, and the application dosage for the effectiveness were studied, aiming for the best environmental returns of controlled-release urea.MethodsPot experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of Hunan Agricultural University. The tested rice cultivars were Zhongzao39 and Taiyou390, the controlled-release fertilzier (CRU) was resin coated urea, and the tested soil was tide sandy mud paddy soil. There were six treatments, including no nitrogen control (CK), commercial urea (U), CRU treatments with N equal to urea (CRU1), 10% less (CRU2), 20% less (CRU3) and 30% less (CRU4). 60% of nitrogen were basal applied before transplanting and 40% were top dressed at 10 days after transplanting. All the pots stood in isolated glass containers, and ammonia volatilization was monitored by continuous measuring intermittent airflow. The NH4+-N, NO3-N concentrations and pH in the field surface water and the soil temperature at 10 cm depth were measured at the same time.ResultsApplication of CRU in rice fields significantly reduced ammonia volatilization loss in paddy fields. Among the nitrogen treatments, the cumulative ammonia volatilization loss of CRU3 in rice was the lowest, followed by CRU4, CRU2, CRU1 and U, respectively. Compared with U treatment, CRU significantly reduced the peak rate of ammonia volatilization, and reduced the cumulative ammonia volatilization loss by 50.3%–70.1%. The loss rate of ammonia volatilization in CRU treatment was 5.6%–8.13%, and the ammonia volatilization loss rates in CRU3 and CRU4 in early and late rice were lower than those in the others. Compared with U treatment, the peak NH4+-N concentration in CRU were decreased by 74.5%–80.4% and 53.4%–76.0% after basal fertilization in early and late rice, and decreased by 69.5%–89.1% and 67.3%–80.3% after topdressing. The average pH in surface water of paddy field in U, CRU1, CRU2, CRU3 and CRU4 were 7.26, 7.22, 7.25, 7.32 and 7.14 in early rice, and there was no significant difference among treatments. The pH in late rice were averaged 7.85, 7.71, 7.72, 7.72 and 7.66, and pH in CRU was significantly lower than that in urea treatment. The ammonia volatilization rate of U treatment showed a very significant and positive correlation with NH4+-N concentration (r = 0.8813), a significant negative correlation with NO3-N (r = –0.5319). The ammonia volatilization rates in CRU3 and CRU4 were significantly and positively correlated with the NH4+-N concentration of surface water (r = 0.5388, 0.4245), and each treatment was not significantly correlated with water and soil temperature.ConclusionsApplication of controlled-release urea in rice fields can significantly reduce the NH4+-N concentration and lessen the pH increase caused by fertilization in the surface water, therefore, could significantly reduce the loss of ammonia volatilization. Decreasing 20%–30% of controlled-release urea input could bring the best environmental effect in both early and late rice.
Effects of different nitrification inhibitor combinations on the transformation of ammonium nitrogen in black soil and cinnamon soil
YOU Lun-cheng, LI Dong-po, CUI Lei, WU Zhi-jie, LI Xue-hong, XIAO Fu-rong, LI Yong-hua, YAN Zeng-hui, ZHENG Ye, ZHANG Jin-ming, GAO Bo, CUI Yong-kun
2019, 25(12): 2113-2121.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19338
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ObjectivesAdding nitrification inhibitors and nitrogenous fertilizer synergist is an effective way to improve the utilization rate of nitrogenous fertilizer. The effects of different nitrification inhibitors and nitrogenous fertilizer synergist on the transformation of ammonium nitrogen in soil with different properties were studied for the choice of available inhibitors in different soils.MethodsThe tested biochemical inhibitors included 2-chloro-6 (trichloromethyl) -pyridine (CP), 3, 4-dimethyl-pyrazole phosphate (DMPP), 1-methoxyl-3-methylpyrazole (CMP), 3-methylpyrazole (MP), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine (AM), N-guard, dicyandiamide (DCD). The tested soils were black soil and cinnamon soil, and ammonium chloride was used as nitrogen fertilizer. The stable fertilizer was prepared by adding above mentioned individual or several biochemical inhibitors according to the usual dosage. A indoor culture experiment was conducted at constant temperature. The contents of NH4+-N and NO3-N in soil were measured at 1, 4, 7, 11, 15, 22, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 days since the beginning of culture experiment, and the inhibition rates of nitrification were calculated.ResultsIn the black soil and the cinnamon soil, the transformation characteristics of ammonium nitrogen were significantly different, and the nitrification rate in the weakly acidic black soil was significantly lower than that in the alkaline cinnamon soil. In black soil, nitrification inhibitor treatments of N+CP, N+CP+N-guard, N+CP+DMPP, N+CP+DCD, N+CP+CMP, N+CP+AM and N+CP+MP all showed good inhibition effect, which could maintain high NH4+-N content in black soil for more than 120 days. At the 120 days, the nitrification inhibition rates of N+CP, N+CP+DCD and N+CP+N-guard were 37%–40%, while those of N+CP+AM, N+CP+MP, N+CP+DMPP were 32%–36% and that of N+CP+CMP was 26%. In the cinnamon soil, the N+CP+DCD combination had the most effective nitrification inhibition. At 120 days of cultivation, the nitrification inhibition rate was 20%. The nitrification inhibition rates of N+CP and N+CP+AM were 23% and 12% respectively at the 105 days, 63% and 60% respectively at the 90th day. The nitrification inhibition rates of N+CP+N-guard, N+CP+DMPP, N+CP+MP, and N+CP+CMP were 43%, 42%, 37% and 35% respectively at the 75th day of culture, and the effective nitrification inhibition time could last for about 75 days.ConclusionsSpecific nitrification inhibitors or combinations should be added to make efficient and stable ammonium nitrogen fertilizer when using ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer in soils with different pH values. The nitrification inhibitor CP alone or CP+N-guard and CP+DCD combination perform significant and long inhibition on the transformation of ammonia nitrogen in acidic black soil. The CP+DCD combination works well on arid and semi-arid alkaline cinnamon soil.
Yield and economic profit synergism of controlled release urea and fulvic acid in rice–wheat rotation system
YAO Yuan-yuan, WANG Xiao-qi, YANG Yue-chao, CHENG Dong-dong, CHEN Bao-cheng, LIU Yan, TANG Ya-fu, MA Jin-zhao
2019, 25(12): 2122-2132.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19343
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ObjectivesControlled-release urea and fulvic acids have been proved to raise yield and fertilizer efficiencies in rice and wheat production. Their synergism was studied in this paper for further improving fertilizer use efficiency and grain yield.MethodsA field plot experiment was conducted in the rice wheat rotation system on paddy soil in Jinan, Shandong Province. The experiment treatments included no nitrogen fertilizer control (CK), common urea (U), controlled-release urea (CR-U), controlled-release urea plus fulvic acid (CR-U+F), and 40% less CR-U (60% CR-U) and 40% less CR-U+F (60% CR-U+F). At the seedling, jointing, grain-filling/heading, ripening stage of wheat and rice, plant and soil samples were collected to measure photosynthetic rate, soil nitrogen contents, soil pH, available P and K contents, and the yield.ResultsCompared with U treatment, CR-U treatment increased rice yield by 10.5% and wheat yield by 9.8%, increased nitrogen utilization by 64.8% in rice and 42.0% in wheat, improved agronomic efficiency by 52.2% and 47.1%, and increased annual economic benefit by 2804 yuan/hm2, respectively. Compared with CR-U treatment, CR-U+F treatment increased the yield and nitrogen use efficiency by 7.3% and 32.5% in rice, and 4.4% and 18.3% in wheat, respectively. 60% CR-U+F treatment improved wheat yield by 5.0% but no obvious effect on rice yield, compared with 60% CR-U treatment. CR-U+F treatment increased the annual net income by 2337 yuan/hm2 than CR-U treatment; 60% CR-U+F treatment increased the income by 1823 yuan/hm2 than 60% CR-U treatment, and increased net income by 547 yuan/hm2 than U treatment.ConclusionsControlled release nitrogen synchronizes N supply with crop nitrogen requirement, and significantly increases leaf photosynthetic rate during key growth stages of rice and wheat. Fulvic acid reduces crop transpiration rate and increases crop nutrient utilization efficiency. Controlled-release urea and fulvic acid synergistically increase the rice yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency and economic benefit, thus achieving high efficiency nutrient utilization.
Optimum levels of Paecilomyces variotii extracts in regulating resistance of rice seedlings to low temperature stress
WANG Xiao-qi, YAO Yuan-yuan, CHEN Bao-cheng, ZHANG Min, LIU Zhi-guang, MA Jin-zhao, WANG Qing-bin
2019, 25(12): 2133-2141.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18497
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ObjectivesBiostimulants are capable of alleviating abiotic stress, especially low temperature stress, and have been widely used in agriculture production. We extracted and testified a new type of biostimulant from the endophytic fungus in wild sea buckthorn. The proper dosage for the best effect was studied for rice seedlings against low temperature stress.MethodsThe tested Paecilomyces variotii extracts (PVE) was obtained through fermentation and purification of the strain Paecilomyces variotii. Germination and hydroponic pot experiments were conducted using rice as tested materials. The rice seeds were germinated and grown in nutrient solution under low temperature stress (15℃). The treated PVE dosages in the nutrient solution were 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00 μg/L, respectively. The seed germination rate, activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT), indices of photosynthetic and growth of rice seedlings were measured.ResultsComparing with no PVE (CK), the germination rates of rice seeds in PVE treatments were increased by 66.7%–106.7% on the 5th day, and by 28.2%–47.8% on the 6th day; the aboveground biomass increased by 7.9%–20.4% and the root weights by 12.5%–28.1% in the concentration range of 0.05–0.50 μg/L; the total root length, root surface area, root volume and average root diameter were increased by 48.0%, 36.6%, 36.2% and 35.2% under PVE concentration of 0.10 μg/L, respectively. Within the PVE concentrations of 0.05–0.50 μg/L, the photosynthetic rate of rice leaves was significantly increased from 5.1% to 34.4%, and the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of leaves were increased as well. Under PVE concentration of 0.10 μg/L, the SOD, CAT and POD activities in leaves were increased by 46.9%, 9.6% and 18.4%, and those in roots were increased by 28.0%, 12.7% and 16.4%; the MDA contents in leaves and roots were reduced by 22.0% and 29.8%, respectively. The PVE could alleviate low temperature stress in the range of 0.05–0.50 μg/L, with the best effect in concentration of 0.10 μg/L.ConclusionsPVE could alleviate the low temperature stress of rice seedlings by increasing nutrient uptake area of roots, leaf photosynthetic capacity and reducing cellular oxidative damage at 0.10 μg/L concentration. The appropriate dosage of PVE is 0.10 μg/L.
Effects of small molecule organic sylvites on seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.)
LIU Yan, YAO Yuan-yuan, YANG Yue-chao, CHENG Dong-dong, LI Shan, WANG Xiao-qi, SUN Lei
2019, 25(12): 2142-2151.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19334
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ObjectivesApplying small molecule organic sylvite is one of the measures to promote rice growth and production. This study investigated the effects of three small molecule organic sylvites on rice seed germination and seedling growth at different concentrations.MethodsGermination and hydroponic experiments were conducted using rice cultivar Lindao 21 as tested material. Three small molecular organic sylvites of potassium formate (OSA), potassium acetate (OSB) and potassium propionate (OSC) were used as treatments and potassium sulfate (IOS) as control. The concentrations of K+ in the nutrient solution were 0.25 mmol/L and 0.50 mmol/L. Rice seeds were loaded on paper, which was soaked in treatment solutions, for germinating at 25℃. Rice seedlings at 2-leaves-one-sprout stage were transformed into treatment solutions and cultured at 25℃ and 12 h light/12 h dark. At 4-leaves-one-sprout stage, the seedlings were harvested for the measurement of growth, root morphology and photosynthetic characteristics.ResultsSmall molecule organic sylvite promoted the early germination of rice seeds. At 48 h, the germination rates of OSA and OSB were respectively 35.6% and 37.8% higher than that of IOS in the K+ concentration of 0.25 mmol/L, and 34.0% and 27.7% higher in the concentration of 0.50 mmol/L. Compared with IOS, OSA at 0.25 and 0.50 mmol/L, and OSB at 0.25 mmol/L significantly increased the leaf width and fresh weight of rice seedling, and significantly increased the root weight, total root length, root surface area and root volume of rice seedling. Compared with IOS, OSC increased the chlorophyll content in leaves, while OSA and OSB significantly increased the net photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of rice seedling leaves. The small molecule organic sylvite could improve the root activity of rice seedlings, and promote the absorption of potassium in rice seedlings. At 0.50 mmol/L of K+ treatment concentration, the total plant K contents in OSA and OSB were significantly increased by 19.6% and 28.3% compared with IOS.ConclusionsCompared with potassium sulfate, potassium formate, potassium acetate and potassium propionate could promote the early germination of rice seeds, the growth of rice seedlings, the photosynthetic efficiency and the absorption of K, and the best effect is from 0.25 mmol/L potassium formate.
Effects of amino acid-copper-based foliar fertilizer on celery yield, quality and disease index
MA Jin-zhao, ZHANG Min, LIU Zhi-guang, ZHOU Bin, ZOU Peng, QI Yi-hui, HE Shuai
2019, 25(12): 2152-2161.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19346
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ObjectivesCopper-based foliar fertilizer has been proved of effectiveness in yield, quality and disease prevention. Amino acids could provide nitrogen nutrition and stress resistance of crops. The effects of adding amino acid into copper-based foliar fertilizers were studied for the production of a novel amino acid-copper-based foliar fertilizer.MethodsA pot experiment was conducted in 2015 and 2016, with celery (Apium graveolens L.) as test crop. There were five treatments in the experiment, including spraying water (CK), spraying 1.0 g/L Cu-based foliar fertilizer (CF1), 2.0 g/L Cu-based foliar fertilizer (CF2), 1.0 g/L amino acid-Cu-based foliar fertilizer (Cu-AA1) and 2.0 g/L amino acid-Cu-based foliar fertilizer (Cu-AA2). At 15, 45, 75 and 105 days after transplanting, spraing 15, 30, 50 and 50 mL, respectibely. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after transplanting, the leaf chlorophyll contents and disease index were determined. At harvest, the leaf photosynthetic characteristics were determined, and the yield and nutrition quality were measured.ResultsCompared to CK, the yields in other four treatments were increased significantly. The yield in Cu-AA1 treatment was 10.9% higher than that in CF1 treatment, and the Cu-AA2 was 13.8% higher than CF2 in 2015. There was significant difference between CF1 and CF2 treatments ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference between Cu-AA1 and Cu-AA2. The SPAD value and Pn of celery leaves in foliar fertilizer treatments were increased significantly and there was no significant difference in SPAD value among the foliar fertilizer treatments. The Pn in Cu-AA1 treatment was increased by 17.3% than that in CF1, and no significant difference was found between different doses for the same foliar fertilizer. Compared CK , contents of soluble solid, soluble protein and nitrate contents in celery stems were significantly increased in CF1, Cu-AA1 and Cu-AA2 treatments. No significant difference in soluble solid was found among different foliar fertilizer treatments. Cu-AA2 treatments significantly increased soluble protein contents compared with CF2 and there was no significant difference between CF1 and CF2, or between Cu-AA1 and Cu-AA2. The nitrate content in Cu-AA2 treatment was 9.9% lower than that in CF2 and there was significant difference between difference doses for the same fertilizer ( P < 0.05). The disease indexes of celery in foliar fertilizers were significantly decreased than those in CK at 90 and 120 days after transplanting and those in CF1 and Cu-AA1 treatment were lower than those in CF2 and Cu-AA2 treatment. No significant difference was found between different foliar fertilizers with the same dose ( P < 0.05). Compared with CK, the Cu concentrations in celery leaves in all the four treatments were increased significantly. The Cu concentration in CF2 was 60.5% higher than that in CF1, and Cu-AA2 was 26.4% higher than that in Cu-AA1. The Cu concentration in Cu-AA2 was 14.0% lower than that in CF2, and no significant difference was found between Cu-AA1 and CF1 ( P < 0.05).ConclusionsAdding amino acids into copper-based foliar fertilizer could further improve the good effects in celery yield, nutrition quality and disease control. Adding amino acids could also increase the photosynthetic efficiency of celery leaves and decrease the nitrate contents of celery stems. So, amino acid-Cu-based foliar fertilizer is novel in function, and its proper dosage is 1.0 g/L for celery.
Innovation of fused calcium magnesium phosphate products to promote industry development
HOU Cui-hong, MIAO Jun-yan, GU Shou-yu, WANG Hao-bin, WANG Yan-yu, XU Xiu-cheng
2019, 25(12): 2162-2169.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19172
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Fused calcium magnesium phosphate (FMP) is an alkaline mineral fertilizer riched in P, Ca, Mg, Si and other nutrients. It can supply trace elements needed by plants, relieve acidic soil, effectively reduce heavy metal pollution and improve crop nutrition and quality. FMP has been considered as a low-content phosphate fertilizer for a long time. Its production and sales have dropped from nearly 10 million tons in peak period to about 1 million tons in recent years. Its market share is only about 1% of the total phosphate fertilizer, and its price is not high, which makes it difficult for enterprises to operate. In this paper, the nutrient availability of FMP was analyzed from the point of plant nutrition, make sure the necessary of FMP as an important fertilizer product. From present industrial technology bottlenecks, the output and market situation of FMP in recent years was analyzed through detailed data. Approaches were proposed for increasing quality and improving industrial profit of FMP at the end. Most of phosphorous ore resources are low in grade in China, FMP industry is developed to adapt this special situation. FMP contains 12%–20% of citric soluble P2O5. The availability of P in FMP is low at the beginning, but increases significantly with the extension of time. And then the P efficiency of FMP is higher than that of superphosphate in acidic soil at last. The availability of Ca, Mg and Si are much higher than those in most industrial slag, which could compensate the supply of alkaline ions and against acid stress, and the silicon also is required for the healthy growth of crops such as rice and sugar cans. So FMP is good not only as phosphorous fertilizer, but as multi-functional amendments, especially in China as the existence of large area of acid farmland. The approaches to promote the development of FMP should be considered from the following points: 1) From the product themselves, regulating the included trace elements and appeared as multifunctional soil and plant nutrient conditioner. 2) Producing granulated products to suit mechanical application and blend with other fertilizers. 3) Special product standard, including quality items, should be formulated to reflect the advantages of the FMP product. 4) Application methods should be studied according to various product characteristics. In general, the bottleneck of the FMP industry development could be broke through by technology and product innovation, precise marketing and services.
Exploration of metal-organic framework (MOF) material as a new type of fertilizer applied in rice
WU Ke, DU Chang-wen, SHEN Ya-zhen, MA Fei
2019, 25(12): 2170-2177.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19333
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ObjectivesMetal-organic framework (MOF) is a new type of cluster functional compound based on molecular design, which provides a new idea for the design of new type of fertilizers. Two MOF materials were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, and their availability as fertilizer was testified.MethodsFeCl3·6H2O, ZnSO4·7H2O, H3PO4, H2C2O4·2H2O and CO (NH2)2 were used as basal reactants, and reaction was conducted inside reactors at 100℃. Two MOFs, i.e., MOF1 and MOF2 were designed, the nutrient composition in MOF1 and MOF2 was: Fe 18.6% and 15.6%; P 15.7% and 16.5%, N 5.16% and 4.57%, C 4.61% and 5.21%, Zn 0 and 2.89%, respectively. A field experiment was conducted using the two MOFs, as well as a conventional fertilizer (CF) as treatments and a no fertilizer control (CK). The three fertilizer treatments had the same NKP input rate (N 150 kg/hm2, P2O5 200 kg/hm2and K2O 150 kg/hm2) and fertilization method. At tillering, jointing, booting and ripening stage of rice, tillage layer soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected, and ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available P, available Fe, available Zn and pH were determined. At harvest, the grain yield, 1000-kernel weight, the number of kernels per ear, the number of effective ears and seed-setting rate of rice were investigated.ResultsCompared with the CF, the grain yields of MOF1 and MOF2 were increased by 7.7% and 6.3%, respectively, and the relevant agronomic traits were also improved. The total dry matter and N accumulation in MOF1 and MOF2 were significantly higher than those in CF; the nitrogen utilization rate in CF was 32.8%, whereas in MOF1 and MOF2 were 46.4% and 43.0%. At the mature stage, the soil ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and available Fe content in MOF1 and MOF2 were also significantly higher than those in CF.ConclusionsThe new type of fertilizers with MOF frames demonstrates the effectiveness in improving grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiencies and soil nutrient contents. So MOF could be an alternative option for the development of new type of fertilizers.
Suitable combination of nitrogen-inhibitors and nitrogen synergist for production of stable ammonium chloride applied to black soil
CUI Lei, LI Dong-po, WU Zhi-jie, LI Xue-hong, XIAO Fu-rong, LI Yong-hua, YAN Zeng-hui, ZHENG Ye, ZHANG Jin-ming, CUI Yong-kun, GAO Bo
2019, 25(12): 2178-2188.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19298
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ObjectivesThe effects of nitrogen-inhibitors were compared in this paper to screen efficient synergists for ammonium chloride fertilizer in black soil.MethodsNitrification inhibitors 3,4-dimethyl-pyrazolate phosphate (DMPP), dicyandiamide (DCD), 2-chloro-6-trimethyl-pyridine (CP), ammonia protectant (N-GD), nitrogen fertilizer synergist (HFJ) and their combination were added into ammonium chloride separately, and nine kinds of stable nitrogen fertilizers were prepared as fertilizer treatment materials. Using no nitrogen fertilizer (CK) and common NH4Cl (CK-N) as controls, a maize pot experiment was conducted. The soil NH4+-N and NO3-N contents in the seedling, big flare, grain filling and mature stage of maize were determined across all treatments. The biomass, grain yield and N content in maize plant were investigated at maturity. Apparent nitrification rate, nitrification inhibition rate, agronomic efficiency, and partial productivity of the nitrogen fertilizers were calculated.Results1) Compared with CK-N treatment, all the nine treatments significantly improved the yields of maize. Among all the nine treatments, HFJ produced the most significant increase in yield and nitrogen absorption efficiency (NAE), which were 3.99 and 4.98 times higher than those in CK-N treatments, and also significantly higher than the other 8 treatments (P < 0.05). Among the five nitrification inhibitor treatments, the best two treatments in maize yields were CP + DMPP and CP + DCD, which were 1.90–2.11 times of that in CK-N treatment. The maize biomass in CP + DMPP was significantly higher than that in CP, but similar with those in DMPP and DCD. The N uptake efficiency of CP + DMPP was significantly higher than those of CP and DMPP (P < 0.05). 2) The soil NH4+-N contents in CP + DMPP and CP + DCD treatments were significantly higher than those in CP, DMPP and DCD, with a significant increase of 2.09–2.42 times (P < 0.05). The soil NO3-N contents and the apparent nitrification rate of black soil in the two treatments were significantly reduced by 24% and 66%–68%, respectively, which were significantly different from those in CP and DCD treatments (P < 0.05). The nitrification inhibition rates of CP + DMPP and CP + DCD at seedling stage were as high as 23.9%–24.3%, which were significantly higher than those of CP and DCD (P < 0.05).ConclusionsIn black soil, the nitrogen fertilizer synergist HFJ shows the most efficient effect in increasing the utilization rate of NH4Cl fertilizer, yield and harvest index of maize. Nitrification inhibitor can significantly and effectively slow down the transformation of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen, and simultaneous use of two nitrification inhibitors produces better effect than single one does. From the results, we recommend HFJ or CP + DMPP combination when using NH4Cl as nitrogen fertilizer in maize production in black soil. The nitrification inhibitor combination of CP + DCD is also a good choice, depending on the situation.
Synergism of polyureathane coating and elicitor spraying to increase phosphorus efficiency and maize yield in coastal salinized flavo-aquic soil
ZHAO Hong-meng, YANG Gui-ting, LIU Zhi-guang, ZHANG Min, WANG Qing-bin, WANG Huai-li, YANG Zi-jiang
2019, 25(12): 2189-2196.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19106
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ObjectivesIn order to increase the efficiency utilization of phosphate fertilizer in coastal salinized flavo-aquic soil, the syngism of spraying plant elicitor, Paecilomyces variotii metabolite,and coating diammonia phosphate with polyureathane were studied in htis paper.MethodsA pot experiment was carried out using summer maize cultivar 'Zhengdan 958' as test crop and coastal salinized flavo-aquic soil as the test soil. No phosphorus application was used as control, and two P application levles were set up (normal, 1.80 g/pot and 20% reduction,1.44 g/pot). Four phosphorous fertilizer treatments included as: diammonium phosphate (DM), DM pluyspraying elicitor (PE + DM), coated DM (C-DM), coated DM pluyspraying elicitor (PE + C-DM), making a total of 9 treatments. At the 58 days after sowing, rhizosphere soil samples were collected for determiantion of soil acide phosphatase activity and available P contents, and the biggest founctional leaf samples were collected for the measurement of activities of photothysetic related enzymes. At harvest, the biomass, yield and P contents of maize plants were investigated, and the soil available nutrient contents in maize rhizosphere were measured.ResultsUnder the same P input level and compared with DM, C-DM could significantly increase yield by 5.89%–10.10%, P use efficiency by 6.8–8.1 percentage points; PE + DM could significantly increase yield by 7.46%–9.31%, P use efficiency by 4.8–6.2 percentage points, acid phosphatase activity in maize rhizosphere by 17.65%–27.90%; PE + C-DM significantly increased yield by 7.78%–16.30%, P use efficiency by 8.8–14.0 percentage points.When P input was reduced by 20%, coating and spraying elicitor showed synergism. Compared with C-DM and PE + DM, PE + C-DM significantly increased acid pohosphatase activity in rhizosphere by 21.8% and 11.7%, pyruvate dikinase activity by 33.3% and 14.3%, AGPase activity by 75.5% and 47.6%; increased soil available P contents by 33.7%, 19.4% and 15.0%, 26.1% at the 58 and 103 days after sowing, and the yield in PE + C-DM was not significantly different from that in DM under normal P (1.80 g/pot) put treatment.ConclusionsUnder the tested conditions, coating diammonium phosphate with polyureathane and combined with spraying elicitor on soil surface could increase the activity of phosphatase in rhizosphere soil during the key growth period of maize, enhance the supply intensity of soil phosphorus, and increase the activities of photosynthase and amylase in leaves, so improve the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer. When the phosphorus input was reduced by 20%, the maize yield could maintain stable with the two measurement.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(4687) PDF 2130KB(1912)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(4020) PDF 2629KB(15524)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(2835) PDF 929KB(1647)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(3900) PDF 876KB(2184)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(4857) PDF 1767KB(1059)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(2142) PDF 1119KB(1158)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(3385) PDF 1163KB(1553)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(5675) PDF 906KB(2076)
Effects of  green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 19(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(3883) PDF 1194KB(720)
Effects of interaction between density and nitrogen on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat
CAO Qian, HE Ming-rong, DAI Xing-long, MEN Hong-wen, WANG Cheng-yu
2011, 17(4): 815-822.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0545
Abstract(3074) PDF 930KB(1795)