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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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2019, 25(5).  
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Genome-wide association analysis for wheat traits related to K-efficiency at seedling stage
ZHANG Yan-xia, ZHAO Yan-yan, GUO Ying, ZHAO Yan, LI Si-shen, KONG Fan-mei
2019, 25(5): 699-709.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18140
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ObjectivesBreeding wheat with K-high efficiency is an important pathway for alleviating pressure of potash resource shortage in China. In this study, to better understanding the genetic mechanism, the correlated traits of K-efficiency at wheat seedling stage were investigated by different K treatments, and the molecular markers closely related to K-efficiency traits were screened by correlation analyses. The study will provide support for cloning of K efficiency-related genes and breeding of wheat varieties with K-high efficiency.MethodsUsing 134 wheat cultivars as materials, a hydroponics experiment with complete random design in triplicate was conducted in greenhouse at Shandong Agricultural University in 2014 and 2015. The seedlings of 7 cm high and 7 days old of all the cultivars were subjected to low K (LK) and normal K (CK) levels for 28 days in the dark, then harvested and divided into shoot and root. The seedling dry weight (biomass) and K content were analyzed, and the K accumulation, dry biomass ratio of root to shoot (RSDW), root to shoot ratio of K accumulation and K use efficiency were calculated. To investigate the effects of low K treatment on biomass and K-efficiency related traits, the correlation analysis of tested traits based on the 15230 different SNP markers was performed using GLM and MLM models in TASSEL 5.0 to obtain stably and significantly correlated markers/locus for wheat seedlings.ResultsThe contents and accumulation of K in roots, shoots and whole seedlings were all significantly decreased, although the root biomass and the K use efficiencies significantly increased at the seedling stage under the low K treatment. A total of 1300 markers were significantly associated with biomass and K-efficiency related traits, of which, a total of 1102 markers were located on the 19 chromosomes, and most of these molecular markers were screened only under specific K treatment conditions, and three loci including Excalibur_c14273_1407, Ku_c11150_773 and BS00094893_51 were identified under at least three environments. Meanwhile, a total of 4 loci such as wsnp_Ku_c13311_21255428, Excalibur_c8670_972, IACX5989 and wsnp_Ex_c12887_20426781 were confirmed to be significantly associated with six or seven traits.ConclusionsLow K stress significantly influenced the growth of wheat seedlings and the number of related molecular markers. Most of the molecular markers related to K-efficiency and biomass traits are detected only under one environment, indicating that these tested traits might be controlled by different genes. The study also detected four hot sites (molecular markers) which were associated with at least six traits exhibiting a significant correlation with K-efficiency traits at wheat seedling stage. These sites possibly contain important genetic information and deserve to be further investigated.
Effects of nitrogen forms and amounts on nitrogen translocation, yield and quality of strong-gluten wheat
DAI Xin-jun, YANG Zhen-ping, LU Mei, LI Hui, FAN Pan, SONG Jia-min, GAO Zhi-qiang
2019, 25(5): 710-720.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18220
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ObjectivesNitrogen sources and application amount is not always reasonable in wheat production. This paper was to select the optimal nitrogen source and amount to increase of grain yield and quality of wheat, decrease field pollution, and at the same time found theoretical basis for reasonable and precise nitrogen application in forms and rates.MethodsA two-factor splitting plot experiment was conducted, with N form as the main factor (NO3-N, NH4+-N and CONH2-N), and nitrogen levels of low (75 kg/hm2), medium (150 kg/hm2) and high (225 kg/hm2) as subplots. The N translocation, yield and quality of wheat were investigated.Results1) For all the three N supplying forms, the medium N rate of 150 kg/hm2 showed the maximal nitrogen accumulation, the highest grain yield and harvest index at the wheat harvest stage. The medium N treatment also increased pre-anthesis N translocation and post-anthesis N accumulation. The biomass yields, all the grain protein fraction contents (except gliadin), protein contents, wet gluten contents, gluten indices, total starch, amylose, amylopectin, soluble sugar and sucrose contents were increased with the increase of nitrogen application rates. 2) Under the same N rate, the plant N content, biomass and grain yield of wheat with NO3-N and CONH2-N treatments were significantly higher than those with NH4+-N treatment (P < 0.05), there were no significant differences between NO3-N and CONH2-N at medium and high N levels. As for quality of wheat, CONH2-N was more benefit for increasing protein and gluten contents, and thus producing high grain quality; supplying of CONH2-N was also promote N uptake and nitrogen production efficiencies, the NH4+-N treatment, on the contrary, was the worst. 3) Nitrogen form affected spike number and nitrogen rate influenced the 1000-grain weight significantly. The highest yield was obtained with the medium N level (150 kg/hm2), and the best quality was obtained with the high nitrogen (225 kg/hm2). 4) Variance analysis showed that supplement of different forms and rates of nitrogen fertilizer significantly influenced N accumulation and its proportion at different growth stages of winter wheat (P < 0.01), and there was a highly significant interaction between N form and rate. Path analysis showed that the leaf N-translocation before anthesis directly affected yield with the direct path coefficient as 0.614.ConclusionsAmide nitrogen is found most suitable nitrogen form for wheat growth in the tested area. CONH2-N in medium rate (150 kg/hm2) is suitable for increasing grain yield and nitrogen content, while in high rate (255 kg/hm2) is good for achieving high gluten grain. Therefore, nitrogen fertilization rate should be managed according to the yield and quality requirements in actual wheat production.
Effects of the number and position of functional leaves on yield traits of rice under different nitrogen levels
TIAN Guang-li, KONG Ya-li, ZHANG Rui-qin, ZHOU Xin-guo, GUO Shi-wei
2019, 25(5): 721-728.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18153
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ObjectivesThe functional leaves play key roles for the nutrient translocation from vegetative organs to spikes of rice. The paper studied the effects of different number and positions of functional leaves on the panicle characteristics under different nitrogen levels, so as to provide more scientific and reasonable guidance for the actual production of rice.MethodsTaking early-maturing late japonicas ‘Zhendao 11’ as material, a field experiment was conducted in Jiangsu Province. Five nitrogen levels (N 0, 90, 180, 270, 360 kg/hm2) were set up as the main treatments of N0, N90, N180, N270 and N360, and high and low transplanting densities of 32.5 × 104 and 25.5 × 104 hill/hm2 as the secondary treatments (HD and LD). At heading stage of rice, panicles with the same size were selected and labeled in each plot. From the panicle downward, the leaves were pruned respectively as: the last 1st (−T), the last 2nd (−T2), the last 3rd (−T3), the last 1st+2nd (−T1+2), the last 1st+3rd (−T1+3), the last 2nd+3rd (−T2+3), the last three (−T1+2+3), and non-pruned (−T0, control), totally 8 pruning treatments. At maturity stage, representative plants were selected to measure the yield components. The seed setting percentage and the superior 1000-grains-weight and the inferior 1000-grains-weight were recorded in each panicles under each pruning treatments.ResultsCompared with N0, N application significantly increased the pantcle length and the number of per panicle, but not in panicle length, panicle branch number and weight per panicle among different nitrogen levels (N0, 90, 180, 270, 360 kg/hm2). Under N90, N180 and N270, with the increasing of the stalk position from the top to the base of panicle, the number of grains per branch increased first and then decreased. The results of leaf pruning under the two cultivation densities were similar, indicating the stability of the effect of N level on panicle traits. There was no significant effect on the weight of single spike when the last 1st, 2nd and 3rd leaves was pruned alone, while that was decreased by 5.5%−10.3% with any 2 or 3 leaves pruned together, and when the three leaves were all pruned, that was decreased by 24.6%. Under the same pruning treatment, the decline ratio of weight per panicle increased with the increase of nitrogen level. The analysis of the generalized linear model showed that under different leaf position pruning, the model performance to explain the falling ratio of weight per panicle is: seed setting percentage (SP) > SP, 1000-grain weight of superior spikelets (S) and 1000-grain weight of inferior spikelets (I), in which SP, S, I composite model > I, S composite model.ConclusionsThe nitrogen level affects the spike length, number of branches per panicle, number of grains per branch, seed setting percentage and 1000-grain weight, and then the weight of per panicle. Fewer functional leaves after anthesis leads to lower panicle weight, and the lower the higher the nitrogen level. When the number of functional leaves is constant, leaf position does not affect the single spike weight. The position of functional leaves after anthesis affect the single panicle weight of rice by influencing SP, SP and S, SP and I, I and S in turn.
Effects of slow-release urea combined with conventional urea on leaf growth and yield formation of indica hybrid rice under direct seeding cultivation
YAN Tian-rong, HE Yan, TANG Yuan, PENG Zhi-yun, MA Peng, YU Hua-qing, DING Feng, WANG Chun-yu, SUN Yong-jian, YANG Zhi-yuan, MA Jun
2019, 25(5): 729-740.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18194
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ObjectivesIt is one of the main irreversible trends to adopt mechanized direct seeding intensive cultivation mode progressively in rice plants. Combination of slow-release urea and urea under direct seeding condition could provide theoretical and practical basis that aim to acquire high yield and improve high efficiency fertilization techniques for direct seeding rice.MethodsAn experiment was conducted using the split plot design with two factors, and ‘Yixiangyou 2115’ high-quality hybrid indica rice, was used as material. The main plot was two cultivation methods: direct seeding (CD) and transplanting by hand (CH), and the subplot was six N application ratios in total amount of 150 kg/hm2, the ratio of urea application for basal N, tiller N and panicle N was 3∶3∶4 (U30), urea as single basal application (U100), slow-release urea as single basal application (S100), the ratios of slow-release urea(basal N) and urea (panicle N) was 8∶2 (S80), 6∶4 (S60), and 4∶6 (S40), and without N application served as a control (CK). In comparison to hand-transplanting rice, changes of leaf color, leaf growth, LAI, photosynthesis of flag leaves and carbon and nitrogen metabolism of leaves and their relationship with yield formation were investigated in direct seeding rice.Results1) The yield of the direct seeding rice was slightly higher than that of the hand-transplanting rice, while the former had a significant advantage in effective panicles and the latter advantage was grains per panicle. However, the advantages and disadvantages depended on whether effective panicles and grains per panicle were effective complementary, which reflected in the total number of spikelets. Superior treatment was more coordinated in terms of effective panicles and grains per panicle. 2) Under the combined application of slow-release urea and regular urea, the leaf color of direct seeding rice showed that was alternating with " thrice black and thrice yellow”, the hand-transplanting rice appeared change of " twice black and twice yellow”, the leaf color of direct seeding rice was relatively shallow. The leaf growth of direct seeding rice manifested as early fast and late slow, both LAI at the heading stage and Pn value of the flag leaves after the heading stage were relatively low. However, the more effective leaf area rate indicated that the upper functional leaf area of the later population was larger, and the quality of population was better. The carbon metabolism of direct seeding rice leaves was more vigorous, and the NSC/N ratio was higher at the middle and late stages, and the NSC/N of the high yield treatment was lower, which was similar to the one of hand-transplanting rice at the later stage. But the metabolism pathway was different; the direct seeding rice was strengthened in nitrogen metabolism, while the hand-transplanting rice was mainly regulated by enhancing carbohydrate assimilation. Increased the ratio of panicle N can effectively optimize the leaf quality at the mid-late stage of direct seeding rice. 3) The correlation analysis suggested that leaf growth rate, LAI, flag leaf Pn and leaf NSC/N at the booting stage were significantly or extremely significantly correlated with yield, which indicated that leaf quality at the booting stage was the key to affecting yield formation. 4) Direct seeding rice and hand-transplanting rice had the highest yields at the ratios of 4∶6 and 8∶2 for base fertilizer (slow-release urea) and panicle fertilizer (regular urea) treatments, respectively, reaching 12.11 t/hm2 and 11.51 t/hm2, and the yields were higher than those of the regular urea treatments, separately by 15.55% and 5.40%.ConclusionsThis study indicated that the slow-release urea combined with urea increased the proportion of panicle fertilizer, controlled populations at the early stage and enhanced individuals at the later stage, it can be achieved the coordination between population and individual of direct seeding rice, enhanced the later stage nitrogen metabolism, effectively regulated the leaf carbon-nitrogen ratio, and improved leaf quality and prevented premature aging, so it’s an effective way to increase grain yield.
Overexpression of the Thellungiella salsuginea TsIPK2 gene enhances salt tolerance of transgenic rice
PAN Xiao-xue, HU Ming-yu, JIANG Xiao-ying, BAI Wen-qin, Guan ling, WU Hong, LEI Kai-rong
2019, 25(5): 741-747.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18144
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ObjectivesIn this study, the wild type (WT) and the transgenic rice carrying TsIPK2 gene were evaluated to clarify responsive characteristics of rice under salt stress. MethodsThe seeds and 3-leaves-old seedlings of the transgenic rice and the WT were subjected to the solutions containing concentrations of NaCl 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mmol/L, and physiologically profiled by investigating the seed germination rate, main root and shoot length, MDA and proline content, SOD, POD and CAT activity, and the relative expression of target genes associated with salt stress.ResultsThe results showed that the germination rate, main root length and shoot height in the transgenic rice were significantly higher than those in the wild type. Although the accumulations of proline and MDA in the two types were increased, the MDA contents in transgenic type were lower than that in the wild type. While the accumulation of proline in the transgenic rice was significantly higher than that in the wild type under salt stress. Meanwhile, under the salt stress treatment, the activity of SOD in the transgenic rice was much higher than that in the wild type, but the POD activity increased firstly and then decreased without obvious differences in both the transgenic rice and the wild type, and the CAT activity demonstrated similar trends in both the transgenic rice and the wild type. High-salt stress induced up-regulation of five stress-responsive genes at transcriptional level, in which, the expressions of the OsP5CS1, OsSOD, OsCATB and OsLEA3 were significantly increased in transgenic rice compared with the wild type except for the OsPOX1.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that the overexpression of the TsIPK2 gene improved the salt tolerance in rice via participating in the regulations of compatible solutes, antioxidant capacity and expressions of the stress-responsive genes.
Effects of fertilization modes on grain yield and nutrient accumulation and translocation of spring maize in Jiangsu Province, China
WANG Jue, CHENG Gui-gen, LI Long, LU Wei-ping, LU Da-lei
2019, 25(5): 748-755.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18172
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ObjectivesThis study aimed to clarify the possibility of slow-released fertilizer once basal application in spring maize in Jiangsu Province, China, to provide theoretical reference for simple fertilization management in Jiangsu spring maize planting regions.MethodsThe two maize cultivars used are currently promoted Suyu29 (SY29) and Suyu30 (SY30). Under high yield fertilization recommendation rates of N, P2O5 and K2O (405, 135 and 135 kg/hm2), the slow-released compound fertilizer was once applied at sowing (SF), and the nitrogen in the conventional fertilizers was divided into two parts, and one-third applied at sowing and two-thirds top-dressed urea at jointing stage (CF). The grain yield, accumulation and translocation of dry matter and nitrogen, and nitrogen use efficiency were investigated.ResultsThe grain yields were increased by fertilization and the yields in SF treatment were significantly higher than those in CF treatment. Compared with the CF treatment, the yields of SY29 and SY30 in SF treatment were increased by 24.7% and 17.8%, respectively. The accumulation amounts of dry matter and nitrogen at the silking, post-silking and maturity stages were increased more significantly in SF treatment than those in CF treatment, compared with no fertilization (CK). Compared with CF treatment, the increases of dry matter at the silking, post-silking and maturity stage under SF treatment were 9.1%, 10.4% and 14.7% for SY29, and 9.8%, 26.2% and 21.1% for SY30; the increases of N accumulation under SF treatment were 3.8%, 33.3% and 13.3% for SY29, and 14.5%, 30.1% and 19.2% for SY30. The SF treatment had higher leaf area index at the silking stage (increased by 7.6% and 9.6% for SY29 and SY30, respectively), and similar ratio of grain weight/leaf area with its counterpart in CF treatment. For SY29, the post-silking dry matter translocation under SF treatment was 2256.0 kg/hm2, higher than that under CF (1832.3 kg/hm2), but for SY30, that under SF treatment(1254.8 kg/hm2) was lower than that under CF treatment (1462.3 kg/hm2). The post-silking nitrogen translocation under SF treatment was higher than under CF treatment for both cultivars, which were increased by 8.6% and 16.9% for SY29 and SY30, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency, agronomical efficiency, and partial factor productivity were all higher under the SF treatment condition.ConclusionsUnder the recommended high-yield fertilization for spring maize in Jiangsu Province, once application of slow-released fertilizer at sowing could improve grain yield with higher nitrogen use efficiency and lower labor cost.
Optimal ratio of nitrogen basal application and top-dressing for N uptake, distribution and yield of sesame
LI Feng, GAO Tong-mei, WEI Shuang-ling, ZENG Yan-juan, WU Yin, TIAN Yuan, WANG Dong-yong, LUAN Xiao-gang, PEI Xin-yong
2019, 25(5): 756-764.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18166
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ObjectivesThe study aimed to ascertain the appropriate application ratio of nitrogen in basal and topdressing to achieve high sesame yield and quality, high fertilizer use efficiency, and low soil N residue.MethodsA pot experiment using the 15N-tracer technique was conducted with white sesame cultivar of ‘Zhengtaizhi 1’ as tested material. At the base of same N application rate of 0.9 g 15N-labeled urea per pot, the N was applied in ratio of basal to topdressing (at the initial flowering stage) of 1∶0 (N1∶0), 2∶1 (N2∶1), 1∶2 (N1∶2), and 0∶1 (N0∶1). The N uptake, distribution and yield of sesame were examined.ResultsAmong the four treatments, N2∶1 had the highest single plant yield, followed by N1∶2, and the yield difference with both N1∶0 and N0∶1 reached a significant level. The total uptake of nitrogen per plant at the initial flowering stage decreased with the decrease of ratio of basal fertilizer, the uptake of N per plant was the highest in N2∶1 treatment and the lowest in N0∶1 treatment. The N uptake from fertilizer by sesame at the initial flowering period was in order of N1∶0 > N2∶1 > N1∶2, and that from soil was the highest in N2∶1 treatment. The distribution of N both from soil and fertilizer was in order of leaves > stems > root at the initial flowering period. At maturity, the largest single plant biomass, the highest seed N uptake and total plant N uptake were obtained in N2∶1 treatment, while the lowest in N1∶0 treatment, with a significant difference in the items between N1∶0 and N2∶1 treatments. The proportion of fertilizer N uptake by plant was 23.7%−29.1%, that of soil N was 70.9%−76.3%. The N uptake from both fertilizer and soil was in order of seeds > leaves > stems > capsule > root, and the seed N uptake was significantly higher than others and accounting for 33.0%−44.3% of total plant N uptake. The fertilizer N utilization rate of the four treatments was in range of 17.8%−32.5%. The fertilizer N utilization rate in N2∶1 treatment was significantly higher than that in N1∶0, and the difference among the N2∶1, N1∶2, and N0∶1 was not significant. The recovery rate of 15N in different treatments varied significantly from 16.2% in N2∶1 to 31.3% in N0∶1 at harvest.ConclusionsUnder the experimental condition, applying nitrogen fertilizer in ratio of basal to topdressing of 2∶1 could produce the highest sesame yield and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency, and leave less in soil, so is thought to be optimal nitrogen application strategy.
Effect of nitrogen reduction on growth and quality of Isatis indigotica Fort.
CAO Yi-wen, QU Ren-jun, WANG Lei, SHEN Bing-qing, GUAN Jia-li, GENG Li, TANG Xiao-qing, WANG Kang-cai
2019, 25(5): 765-772.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18206
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ObjectivesEffects of reduced nitrogen application on growth and medicinal quality of Isatis indigotica Fort., was explored for providing some basis for optimizing the application of nitrogen fertilizer in cultivation.MethodsA field experiment was carried out using the I. indigotica cultivars from Shanxi (SX) and Gansu (GS) as tested materials. Taking the current N application rate of 675 kg/hm2 as base, nitrogen application levels 0, 169, 338 and 675 kg/hm2 were designed and recorded as CK, 1/4N, 1/2N, N, respectively. The growth indicators, nutrient contents, active ingredient contents and the effective economic yields (Isatidis Folium and Isatidis Radix) were investigated.ResultsBoth the fresh and dry biomass of Shanxi showed an increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen level, and reached a maximum at the normal nitrogen treatment, in which the fresh and dry weight of the plants were respectively 68.4 g, 15.3 g; While the fresh and dry biomass of GS showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing with the increase of nitrogen levels, the maximum were obtained at the 1/2N treatment, which were 78.5 g and 19.7 g, respectively. The application level of nitrogen was positively correlated with the root length, plant height, and main root diameter of I. indigotica. There was no significant difference in the drying rates among the treatments. The CK had the highest leaf soluble sugar contents and the carbon-nitrogen ratios, and the N treatment had the highest free amino acid contents, and there was no significant difference between Shanxi and Gansu. The contents of indigo, indirubin and total flavonoids in leaves and (R, S)-epigoitrin in the roots of both Shanxi and Gansu were the highest under the CK treatment, and had decreasing trends with the increase of nitrogen application levels. Gansu was more sensitive to nitrogen levels. The nitrogen application level significantly affected the effective economic yield of I. Folium and Radix. The effective economic yield of I. Folium under 1/4N and 1/2N treatments were significantly higher than that under the N treatment. The effective economic yield of I. Radix of Shanxi was positively correlated with nitrogen level, with the maximum of 3.31 mg/g under N treatment, and that of Gansu was under the 1/4N treatment (2.94 mg/g).ConclusionsCurrent N application rate of 675 kg/hm2 has a certain adverse effect on the growth and shape quality of I. indigotica, but beneficial to the accumulation of active ingredients. Reduced nitrogen application rate is helpful to improve the effective economic yield.AS the response difference of I. indigotica. to nitrogen in Shanxi and Gansu fields, the application level of nitrogen should be controlled at 169−338 kg/hm2, according to the actual situation of the field.
Differences of basic soil productivity between yellow-mud and grey-mud paddy fields in southern China
WANG Fei, LI Qing-hua, LIN Cheng, HE Chun-mei, ZHU Tian-tian
2019, 25(5): 773-781.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18142
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ObjectivesYellow-mud paddy field (YPF) is low in basic productivity, and is widely distributed in the red-yellow soil region of southern China. In order to provide a basis for the amelioration of YPF fertility and rice fertilization, we quantificationally evaluated the basic soil productivity and revealed differences in absorption and utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of rice between YPF and high-producing grey-mud paddy field (GPF).MethodsA pot culture experiment was conducted using rice cultivar ‘zhongzheyou 1’ as tested materials. The tested soils were collected in the typical YPFs and GPFs nearby having the same micro-geomorphy in twenty counties, Fujian Province, China. Two treatments of applying N 0.60 g/pot, P2O5 0.24 g/pot, K2O 0.42 g/pot and no fertilization control (CK) were designed for all the fields. Urea with 10% abundance of 15N was used for nitrogen fertilizer, calcium dihydrogen phosphate for phosphate fertilizer and potassium chloride for potassium fertilizer. Fertilizers were firstly dissolved and applied. Two column seedlings were transplanted in each pot. After harvest, the grain yield and biomass were investigated, the plants were divided into above ground part and root part, and the NPK contents of plant were analyzed. The basic soil fertility and the NPK contents after harvest were determined.ResultsCompared with the GPF in the CK, the economic yield and above-ground rice biomass in YPF were decreased by 26.9% and 23.5%, respectively, and the corresponding contribution rate of basic soil productivities (BSP) were decreased by 14.1 and 9.7 percent points, respectively. The contribution rate of BSP to economic yield had a significant positive correlation with soil organic matter content, but a significant negative correlation with soil bulk density. In both treatment and CK, the effective panicles in YPF were significantly lower than those in GPF. The effective panicles had a significant positive correlation with organic matter content but a significant negative correlation with bulk density in CK. Under fertilization, the N, P and K contents in grains, stems and leaves, roots in YPF were all lower than those in GPF at the ripening stage, of which, the P contents in the three parts were significantly decreased by 9.6%, 38.4% and 46.3% in turn, and K contents in grains, stems and leaves were significantly decreased by 10.8% and 18.5%, respectively. Under fertilization at the ripening stage, the N uptakes of rice grains and stem & leaf in YPF were 10.8% and 17.3% lower than those in GPF, the P uptakes were 12.5% and 46.2% lower and K uptakes were 16.6% and 28.5% lower (P < 0.05). Under fertilization, N use efficiency (NUE) in YPF was 4.6 percentage points lower than in GPF, but N residual rate in soil was 3.0 percentage points higher.ConclusionsThe soil organic matter and bulk density are the two most important poverty obstacles in yellow-mud fertility, which affect the contribution of basic soil productivity and the effective panicle number of yield components. Comparing with high-productivity field, the nitrogen use efficiency in yellow-mud field is lower while the nitrogen residual rate in soil is higher. By improving organic matter content and decreasing bulk density, yellow-mud paddy fields have a yield increasing potential of over 20%.
Combination of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer to improve soil aggregate stability and crop yield in Lou soil
LI Wei, DAI Zhen, ZHANG Guang-xin, LIU Yang, HAN Juan
2019, 25(5): 782-791.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18191
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ObjectivesThe influence of biochar and N fertilizer on soil water-stable aggregates, stability, organic carbon distribution and yields of winter wheat and summer maize in rotation system were studied.MethodsA six-years’ experiment was conducted. Four levels of biochar amendments (0, 1000, 5000, 10000 kg/hm2, as B0, B1, B2, B3) and 2 levels of N fertilizer application (480 kg/hm2, and 240 kg/hm2, as NT, NH) were set in this experiment with 8 treatments (B0NT, B1NT, B2NT, B3NT, B0NH, B1NH, B2NH, B3NH). All samples (0–10 cm and 10–20 cm) were separated into five aggregate-size classes ( > 2 mm, 1–2 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 0.25–0.5 mm, < 0.25 mm) by TTF-100 soil aggregate analyzer. The mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD) and > 0.25 mm aggregate content (R0.25) were used to indicate the stability of water-stable aggregates. The soil organic carbon (SOC) of aggregates and crop total yield were determined.ResultsCompared with B0NT and B0NH, the treatments with biochar significantly increased the content of SOC water-soil aggregates (P < 0.05) of > 2 mm and 1–2 mm by 3.5%–180.3% and 9.4%–98.9%, respectively. The values of MWD, GMD and R0.25 in B3NT and B3NH treatments were the highest, which increased by 12.5%–112.5%, 25.0%–65.7%, 20.0%–65.0%, respectively. At the same time, the contents of SOC in aggregates were significantly increased in biochar, and the macro-aggregates ( > 0.25 mm) concentrated more organic carbon than micro-aggregates ( < 0.25 mm). Compared with B0NT and B0NH, the content of SOC in soil aggregates > 2 mm, 1–2 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 0.25–0.5 mm were increased by 6.3%–30.5%, 0.2%–28.2%, 0.2%–41.6%, 4.6%–39.1% respectively. Meanwhile, the soil aggregate stability and contributing rates of aggregates in SOC were lower in 10–20 cm than those in 0–10 cm, especially in NH treatments, while the higher application rate of biochar (10000 kg/hm2) could improve soil aggregate stability and change SOC distribution. In 10–20 cm soil layer, compared with B0NT, the values of MWD, GMD and R0.25 in B0NH was significantly reduced by 79.2%, 25.7%, 30.0% respectively, but those of B3NH had no difference with B3NT treatment. As for the contributing rates of aggregates in Lou soil SOC, the contributing rates of < 0.25 mm aggregates in SOC in B0NH treatment was significantly increased by 17.4% compared with B0NT, while B3NH treatment had no difference with the counterpart of B3NT. In addition, the crop total yields in different biochar treatments were increased, which were higher in B2NT, B3NT, B3NH treatments compared to the B0NT with the increment of 27.0%, 23.6% and 27.9% respectively, and there was no significant difference among the three treatments. The results of correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the GMD of water-stable macro-aggregate, the contents of SOC and crop total yield.ConclusionsApplication of biochar and N fertilizer significantly improved the content of soil water-stable macro-aggregates and stability, which was conducive to increase SOC content and crop total yield. The optimal amounts for biochar and N fertilizer according to the comprehensive results should be 10000 kg/hm2 and 240 kg/hm2, respectively.
Impacts of conservation tillage on soil particulate composition and distribution of soil carbon and nitrogen in brown soil
WANG Shao-bo, CAO Ya-qian, FENG Qian-qian, GUO Liang-liang, LIANG Hai, WANG Xue-jie, HAN Hui-fang, NING Tang-yuan
2019, 25(5): 792-804.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18157
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ObjectivesTo analyze the impact of long-term conservation tillage in brown soil on soil particulate composition and heterogeneity variation characteristics and explore ways to promote sustainable crop production while maintaining soil quality.MethodsA laser particle size( LS13320) analyzer was used to measure the particle size distribution of soil samples. The soil samples were collected from the top 0−40 cm soil depth of six treatments in a wheat−maize rotation system in 2006 and 2007, respectively, in the long-term tillage experiment on brown soil in Shandong Agricultural University Experimental Station. The tillage treatments included conventional tillage, no-till, and subsoiling tillage. Straw incorporation included complete return and straw removal. Soil particle fractionation was used to analyze soil particulate composition and its relationship with crop management.ResultsOn the characteristics of soil particulate size, the percentage of clay particulates was no-till > subsoiling > conventional tillage, and straw returning >the original soil> straw removal. Under the long-term continuous conservation tillage, clay particulates increased in the no-till straw returning, while soil C/N ratio reduced. The lower C/N ratio promotes decomposition of soil carbon and nitrogen. Values of soil multifraction parameters, D(1)、D(1)/D(0)、D(2) and Δa, showed increase in subsoiling tillage and no-till compared to conventional tillage, demonstrating the benefits of the subsoiling and no-till to soil particulate refinement, and improvement of soil particle heterogeneity. Subsoiling with straw returning increased soil particle aggregate inhomogeneity, enhanced soil structure stability and overall soil physical properties.ConclusionsSoil clay particulate and C/N ratio were significantly negatively correlated with no-till and straw returning, with increasing soil N and total N content. Multifraction parameters are useful indicators of soil properties.
Response of soil organic nitrogen fractions and tomato yield to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization in greenhouse
WU Han-qing, DU Shi-yu, WANG Dan-yang, XUE Fei, ZHANG Yu-ling, ZOU Hong-tao, ZHANG Yu-long, YU Na
2019, 25(5): 805-813.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18219
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ObjectivesAcidolysable ammonium N (AN) and acidolysable amino acid N (AAN) are the dominated forms of soil organic nitrogen, which play key roles in the processes of soil nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen supply for plant growth. The effect of long-term irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the AN and AAN contents was investigated, to evaluate soil nitrogen supply ability and provide reference for scientific water and nutrient management in greenhouse.MethodsA five-year’s tomato field experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Shenyang Agricultural University. The field was mulched with plastic film and drip irrigation pipes were loaded under the film. The treatment included three nitrogen rates of 75 kg/hm2 (N1), 300 kg/hm2 (N2) and 525 kg/hm2 (N3), and three irrigation rate, in which the irrigation amounts were controlled in soil water tension ranges of 25–6 kPa (W1), 35–6 kPa (W2) and 45–6 kPa (W3). The yield and yield components of tomato were investigated in August 2016. The contents of soil organic nitrogen fractions, total nitrogen (TN) and organic carbon (SOC) in 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm and 20–30 cm soil depths were determined in the fallow period (September, 2016).ResultsThe proportions of acidolysable N (AHN) in 0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm deep of soil were 66.0%, 64.6% and 55.2%, respectively. The contents of TN, SOC and all soil organic nitrogen fractions, except acidolysable amino sugar N (ASN), decreased with the increasing of soil depths, and the differences of contents among the three soil depths were significant at 5% level. The content and the proportion of each fraction in the AHN was in order of AAN, AN > acidolysable unknown N (UN) > ASN. Under the same N application rate, the contents of AN in 0–30 cm soil depths and the contents of AAN in 0–20 cm soil depths were both the highest in the irrigation treatment of W2. Moreover, the contents of AAN in 0–10 and 10–20 cm soil depths were also the highest in the W2N1 treatment (35 kPa + 75 kg/hm2). The single effect of irrigation and nitrogen rate on tomato yield and yield components were extremely significant (P < 0.01), and their interaction was also significant (P < 0.05). AN content during the fallow period had a significant negative correlation with tomato yield. There were no significant differences in tomato yield among the treatments of W1N2 (25 kPa + 300 kg/hm2), W2N1 (35 kPa + 75 kg/hm2) and W1N1 (25 kPa + 75 kg/hm2).ConclusionsIrrigation and nitrogen fertilization significantly influence the contents of total nitrogen, acidolysable nitrogen, acidolysable amino acid nitrogen and acidolysable ammonium nitrogen in the soil (P < 0.01), but not on soil organic carbon contents. Significant interaction of irrigation and fertilization is existed at the same time. In the view of water-saving and nitrogen-reducing with high tomato yield, keeping soil water suction in range of 35–6 kPa, and applying N of 75 kg/hm2 is the optimum combination of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization in tomato production inside greenhouse.
Mechanism of bio-organic fertilizer on improving soil productivity for continuous cucumber in greenhouse
QU Cheng-chuang, CHEN Xiao-min, ZHANG Zhi-long, LÜ Jing-yan, JI Chen, ZHANG Jun
2019, 25(5): 814-823.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18311
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ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of bio-organic fertilizers on alleviating soil related problems in continuous cropping, balancing soil nutrients, and controlling soil enzyme activities under cucumber continuous cropping conditions. The results will lay a foundation for bio-organic fertilizers on improving soil fertility, improving continuous cropping obstacles, and promoting sustainable agricultural development.MethodsA three-season field trial was conducted at Rugao Agricultural Science Research Institute using high-intensity continuous planting of cucumber. Applications of bio-organic fertilizers of 0, 10 and 20 t/ha were the treatments. The bio-fertilizer was once applied at the first cucumber season and cucumber was planted continuously for three seasons. Soil samples of 0−20 cm deep were collected at maturate stages of each season, the soil physical and chemical properties, enzyme activities, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content as well as cucumber yield were measured.ResultsThe soil bulk density and electrical conductivity increased with cucumber planting season, while soil fertility indexes, enzyme activity, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content and cucumber yield decreased in CK treatment; the application of biological organic fertilizer reduced soil bulk density and electrical conductivity, increased soil total porosity, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus content in the same cucumber mature period. Over the continuous planting time, the contents of soil organic matter, available phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen increased by 39.3%–83.9%, 5.98%–14.2% and 10.0%–22.0% respectively, compared to CK, while the soil electrical conductivity decreased by 8.57%–12.73%.At cucumber ripening stage, the activities of soil urease, catalase, sucrose and phosphatase in different treatments followed the order: B20 > B10 > CK, and the soil four enzymatic activities in B10 and B20 treatments after 3 seasons planting were higher than those in CK in the first season; Over time, the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents in the bio-organic fertilizer treatment became significantly higher than that in CK, the content of soil microorganism biomass carbon and nitrogen inB10 and B20 treatments increased by 4.26%–23.17% and 21.81%–56.23% respectively, compared with CK. The cucumber yield in the first, second and third season of B10 treatment and B20 treatment increased by 3.93%, 9.73%, 10.65% and 12.92%, 18.83%, 20.21% respectively, compared to CK. The correlation between cucumber yield and soil bulk density, organic matter, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus and biological index was significant during the continuous cropping of cucumber, and soil pH and electrical conductivity were significantly correlated with soil catalase activity, invertase activity, microbial biomass nitrogen content and cucumber yield.ConclusionsBio-organic fertilizer can improve the soil physical and chemical properties in the continuous cucumber cropping system, alleviate the secondary salinization of cucumber continuous cropping, increase soil enzyme activity, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content as well as cucumber yield, but without significant change in soil physical and chemical properties and biological characteristics during continuous cropping, thereby alleviate soil related problems in continuous cucumber cropping.
Effects of long-term application of chlorinated fertilizer on nitrification and ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in brown soil
MA Ling-yun, WANG Yue, CAI Fang-fang, ZHANG Shi-yu, LUO Pei-yu, YANG Jin-feng, HAN Xiao-ri
2019, 25(5): 824-831.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18328
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ObjectivesAmmonia-oxidizing microorganisms are the main drivers of ammonia oxidation process. Ammoxidation process as a rate-limiting step of nitrification plays an important role in nitrogen cycle. We used the soil of a long-term experimental site in the brown soil of Shenyang Agricultural University, the effects of continuous application of high chloride and low chlorinated fertilizer on the nitrification and ammonia oxidizing microorganisms.MethodsThe long-term experimental was carried out using equal amounts of N, P and K with high and low chlorine treatment, with a total of 8 treatments: T1, no fertilization control; T2, application of urea; T3, urea + potassium chloride; T4, urea + calcium superphosphate; T5, urea + calcium superphosphate + potassium chloride; T6, urea + monoammonium phosphate + potassium chloride; T7, urea + chloroammonium phosphate + potassium chloride; and T8, nitrophosphate fertilizer + superphosphate + potassium chloride. Among them, urea + chloroammonium phosphate + potassium chloride was high chlorine treatment. The 0–20 cm soil samples were collected and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) was determined by the real-time PCR. Combined with soil nitrification potential and basic chemical properties, analysis was conducted on the effects of long-term application of chlorinated fertilizer on the abundance of microorganisms and the main environmental factors affecting the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms.ResultsLong-term fertilization reduced soil pH, especially with the high Cl treatment. In the high Cl treatment, soil nitrification potential was also significantly lower than other treatments. The nitrification potential of soil treated with phosphate fertilizer was significantly higher than that without phosphorus treatment. The abundance of AOA in each treated soil was significantly higher than that of AOB and the abundance of AOA and AOB in high Cl treated soil was significantly lower than other fertilization treatments, and the soil nitrification potential was significantly and positively correlated with AOA and AOB.ConclusionsAfter 34 years of continuous application of high chloride fertilizer, the abundance of AOA and AOB in brown soil was significantly reduced, and the nitrification potential was inhibited. The test results can provide a reference for rational application of chloride fertilizers to regulate AOA and AOB, which in turn regulates soil nitrogen cycle.
Fast production of wheat straw aerobic compost through regulating C/N ratio with urea ammonium nitrate solution
LI Fan, WANG Jing, WU Ji, YE Yin, LIU Ze, ZHU Hong-bin
2019, 25(5): 832-840.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18183
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ObjectivesComposting is one of the most effective methods in plant straw recycling attributing to the accelerated degradation and concentrated available nutrients. In this study, urea ammonium nitrate solution (UAN) was attempted as a pollution-free nitrogen conditioner to regulating the C/N ratio for rapid production of wheat straw compost.MethodsFour C/N ratio levels of 15, 20, 25 and 30 were designed in wheat straw composting mixture by supplementing UAN. The temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), ammonium-N, nitrate-N and germination index (GI) were continuously measured during the 50 days’ composting process.ResultsThe maximum temperature in treatments of C/N25 and C/N30 were 63.4℃ and 65.9℃, and the thermophilic period (≥ 50℃) lasted for 7 d and 8 d, respectively. While the treatments of C/N15 and C/N20 generated temperature not high enough for the hygienic requirements for harmless disposal of plant straw. At the initial, the pH value of compost mixture increased with the increase of C/N, ranging from 6.79 to 7.94, and became close after 50 days composting, ranging from 7.63 to 7.89. Among all treatments, there was 8.29%–13.5% of decrease in TOC and 53.3%–83.7% of increase in the total N content after composting. C/N25 and C/N30 treatments showed significantly higher organic matter degradation rate than the other twos (P < 0.05). Polymer components of lignocellulose in wheat straw showed the tendency of cellulose > hemicellulose > lignin in concentration. After composting, concentration of hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin decreased by 30.5%–50.9%, 42.4%–55.8% and 15.3%–29.4%. The nitrogen volatile losses after composting process were 34.9% (in C/N15), 29.0% (in C/N20), 22.1% (in C/N25) and 7.37% (in C/N30), respectively. Transformation of inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen was promoted during the process. Content of inorganic nitrogen decreased from 52.4%–75.8% (before composting) to 25.4%–63.1% (after composting). The germination indexes of C/N15, C/N20, C/N25 and C/N30 treatments were 3.55%, 51.6%, 81.5% and 109%, respectively.ConclusionsUAN is an effective nitrogen regulator to adjust the C/N ratio in wheat straw composting. The C/N ratio of 30 produces the most rapid composting process.
Distribution characteristics of carbon and nitrogen in herbaceous plants leaves and soil of different vegetation belts in the Loess Plateau
LI Dong-dong, FANG Zhao, DU Hao-tian, YAO Jing, JIAO Feng
2019, 25(5): 841-850.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18141
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ObjectivesThe vegetation in the Loess Plateau is strongly affected by hydrothermal conditions. The distribution of vegetation from the southeast to the northwest shows a zonal distribution pattern of transition from forest to grassland. Four typical vegetation belts (forest belt, forest−grass belt, grassland belt and grassland−desert belt) from the south to the north of the Loess Hilly Region were selected as the research subject to study the distribution characteristics of carbon and nitrogen in herbaceous plant leaves and soil of different vegetation belts. The results could provide a theoretical basis for predicting the growth and development of plants, plant nutrition and soil nutrient status of the ecosystem in the Loess Plateau.MethodsFuxian County, Ganquan County, Ansai County, Jingbian County, Hengshan County, and Yuyang District of Yulin City were selected as the study areas. They are located in the loess hilly areas of Northern Shaanxi. Field sampling from four vegetation belts and laboratory analysis were conducted. The carbon and nitrogen contents of herbaceous leaves and different soil layers were measured. Finally, the differences in leaf and soil carbon and nitrogen of herbaceous plants in different vegetation belts were analyzed using variance analysis. The results were compared with global and Chinese-scale studies. In addition, four kinds of analysis were used to clarify the four species. Correlations were established between organic carbon and total nitrogen in plant leaves and different soil layers in different vegetation belts.Results1) The soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents showed significant correlations in all soil layers of 0–10, 10–20, 20–40 cm (P < 0.001). In the 0–40 cm soil layer, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents decreased with depth. From high to low, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents were forest zone > forest−grass zone > grass zone > grassland−desert zone, but the vertical variation of different vegetation types varied greatly. 2) There was a significant correlation between organic carbon content and total nitrogen content in leaves of herbaceous plants (P < 0.01). The mean C content in leaves was 442.9 g/kg, which was slightly lower than the mean of 492 species of terrestrial plants which was 464.2 g/kg. The average leaf N content was 25.8 g/kg, slightly higher than the global mean of 20.6 g/kg, indicating a difference in leaf nitrogen accumulation and low herb C: N in the area. 3) Leaf C and N contents were significantly correlated with SOC and STN contents (P < 0.05). But the relationship with different soil layers was different.ConclusionsThe spatial distribution of soil C and N in different vegetation belts was consistent, and there was a correlation between C and N contents. From the south to the north of the Loess Plateau, plant leaf C content decreased, while leaf N content increased, resulting in C∶N showed a decreasing trend. There was a correlation between leaf C, N, C∶N and soil C and N of different soil layers.
Spatio-temporal variability of phosphorus content in cultivated soils in Nihegou watershed in recent 40 years
WU Bo, WU Fa-qi, TONG Xiao-gang, SONG Min-min, HOU Lei
2019, 25(5): 851-858.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18127
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ObjectivesPhosphorus is one of the limiting factors in the agricultural production of the Loess Plateau. It is of great significance to study the temporal and spatial variation of soil phosphorus content in the cultivated land of harnessed small watershed for the evaluation and management of cultivated land in this area.MethodsFrom 1980 to 2005, five field surveys had been carried out and total of 457 soil samples were collected at different time and space scales within Nihegou watershed, the soil total phosphorus and Olsen-P contents were analyzed. The variation of soil P was calculated and summarized by detailed experiments, micro-analysis and information feedback test, and the causes of the variation were discussed.ResultsAs viewed from the time, the soil total-P content of cultivated land showed an accelerated decline in the past 40 years, and the soil Olsen-P content showed a fluctuating change of first rising and then decreasing. The time variation of total-P content in soil was related to the change of crop yield and phosphorus application rate. Because farm manure and phosphorus fertilizer were more applied to cultivated land from 1980 to 1998, the " input” and " output” of phosphorus in all soils were more balanced, and soil total-P content was stable between 1.31 g/kg and 1.34 g/kg. The time variation of soil Olsen-P content was related to the change of fertilizer structure and available phosphorus fertilizer application rate. As the input of available phosphorus fertilizer per hectare in cultivated land was increased by 120 kg from 1980 to 2004, the soil Olsen-P content was increased by 2.6 times. From 2004 to 2015, due to the promotion of compound fertilizer, the application rate of phosphate fertilizer decreased, and the soil available phosphorus content was decreased by 24.7%. As viewed from the space, the spatial variability of soil phosphorus cont was mainly affected by soil erosion and land management. The content of phosphorus in sloping farmland was higher than that on slope. The whole slope surface shows flat land > gully upper land > gully bottom land > gully slope land. Because soil erosion on uniform sloping farmland causes one-way transport of sediment and nutrients along slopes, and the mobility of Olsen-P was higher than that of total-P. The land close to the watershed on the whole slope section was managed more carefully because of its close proximity to the residential area, and the soil fertility was high. The soil Olsen-P content was more than one times higher than that in other cultivated land. Through harnessing, the topographic conditions of cultivated land in the whole basin gradually narrowed, the terrace area increased from 100 hm2 in 1980 to 250 hm2 at present, and the slope farmland area decreased from 250 hm2 in 1980 to 50 hm2 at present. Under the influence of soil disturbance, the phosphorus content in newly constructed terraces was close to parent material and lower than that in old terraces and sloping fields.ConclusionsAfter nearly 20 years of harnessing and more than 10 years of socialized and free management, the soil total-P content shows a downward trend. The soil Olsen-P content mainly depends on the supply of available phosphorus fertilizer, which will be a major hidden danger for the development of agriculture in the basin. With the seasonal flow of rural labor force, cultivated land management needs to be optimized on the basis of saving labor and time. Adjusting fertilizer structure and realizing intensive management will be an important direction for agricultural development in the future.
Establishment of foliar nutrient diagnosis norms for litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in South China
LUO Dong-lin, WANG Wei, ZHU Lu-wei, BAI Cui-hua, LI Huan, ZHOU Chang-min, QIU Quan-min, YAO Li-xian
2019, 25(5): 859-870.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18201
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ObjectivesThe availability of four foliar nutrient diagnosis approaches in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was compared. The proper diagnosis method was chosen and the ranges of nutrient in litchi leaves were proposed.MethodsFeizixiao is the most widely cultivated litchi cultivar in China. Twenty-two typical Feizixiao orchards, located in the main production regions of South China, were chosen in this study. The collected leaf sample number was 193 at the fruit swelling stage (FSS) of 2016, 186 at the last autumn shoot maturing stage (LASMS) of 2016 and 159 at FSS of 2017, respectively. Foliar nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn and B) concentrations of all samples were detected. The fruit yield was recorded for each tree at harvest stage in 2016 and 2017, and the fruit yield in each orchard was calculated by multiplying fruit yield per tree and plantation density in the orchard. The high yield population for nutrient diagnosis in both years was determined by squared Euclidean distance. The relationship between fruit yield and leaf nutrient concentration was fitted. Four methods including the critical value approach (CVA), sufficiency range approach (SRA), modified diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (M-DRIS), and compositional nutrient diagnosis (CND) were used to evaluate the foliar nutrient status of litchi at the three stages.ResultsAlternative fruit bearing was commonly observed in most sampled orchards. The maximum concentrations of foliar nutrients were 2-fold to more than 10-fold higher than the minimum levels in the sampled trees at the same growth stage. Significant difference was observed in foliar nutrient contents at the FSS between 2016 and 2017, however, the high yield population in both years was characterized by relatively constant foliar nutrient concentrations. Based on the relationship between fruit yield and foliar nutrient concentration, diagnosis indices of a few foliar nutrients were obtained by CVA. The necessity of foliar nutrients was qualitatively instead of quantitatively evaluated by M-DRIS and CND, moreover, the diagnosis accuracy for nutrients was related with the diagnosis stage and the severity of nutrient deficiency or abundance, with significant annual variation. In contrast, diagnosis indices for all nutrients could be calculated by SRA, and maintained relatively stable at FSS of both 2016 and 2017, regardless of the annual variation of fruit yields.ConclusionsSRA is accepted to compute the foliar nutrient diagnosis norms for litchi due to its small annual variation, universal diagnosis index and practicability. According to the SRA, the optimal foliar nutrient contents for Feizixiao are recommended as N 16.7–19.2 g/kg, P 1.06–1.25 g/kg, K 5.1–6.7 g/kg, Ca 7.7–11.0 g/kg, Mg 2.5–3.7 g/kg, S 1.51–1.81 g/kg, Zn 19.6–32.6 mg/kg, B 11.5–19.2 mg/kg at FSS, and N 19.7–22.0 g/kg, P 1.69–1.95 g/kg, K 10.8–12.7 g/kg, Ca 3.0–4.1 g/kg, Mg 2.5–2.9 g/kg, S 1.38–1.57 g/kg, Zn 15.0–18.9 mg/kg, B 10.8–16.8 mg/kg at LASMS.
Effects of nitrogen application rate on yield, quality, potassium uptake and utilization of daylily (Hemerocallis citrina Baroni) in protected cultivation
ZHANG Guo-wei, WANG Xiao-jing, ZHOU Ling-ling, LIU Rui-xian, YANG Chang-qin
2019, 25(5): 871-879.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18217
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ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to identify the effects of nitrogen (N) application rate on yield, quality, potassium (K) uptake and utilization of daylily (Hemerocallis citrina Baroni) in protected cultivation, to provide theoretical support for nutrient management techniques in protected cultivation.MethodsExperiments were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at the daylily experimental station of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Dingzui Town, Suqian City, Jiangsu Province). The daylily cultivar used in the experiment was ‘Dawuzui’. Five application rates of N 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg/hm2 (expressed as N0, N50, N100, N150, N200) were designed. The yield, quality, K uptake and utilization of daylily were analyzed at the re-greening, bolting and budding stages.ResultsThe N application increased the K uptake at all growth stages, and the largest increment occurred during bolting to budding stage. Compared to N0, the K uptake with N50, N100, N150 and N200 treatments significantly increased by 21.0%, 67.6%, 86.0% and 103.8%, respectively. Nitrogen application also changed the ratio of K uptake at the monitoring stages. The ratio of K uptake decreased from re-greening to bolting stage, while increased from bolting to budding stage, and N200 showed the most significant effect among the treatments. Increase of N application rate alleviated the K decrease rate at budding stage, the b values obtained in the treatments of N50, N100, N150 and N200 were 0.0051, 0.0048, 0.0045, 0.0044 and 0.0042, respectively. As the N application rate increased, the marginal effect of K uptake (i.e. increased amount of K uptake by 1 kg increase of N application) increased first and then decreased, and the daylily production efficiency of K descended steadily. In the treatments of N100 and N150, the daylily dry matter accumulation was high and more K was allocated to the reproductive organs, and the dynamic characteristic parameters of K concentration and accumulation were more optimized, which was beneficial for the yield formation and higher contents of vitamin C, amino acids, soluble sugars, flavones, and polyphenols. In the treatment of N150, the marginal effect of K uptake and production efficiency decreased, while the content of colchicine reached the highest. In treatments N0 and N50, the yields reduced, and K accumulation and economic coefficient of biomass of daylily decreased significantly, compared with other treatments.ConclusionsUnder the tested condition, nitrogen application rate of 100–150 kg/hm2 could promote the accumulation and transport of K, alleviate the decrease rate of K uptake in the later growth stage of daylily, thus beneficial to the formation of yield and quality related compounds as result.
Appropriate N, P and K fertilizer rates and combination ratios to increase seed yield and oil production of oil tree peony
WEI Shuang-yu, LI Min, JI Wen-li, GUO Di, ZHANG Yan-long
2019, 25(5): 880-888.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18113
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ObjectivesOil tree peony is an emerging woody oil crop in China, but unbalanced fertilization has limited the seed yield and quality of oil tree peony severely. It is important to investigate the effect of fertilization on the seed yield and oil production of oil tree peony and to seek the optimum nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) application rates for its high seed yield and oil production.MethodsIn this study, five-year-old Paeonia ostii ‘Fengdan’ was used in a field experiment. The amount and proportion of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers were designed by " 3414” incomplete orthogonal regression. The conventional fertilizer rates were urea 750 kg/hm2, triple superphosphate 270 kg/hm2 and potassium sulfate 600 kg/hm2, and the four levels of N, P2O5 and K2O in the treatments included 0 (no fertilization), 1(half conventional), 2 (conventional) and 3 (1.5 folds of conventional). The seed yield and oil content were measured, and empirical models were established to achieve the optimum rate for fertilizer application.Results1) The application of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers improved the agronomic traits including the pods per plant, single fruit weight, fruit diameter and 100-seed weight, and the overall seed yield. Respective application of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizer increased seed yield by 283.7, 276.8 and 150.6 kg/hm2, or 55.5%, 50.3% and 23.5%. The corresponding increase of net income was 7310.4, 7494.3 and 2118.9 yuan/hm2, respectively, and the agronomic efficiencies were 0.96, 2.76 and 0.59 kg/kg, respectively. 2) The effect of fertilizer on yield was N > P2O5 > K2O, while fertilizer agronomic efficiency and its improvement followed the order: P2O5 > N > K2O. Over-application of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizer resulted in lower yield and significantly reduced economic efficiency and fertilizer utilization efficiency. The recommended amount of fertilizer treatment was found to be optimal. The maximum agrong efficiency was observed at " 1”. 3) Application of N, P2O5 and K2O affected oil yield by affecting the seed number and seed oil content. The highe seed number was up to 65.0% and the seed oil content was up to 32.9%, which were respectively increased by 13.0% and 12.6% compared to the control group. The oil yield was 193.3 kg/hm2 under the balanced fertilization. The effects of the three fertilizers on oil production was in the order of N > P2O5 > K2O. 4) There were obvious interactions among the N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers. Combined application increased fertilizer efficiency, seed yield and the oil content of seed. Over application of any of the three fertilizers would reduce seed yield. 5) Among different models to fit yield versus the amounts of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilization, we found the binary secondary fertilizer efficiency model was the optimal one. According to the model, the optimum fertilizer amounts of N, P2O5 and K2O were 343.2, 109.7, and 248.4 kg/hm2, respectively. The optimal ratio of N, P and K fertilization was 1∶0.32∶0.72.ConclusionsOptimal fertilizer ratio and amount are required to increase the production of ‘Fengdan’ efficiently. Appropriate application of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers can significantly improve the agronomic traits, yield, seed number, and seed oil content. The optimal amounts of N, P2O5 and K2O application are 343.2, 109.7, and 248.4 kg/hm2 and the optimal ratio of N, P and K fertilization was 1∶0.32∶0.72.
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