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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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Effect of different organic manures combined with chemical fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and soil nutrients
LI Yan-qing, WEN Yan-chen, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18417
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ObjectivesThere are obvious differences in composition and properties among different organic manures. The objectives of this study were to discuss the effect of different organic manures combined with chemical fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency and soil nutrients and provide a theoretical basis for efficiently using different organic manures by optimizing fertilization techniques.MethodsEighteen fertilizer treatments included in this field experiment were: one chemical fertilizer treatment (farmer’s N rate, N 225 kg/hm2 per season); twelve treatments of organic manures (chicken manure, pig manure and cow manure) with chemical fertilizers (ratios of manure N in the total N input were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%); four double farmer’s rate treatments of three manures(chicken manure, pig manure and cow manure) and chemical fertilizer applied singly; one without any fertilizer treatment. The effects of different fertilization systems on nitrogen uptake, nitrogen use efficiency and soil fertility of crops were studied and discussed.ResultsUnder farmer’s N rate (225 kg/hm2), applying chicken manure or pig manure alone had similar nitrogen harvest index (NHI) and physiological efficiency (NPE) as treatments applying chemical fertilizer alone, NHI and NPE values of treatments applying cattle manure were 79.06% kg/kg and 64.42 kg/kg. Compared with famer’s N rate, the double rate of chicken manure, pig manure or chemical fertilizer decreased crops’ NHI and NPE significantly, while the double rate of cattle manure did not decrease crops’ NHI and NPE. The difference among various ratios of chicken manure and chemical fertilizer, pig manure and chemical fertilizer, cattle manure and chemical fertilizer was not significant. Under farmer’s N rate (225 kg/hm2), applying chicken manure or pig manure alone had similar partial factor productivity (PFP) and recovery efficiency (NRE) as treatments applying chemical fertilizer alone. PFP average and NRE average of treatments applying chicken and pig manure were 39.66 kg/kg and 41.85% respectively, however, PFP and NRE of treatment applying cattle manure were 29.1 kg/kg and 15.6%. Compared with famer’s N rate, the double rate of cattle manure, chicken manure, pig manure or chemical fertilizer decreased crops’ PFP and NRE by average of 49.1% and 23.2%, respectively. Moreover, all treatments combining cattle manure, chicken manure or pig manure with chemical fertilizer also had similar PFP and NRE as treatments applying chemical fertilizer alone. Applying organic manure alone or combining organic manure with chemical fertilizer could not increase soil total N content. High level of P and K content in organic manure resulted in more soil available K and P than treatments applying chemical fertilizer alone. Available P of treatments receiving chicken or pig manure was 5.82 or 7.06 times that of treatment receiving chemical fertilizer alone.ConclusionsUnder the recommended fertilization rate, chicken manure or pig manure should not be applied or combined with a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer, and cow manure with about 75% nitrogen fertilizer could achieve the same nitrogen use efficiency as chemical fertilizer, while improving soil fertility. In actual production, the proportion of manure and chemical fertilizer should be adjusted according to the characteristics of manure, so as to realize the scientific utilization of manure.
Association profiles between the expression of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene ZmPAO and dynamic variation of chlorophyll contents in maize
WEI Ning-ning, NIE Jia-wei, WANG Ya-hui, LI Ting, ZHAO Zi-xin, ZHANG Xin-hua, XUE Ji-quan, XU Shu-tu
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18268
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ObjectivesTo better understand the polymorphism of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) in maize and the functional sites related to the contents of chlorophyll components in maize ear leaves, the structural information used for the development of ZmPAO functional markers was analyzed to clarify the genetic mechanism of chlorophyll metabolism at late maturity stage of maize.MethodsA total of 141 of maize inbred lines with extensive genetic variation was used as a related population. The chlorophyll component contents in two sites from 7 time points were measured as phenotypic data. Tassel 5.0 was used to analyze the relationship between the expression profiles of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) and the changes of chlorophyll components at different periods after maturity by the mixed linear model (MLM, Mixed linear model), and the effective association sites were investigated by haplotype analysis.ResultsThe chlorophyll contents at the late growth stage of maize revealed greater variation, and chlorophyll a generally has lower accumulation than chlorophyll b, but the total chlorophyll (the sum of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) showed a downward trend. A total of 19 of effective functional sites were identified, in which 4 sites were existed in the exon region, one of them located at UTR and others settled in the intron. The phenotypic interpretation rate in the functional site for chlorophyll component content variation was ranged from 3.89% to 16.57%, the total phenotypic effect ranged from 5.24% to 41.78%. Site S3235 from the sixth intron had a phenotypic interpretation rate of 16.57% for Yang-chlb6; Site S3675 of the seventh exon represented 12.16% phenotypic interpretation rate for the phenotypic variation for Yang-chla1 and 14.14% for Yang-chlb1, respectively. The favorable trait sites with obvious haplotypes was the same as preferred variation sites in association analysis.ConclusionsThe excavation of effective functional sites and haplotype analysis of traits showed that two amino acids mutated in the ZmPAO exon, and the hydrophobic amino acids were transformed into hydrophilic amino acids, indicating that the ZmPAO gene might be regulated by the protein structure variation and as well as the transcriptional level because more related sites appeared in noncoding regions, although they are not yet identified. However, the transcription level is greatly affected by environmental factors which usually lead to the inconsistency of the related sites that found in different locations of the gene at different growth stages, but the existence of effective mutation sites is universal.
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2019, 25(9): 1-5.  
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Effect of consecutive application of biochar on phosphate morphologyand availability in brown soil
GAO Tian-yi, LI Na, PENG Jing, GAO Ming-hui, LUO Pei-yu, HAN Xiao-ri
2019, 25(9): 1451-1460.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18405
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ObjectivesPoor soil phosphorus availability and low phosphorus utilization rate are one of the main limiting factors for crop production. As a new soil amendment, biochar has unique physicochemical properties that affect the form and availability of phosphorus. In this study, the effects of biochar on forms and availability of phosphorus in brown soil were studied by analyzing the application of different amounts of biochar to provide a theoretical basis for its rational agricultural use.MethodsBiochar was applied for consecutive 5 years in a corn field. There were 5 treatments: no fertilizer (CK), single fertilizer NPK (NPK), 1.5 t/hm2 biochar + NPK (C1NPK), 3 t/hm2 biochar + NPK (C2NPK), and 6 t/hm2 biochar + NPK (C3NPK). Jiang Bofan and Gu Yichu's soil inorganic phosphorus grading and Bowman-Cole's soil organic phosphorus grading methods were used. The contents of different forms of phosphorus were determined.ResultsThe application of biochar for 5 consecutive years significantly increased the total phosphorus, available phosphorus content and phosphorus activation coefficient in brown soil, significantly increased the content of Ca2-P, Ca8-P, Al-P, Fe-P, LOP (labile organic phosphorus) and MLOP (moderately labile organic phosphorus), and decreased the content of MROP (moderately resistant organic phosphorus). Among the phosphorus components, MLOP and O-P accounted for the largest proportion of organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphorus, which was 64.32% and 28.43%, respectively. The application of biochar significantly increased the ratio of Ca2-P and Ca8-P in inorganic phosphorus. The correlation coefficient between Al-P and available phosphorus was 0.945. The direct path coefficient of LOP, Al-P and MROP to available phosphorus was significant. The determination coefficients of available phosphorus for Al-P and HROP (highly resistant organic phosphorus) were 0.295 and –0.130, respectively, which were the main decision factors and main limiting factors for available phosphorus in brown soil.ConclusionsThe application of biochar can accumulate and increase the activity of phosphorus in brown soil. Al-P and LOP are the active components of phosphorus in brown soil with use of charcoal. Increasing Al-P content and limiting HROP content are the main mechanisms for biochar to enhance phosphorus availability in brown soil.
Mechanism of subsurface organic amendment combined with plastic mulching increasing soil fertility and microflora in an arid saline soil
ZHANG Hong-yuan, LU Chuang, PANG Huan-cheng, ZHANG Jian-li, LIU Na, ZHANG Xiao-li, LI Yu-yi
2019, 25(9): 1461-1472.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18391
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ObjectivesThe soils in arid Northwest China are unfertile and have high salinity in surface tillage layers. Applying organic fertilizers into 10–30 cm of subsurface layer and plastic mulching were attempted in order to constructing a fertile subsurface layer in saline-alkali land.MethodsA field micro-plot experiment was conducted in Wuyuan County, Inner Mongolia, using sunflower as tested crop. Four treatments were designed, as conventional ploughing (CK), ploughing plus plastic mulching (PM), applying 106.8 t/hm2 of manure in 10–30 cm subsurface (OM), and subsurface manure application plus plastic mulching (OMP). Before and after spring irrigation and after harvest, the pH, total salt, organic matter and available nutrient contents in 0–100 cm soil profile were determined, and the microflora in moderate saline soil were investigated during sunflower growth period.ResultsBefore spring irrigation, the OM and OMP treatments significantly increased the salt contents in the 10–30 cm soil layer (P < 0.05), the increase to CK was by 37.1%–52.9%, and to PM by 32.1%–47.2%. After spring irrigation, there was no significant differences among all treatments. Plastic mulching strongly inhibited salt returning, and the effect of OMP was better than of PM. After harvest, the salt return rate in 0–10 cm soil layer under OMP was reduced by 131%, 77.6% and 106%, compared with CK, PM and OM; and the salt return rate under PM was reduced by 53.5% and 28.7%, compared with CK and OM (P < 0.05), respectively. Compared with CK, the pH values under OM and OMP were decreased by 0.36 and 0.60 units in 10–30 cm soil layer, and by 0.45 and 0.44 units in 30–40 cm soil layer, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with CK, the organic matter contents in 10–30 cm soil layer under OM and OMP were increased by 100% and 127%, and the contents of available N, P and K under OM and OMP were increased by 88.7% and 105%, 564% and 514%, 453% and 400%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with CK, the organic matter content in the 30–40 cm soil layer under OMP was increased by 33.6%, and the available P and K contents under OM and OMP were increased by 517% and 604%, and 191% and 157%, respectively (P < 0.05). The high-throughput results showed that all the treatments had an effect on the content of the horizontal bacterial population to a certain extent. The OM and OMP treatments significantly increased the abundance of dominant bacteria such as Bacillus, Altererythrobacter, Steroidobacter, Streptomyces and Nocardioides (P < 0.05), but the differences in diversity of soil microbial community (Shannon index and Simpson index) and abundance (ACE index and Chao1 index) among all the treatments were not significant. Correlation analysis showed that the relative contents of the above five bacteria were significantly and positively correlated with organic matter and available nutrient contents in 0–40 cm soil layer, significantly and negatively correlated with pH value (P < 0.01), not significantly correlated with the total salt content.ConclusionsSubsurface manure application combined with plastic mulching is proved of effective in reducing the salt accumulation on soil surface, and increasing the soil organic matter and available nutrient contents rapidly, and improving the soil microbial structure and abundance of dominant bacteria at the same time, which stimulate the mineralization of organic matter consequently.
Variation trend of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and the stability of maize yield in black soil under long-term organic fertilization
ZHANG Xiu-zhi, GAO Hong-jun, PENG Chang, LI Qiang, ZHU Ping, GAO Qiang
2019, 25(9): 1473-1481.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18390
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ObjectivesThis study investigated the different influences of long-term organic, chemical fertilizers and their combined fertilization on soil organic carbon storage and yield stability in northeast black soil region, which would provide valuable reference for obtaining high and stable yield and culturing black soil fertility in Northeast China.MethodsThe surveyed long-term fertilization experiment was located Gongzhuling City of Jilin Province, started in 1980. The chosen treatments included no fertilizer control (CK), balanced chemical fertilization (N–P2O5–K2O 150–75–75 kg/hm2, NPK), applying manure 30 t/hm2, i.e. N 150 kg/hm2, P2O5 135 kg/hm2 and K2O 45 kg/hm2(M2), applying double amount of manure (M4), chemical and manure combination M2NPK and M4 NPK. The maize yield, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents were recorded annully.ResultsThe highest maize grain yield was in M4NPK treatment, with an average yield of 9637 kg/hm2, followed by M2NPK, with an average yield of 9422 kg/hm2, and the lowest in CK treatment, with an average yield of 3551 kg/hm2, significantly lower than other treatments. For the first 10 years' consecutive organic fertilization, the soil basic fertility had been significantly improved, and the dependence of maize yield on fertilizer was reduced, the yields in M2 and M4 treatments were similar to that in NPK treatment. From then to 2017, the maize yield was annually increased by 3.8% on average in M2 and M4 treatments, compared with that in NPK. The fitting equation showed that the contribution rate of fertilizer would be decreased by 9.2% to 12.2% for every 1000 kg/hm2 increase in base yield. By the practical monitoring, the contribution of fertilizer to yields stated to decrease after 30 years' organic fertilization. In the organic and inorganic combination treatments, the variation coefficient of maize yield was 19.3% in averaged, and the yield sustainability index SYI was as high as 0.58, which was ranking in high stability level. The difference of soil organic C content among the treatments gradually increased with fertilization years, and became significant since the 11th year. Soil organic carbon content increased significantly in treatments of M4NPK and M4. The soil total nitrogen was significantly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon (r = 0.826**). For every 1 g/kg of increase in soil organic carbon would bring an increase of 0.086 g/kg of total nitrogen. Grain yield was significantly and positively correlated with organic carbon and total N.ConclusionsUnder the experimental condition, pure organic fertilization mainly contributes to the improvement of soil organic carbon pool at the early stage, and would not increase the yield until the soil organic carbon arriving certain level. The combination of organic and chemical fertilizer could increase soil carbon and nitrogen pools rapidly, and achieve high and stable yield increase. With organic and chemical combination, the annual soil organic carbon increase is 0.35–0.47 g/kg, total nitrogen by 46.3%–84.2%, and maize yield stable index reachs high level (SYI = 0.58). Improving soil fertility can reduce the dependence of maize yield on exogenous fertilizers. The combination rate of fertilizer would be decreased by 9.2%–12.2% for every 1000 kg/hm2 of increase in indigenous soil yield. Therefore, the combination of organic and chemical fertilizers should be maintained for keeping increase of soil fertility, which is the base of high and stable yield and sustainable productivity of black soil in Northeast China.
Effects of reduced nitrogen fertilizer for three consecutive years on maize growth and rhizosphere nitrogen supply in fluvo-aquic soil
CHEN Lei, SONG Shu-hui, YUN Peng, ZHOU Lei, GAO Xiang, LU Chang-ai, LIU Rong-le, WANG Hong
2019, 25(9): 1482-1494.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18362
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ObjectivesExcessive nitrogen (N) fertilization in maize is concerned in the North China Plain. Winter wheat–summer maize rotation is the most common agricultural production system in this area. For enhancing maize production and protecting the environment, it is necessary to reduce fertilizer input and to increase fertilizer use efficiency. The objective of this paper was to investigate maize grain yield, N use efficiency, root morphology and inorganic nitrogen characteristics in rhizosphere soils of reducing application rate of N fertilizer to provide technical basis for rational application of nitrogen fertilizer in winter wheat– summer maize crop rotation systems.MethodsA field experiment was conducted on fluvo-aquic soil in Hengshui City, Hebei Province. The cropping system was winter wheat−summer maize rotation. The experiment was lasted for three years from 2008 to 2010. For winter wheat, the designed four N application rates were 0, 180, 225 and 300 kg/hm2. After wheat harvest, summer maize was planted without tillage, and the N rates in above four treatments became 0, 144, 180 and 240 kg/hm2 in turn. The grain yields, total N uptake and N content in maize shoots were investigated. The contents of soil NO3-N and NH4+-N in rhizosphere were analyzed. Root analysis system WinRHIZO was used to determine the root length and diameter.ResultsCompared to N240, the rate of 144 and 180 kg/hm2 did not significantly affect maize grain yield, total root length, average root diameter and soil NO3-N and NH4+-N contents in rhizosphere soils during three years’ period, however, obviously increased N utilization and recovery rate. Maize yield and NO3-N and NH4+-N content in non-rhizosphere soils started to decline in treatments of N0, N144 and N180 in the third season. Except for the bell-mouthed stage of maize in 2008, the NO3-N contents in the rhizosphere soils were lower than in the non-rhizosphere soils. The of NH4+-N contents in rhizosphere soils were higher than in the non-rhizosphere soils at maize tasseling stage in 2008, while at maize harvest stage, the amounts of NH4+-N in rhizosphere soils were lower than in the non-rhizosphere soils. When less N fertilizer was applied, the contents of NH4+-N in rhizosphere soils presented no significant change. Pearson correlation analysis showed that grain yield significantly and positively correlated with shoot total N uptake after bell-mouthed stage in 2008 and 2009 year, while in 2010, it was only significantly correlated with shot N content in the seedling and harvest stage. NO3-N content in rhizosphere soil significantly correlated with grain yield in 2009 year. The contents of NO3-N in non-rhizosphere soils significantly correlated with the yield except for bell-mouthed stage in 2009 year.ConclusionsUnder the intensive rotation system of winter wheat and summer maize in North China Plain with high soil fertility, the yield and root development of maize, and the contents of NO3-N and NH4+-N in the rhizosphere soils did not show significant variation, but N utilization increased significantly when the N fertilizer input was reduced by 25% or even 40% in maize season. In the third year. maize yield and inorganic nitrogen content in non-rhizosphere soils started to decline. As a result, It is suggested that it would be available to reduce the N input by 40% in the short-term winter wheat–summer maize crop rotation systems in high-fertility areas of Hebei Province, continued reduction of nitrogen fertilizer needs further research.
Effects of oxidized/sulphonated humic acid on the availability of Cu, Zn, Feand Mn in fluvo-aquic soil
SUN Jing-yue, YUAN Liang, LIN Zhi-an, ZHANG Shui-qin, ZHAO Bing-qiang, LI Yan-ting
2019, 25(9): 1495-1503.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18466
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ObjectivesThe paper studied the effects and acting mechanism of humic acids with different structures on the availability of micronutrient elements, which will help choosing proper humic acids to make functional specific fertilizers containing micronutrient elements.MethodsIndoor thermostatic incubation method was adopted using fluvo-aquic soil as tested material. The tested humic acids included the original humic acid (HA), oxidized humic acid (YHA) and sulfonated humic acid (SHA), each of them was mixed with dry soil in ratio of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The soil water content was adjusted to 60% of the field water holding capacity before loaded into a culture bottle. The treated soils were cultured at 25℃ inside an artificial growth chamber. Samples were taken at the 3rd, 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th day of culture to determine the available copper, zinc, iron and manganese contents.ResultsThe effects of three humic acids on the availability of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in soil were in order of HA>YHA>SHA. 1) HA of 30–300 mg/kg significantly increased the available Cu content in the soil, especially within 15–30 days it was increased by 51.3%, significantly higher than YHA and SHA did. 2) The available Zn content in the soil increased within 15 days of culture, the increase by 30–300 mg/kg HA were 11.8%–20.3%, significantly higher than those by YHA and SHA. 3) HA increased the soil available Mn content by 5.6% within 15 days' culture, and the increase was higher than that by YHA and SHA. SHA increased available Mn by 13.6% when the application rate was 300 mg/kg. 4) After applying 30–300 mg/kg HA, the soil available Fe content was increased by 4.3%–7.2%, and the application of SHA or YHA increased the iron availability of the soil only at 30 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, respectively.ConclusionsThe application of humic acid can significantly improve the availability of copper in fluvo-aquic soil, but the effect on the availability of zinc, manganese and iron in fluvo-aquic soil shows a phase change. The effect of different structure humic acids on the availability of micronutrient elements in fluvo-aquic soil is quite different. HA has the greatest influence on the availability of those elements. In view of this, when humic acid is used to enhance the availability of micronutrient elements, factors such as the nature of the humic acid and the application period should be considered.
NPK fertilization rates and reducing potential in the main citrus producing regions of China
LEI Jing, LIANG Shan-shan, TAN Qi-ling, HU Cheng-xiao, SUN Xue-cheng, ZHAO Xiao-hu
2019, 25(9): 1504-1513.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18374
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ObjectivesClarifying the present situation of N, P2O5, K2O fertilizer input is the base to evaluate the potential of reducing fertilizer application in the main citrus orchards of China.MethodsField surveys and questionnaires were conducted in the main citrus production areas of China in 2015. The plantation areas, application rate of N, P2O5, K2O fertilizers and the yields of the three main harvested citrus in 2458 households in 9 provinces were obtained, the reducing potential of fertilizer amount was estimated according to the fertilizer recommendation in the open published papers.ResultsIn the surveyed provinces, the weighted average yield of citrus was 26480 kg/hm2, and the overall level of the yield is relatively low. The application rates of N, P2O5, K2O fertilizers were 494, 364 and 397 kg/hm2, respectively, with the ratio of 1∶0.74∶0.80. And 99.2% of total surveyed citrus orchards received chemical fertilizers, while only 47.8% received organic manure, merely accounting for 9.58%, 9.6% and 6.24% of total N, P2O5, K2O inputs, meant the organic fertilizer was seriously deficient in citrus orchards. According to the reported fertilizer recommendation for citrus, the excessive applying area of N, P2O5, K2O fertilizer occupied 57.3%, 76.6% and 69.1% of the total citrus area, with excessive amount of 362, 425, and 355 million kilograms, and the corresponding reducing potential of N, P2O5, K2O fertilizers was 28.3%, 48.2% and 29.0%, respectively, the excess proportion of phosphorus fertilizer was the highest, while the N, P2O5, K2O fertilizers excess proportion, amount and reducing potential in orchards in Fujian and Pomelo were all the highest.ConclusionsThe average fruit yield per unit area of citrus in China is low, while the excessive application of N, P2O5, K2O fertilizer in citrus orchards is serious with great reducing potentiality, especially that of phosphorous fertilizer. The largest reducing potential is in pomelo production in Fujian provinc, where has the largest area and rate of excessive application of N, P and K fertilizers.
Status of microelement nutrition of citrus in Guangxi
ZHANG Chao-bo, YI Xiao-tong, LI You-fang, CHEN Xiang-ling, LIU Sheng-qiu, FU Xing-zheng, LING Li-li, PENG Liang-zhi
2019, 25(9): 1514-1522.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18382
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ObjectivesLeaf microelement contents were analyzed to evaluate the microelement nutritional status of citrus trees in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, the biggest citrus production region in China, and to provide a theoretical basis for balance fertilization of citrus in this area.Methods 207 representative citrus orchards in 15 main citrus production counties were selected for collecting leaf samples in 2017, and 5 essential microelements were quantitatively analyzed.ResultsThe ranges of the contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B in citrus leaves were 37.9–278.5 mg/kg, 13.5–588.6 mg/kg, 5.4–68.2 mg/kg, 1.2–196.1 mg/kg and 32.9–281.1 mg/kg, respectively. The average contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B elements were 99.6 mg/kg, 79.4 mg/kg, 20.1 mg/kg, 18.8 mg/kg and 111.3 mg/kg, respectively. The proportions of leaf Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B in the insufficient levels (deficient or low levels) accounted for 11.6%, 5.3%, 84.1%, 33.3% and 0.5%, respectively, and those in the optimum levels accounted for 67.6%, 72.5%, 15.9%, 34.8% and 41.5%, respectively, and those in the high or excess levels were 20.8%, 22.2%, 0.0%, 31.9%, and 58.0%, respectively. The leaf Fe contents were generally in the optimum level, except Quanzhou, Debao, Yangshuo and Xing'an County where the leaf Fe contents were relatively insufficient, and in Yongfu, Laibin, Long’an, Mashan County and Xixiangtang District where they exceeded the optimum levels. Insufficient leaf Mn contents were detected in orchards of Lipu, Lingchuan, Debao, Long’an and Mashan County. Except for Xing'an and Shanglin County, the orchards in the other 13 counties were excessive in leaf Mn contents, and in Yongfu, Yangshuo, Fuchuan, Zhongshan, Lingchuan, Laibin, Long'an and Mashan County, more than 25% of orchards were exceeding in leaf Mn contents. The percentage of orchards with insufficient leaf Zn contents were the highest among the five micronutrients. The Zn contents in leaf samples of Quanzhou, Fuchuan, Xing’an, Lingchuan, Debao, Long’an, Mashan and Shanglin County were 100% insufficient. The leaf Cu contents fluctuated greatly in different orchards, and the percentages of leaf samples with insufficient, appropriate, and excessive levels, each represented around one third. The Cu contents of leaf samples of Quanzhou, Lipu, Lingchuan and Debao County were mainly in the insufficient level, and the contents in Yongfu, Yangshuo, Xing’an, Zhongshan and Mashan County were mainly in the optimum level. However, the Cu contents of leaf samples of Fuchuan, Wuming, Laibin, Xixiangtang, Long’an and Shanglin County were mainly in the excess level. Orchards with excess leaf Cu contents were mainly planted with varieties susceptible to canker disease, which was related to the frequent application of copper containing bactericide. The proportion of leaf B contents exceeding the optimum level was the largest, reaching 58.0%. The leaf B contents in Quanzhou, Yangshuo, Zhongshan, Debao and Shanglin County were mainly in the optimum level, while the leaf B contents in Yongfu, Lipu, Xing’an, Wuming, Laibin, Xixiangtang, Long’an and Mashan County were mainly in the excess level.ConclusionsMost of the analyzed citrus orchards have one or several micronutrients in insufficient or excessive status. In general, Fe, Mn and Cu nutrition in most citrus orchards is in optimum level, and insufficient and excessive contents are also detected. Zn deficiency is widely happened while B contents often exceed optimum level. In production practice, special attention should be paid to supply Zn fertilizer and reduce the application of B fertilizer.
Fertilizer nitrogen fate in korla fragrant pear orchard using 15N tracing method
WANG Qian-deng, LIU Xue-yan, HE Xue-fei, WANG Cheng, CHAI Zhong-ping
2019, 25(9): 1523-1531.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18368
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Objectives15N isotope tracer technology was used in this paper to study the use and transfer of fertilizer N in Korla fragrant pear trees and the fate of fertilizer N after applied into soil, to increase the understanding of the nitrogen cycle of fertilizer N in soil and tree body.MethodsSix years’old Korla fragrant pear trees were used as the tested materials, a field mini-plot test was conducted in Team 5, Shibagh Village, Chabag Township of Korla City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Conventional urea N 667 g and 15N-urea N 10 g were applied in each pear tree, 60% of them being applied at the early budding stage and 40% at the early fruit expanding stage. The nitrogen utilization by pear trees, the soil nitrogen residual and nitrogen gas loss were analyzed from the early bud stage to the fruit harvest stage.Results1) With the growth stages advancing, the growth center of fragrant pear trees kept changing. Before blooming, the growth center accounted only in roots, and from the full-bloom to the new shoot growing stage, the centers were in both leaves and roots, and from the fruit expansion to fruit harvest stage they were in roots, fruits and leaves. With the development of pear trees, the utilization rate of fertilizer N was increased gradually with the advancing growing stager, with the maximum value of 18.5% at fruit harvest stage. 2) The residual amounts of NO3-N and NH4+-N within the 0–120 cm soil profile decreased gradually, the deeper the less, and the residual amounts of NO3-N and NH4+-N in the 0–60 cm soil layer were much higher than those in 60–120 cm soil layer. With the growth stage, the residual rates of NO3-N and NH4+-N decreased in the soil profile, and the residual rate was the lowest at the fruit harvest stage with 13.9% and 8.41% respectively. The residual rate of inorganic nitrogen was 22.31%. 3) The total amount of ammonia volatilization and N2O emission accounted only 4.19% for the soil nitrogen loss, and ammonia volatilization was the predominant way.ConclusionsThe recovery rate of fertilizer N decreased gradually with the growth stage advancing (except for fruit expanding), and the minimum value was 41.0% at the fruit harvest stage. The loss rate was opposite to the recovery rate, and the loss rate was as high as 59.0% at the fruit harvest stage. The fertilizer N fate was in the order of nitrogen loss>residue in soil>absorption by pear trees.
Optimum NPK fertilizer rates and fertilization placement based on yield and yield components of hybrid millet
LI Yong-hu, CAO Meng-lin, DU Hui-ling, GUO Ping-yi, YUAN Xiang-yang, ZHANG Hai-ying
2019, 25(9): 1532-1541.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18358
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ObjectivesThis study was to optimize the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer rates and placement for high yield of hybrid millet, and to optimize fertilization scheme for providing foundation of reducing fertilization rate, increasing efficiency and maintaining sustainable development in hybrid millet production.MethodsA field experiment was conducted during 2016 to 2017 at the Innovation Zone of Shanxi Agricultural University. Quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design was used in the experiment; hybrid millet (Setaria italica) cultivar of Zhangzagu10 was used as the tested material and cultivated with plastic film mulching. It included 5 factors as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer rates, the horizontal distance to seed and depth of application, each factor had 5 levels. All the fertilizers were basal applied in the designed rate and position. At maturity, 10 clumps of millet plants were taken to examine 1000-grain weight, grain number per ear and yield. The correlation between the tested index with the fertilizer rate and placement were established using multivariate linear regression model.ResultsMillet yield was extremely significantly dependent on grains per ear and 1000-grain weight, and significantly on the ears per hectare. Fertilizer rates and placement had extremely significant effects on the yield, and the effect descended in order of nitrogen > phosphorus > potassium >fertilization horizontal distance to seed> fertilization depth. Nitrogen had a significant effect on grains per ear; phosphorus had an extremely significant effect on ears per hectare and had a significant effect on 1000-grain weight; potassium had an extremely significant effect on ears per hectare and grains per ear and had a significant effect on 1000-grain weight; and the fertilization horizontal distance and depth had significant effects on ears per hectare and grains per ear. The interaction of N and P was significant on yield, that of N and K was significant on grains per ear, 1000-grain weight and yield; and that of P and K was significant on ears per hectare. The regression among the five factors with yields and yield components fitting well, showing prospect in actual prediction.ConclusionsFor hybrid millet cultivar of Zhangzagu10, the rates of NPK fertilizer affect more than position on the yield. N increases grain number per ear, P increases ear numbers per hectar and 1000-grain weight, and K increases all above. Under the tested conditions, the optimal fertilizer rate is N 225 kg/hm2, P2O5 136–154 kg/hm2 and K2O 94–109 kg/hm2. The suitable horizontal distance to seed and depth of fertilization is 17–19 cm and 21–24 cm.
Inoculation of Glomus intraradices BEG141 to increase transfer and redistribution of nitrogen to tuber of sweet potato
ZHANG Shu-hai, LI Huan, LIU Qing, XIANG Dan
2019, 25(9): 1542-1549.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18354
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ObjectivesEffects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi on nitrogen transfer and allocation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) were studied in this experiment, to understand the rules controlling the process of nitrogen metabolism promoted by AM fungi.MethodsA pot experiment was conducted using sweet potato as test material. AM strain of Glomus intraradices BEG141 was prepared and inoculated into soil in concentration of 100 g strain in 8 kg of soil (+AM), taking no inoculating AM stain as control (–AM). After 30, 60 and 90 days of transplanting of seedlings, 20 μL of 99% (15NH4)2SO4 solution were injected into the xylem below the top fifth open leaf, with a total 15N injection of 199.5 μg/plant. Sweet potato samples were collected three days after each 15N injection, and divided into vine, leaf, fibrogen and tuber, the dry biomass, root colonization rate, 15N abundance and N metabolism related enzyme activities were determined.ResultsThe +AM treatment significantly increased the root colonization rate and the abundance of vesicle, hyphae and arbuscular of sweet potato. With the growth of sweet potato, the infection rates were increased significantly and reached up to 67%. The biomass and nitrogen uptake of sweet potato between +AM and –AM treatments were not significantly different at the 30 days, but became significant at the 60 days and 90 days. At the same growth days, the +AM treatment significantly increased the activities of GDH, GS and GOGAT in sweet potato leaves. Two-factor analysis showed that AM and growth days had significant positive interaction effects on increasing biomass dry weight, nitrogen accumulation and activities of GDH and GS (P < 0.05). At the 30 day and 60 days period, +AM treatment promoted the 15N accumulation and allocation rates in vines and leaves of sweet potato, which were significantly higher than those in –AM treatment. At the 90 days after transplanting, however, the accumulation of 15N in vines and leaves was significantly decreased compared to –AM, and the transfer and allocation of 15N to tuber roots were increased significantly by +AM.ConclusionsInoculation of AM fungi stimulates the activities of GDH, GOGAT and GS, which promotes the transformation of inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen. Infection of AM fungi improves the regulation of absorbed N. The N will be allocated into vegetative organs for the plant growth in early stage, and stimulate its transfer to underground, thus increase the accumulation of dry matter in storage organ.
Effects of potassium nutrition on carbohydrate and endogenous hormone contents of sweet potato under drought stress
SUN Zhe, SHI Chun-yu, CHEN Lu-lu, TIAN Chang-geng, ZHENG Jian-li, LIU Hong-juan, ZHANG Peng
2019, 25(9): 1550-1559.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18388
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ObjectivesAn experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different potassium application rates on carbohydrate and endogenous hormone contents of sweet potato at different growth stages in order to provide theoretical basis for high yield cultivation of sweet potato under drought condition.MethodsSweet potato cultivar of Taizhong 6 was used as tested crop and potassium sulphate (K2SO4) as tested K fertilizer. The water treatments included normal water supply (W1, soil with water content of 60%−70% field capacity) and drought stress (W0, soil with water content of 30%−40% field capacity). The K fertilizer application treatments included K2O rates of 0 (K0), 120 (K1), 240 (K2) and 360 kg/hm2 (K3). The contents of dry matter, starch, soluble sugar and endogenous hormones in different growing stages were measured, and the storage root yields were weighed.ResultsThe dry matter contents, the storage root and starch yields under the drought stress were significantly lower than those under normal water condition. The highest dry matter contents in both plants and storage roots, the starch contents and accumulation in storage roots were all obtained in K2 treatment, with the increment of 31.7%, 43.6%, 10.6% and 50.6% in turn, compared with K0. At the same potassium rate, the single tuber weight was higher and the tuber number per plant was lower under W0 than under W1. Under W1, the soluble sugar contents in the leaves were reduced and the soluble sugar contents in the storage roots were increased after potassium application, while under W0, the soluble sugar contents in both the leaves and storage roots were increased in K1, with the highest increase of 31.7% and 31.4%, compared with K0. Under drought stress and compared with K0, the IAA, ABA, ZR and GA contents in the leaves and storage roots were significantly increased by potassium application, with the highest increase of 12.7%, 15.7%, 12.0% and 10.4% in leaf, and 21.4%, 15.6%, 65.7% and 13.0% in storage root. The increased hormone concentrations brought to higher carbohydrate and dry weight accumulation amount and rate in the plants and storage roots.ConclusionsUnder the drought stress, potassium application promoted the dry matter allocating to storage roots, and increased the single tuber weight, which increased storage roots yield per unit area. Potassium application increased the endogenous hormone (ABA, IAA, ZR and GA) contents in leaves and. The increased endogenous hormone contents in roots promoted starch synthesis and accumulation in storage roots. The increased endogenous hormone contents promoted stem and leaf growing, dry matter of stem and leaf and soluble sugar content of leaves, and enhanced drought resistance of sweet potato.
Adding sodium nitroprusside and EDTA to strengthen cadmium tolerance and cadmium accumulation of ryegrass
ZHANG Qian, CHEN Wei-feng, DONG Yuan-jie
2019, 25(9): 1560-1568.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18380
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ObjectivesRyegrass is an effective bioremediation plant of Cadmium (Cd) contamination soil. The effects of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and EDTA were tested to increase the Cd tolerance and accumulation of ryegrass. In order to clarify the effect and mechanism of exogenous SNP and EDTA in strengthening ryegrass remediation of soil Cd contamination.MethodsHydroponic culture method was used with the Hoagland nutrition solution as base, the effects of the application of exogenous SNP and EDTA on growth, physiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation of ryegrass under the stress of 100 μmol/L Cd were studied with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) as the experimental material, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as the donor of nitric oxide (NO) and EDTA as the regulatory substance. There were eight treatments, CK, Cd, EDTA, SNP, Cd + EDTA, Cd + SNP, EDTA + SNP and Cd + EDTA + SNP. The effects of SNP and EDTA on cadmium content, growth index, root activity, photosynthetic pigment content, \begin{document}$\rm{O}_{\small 2}^{\overline {\,\cdot\,}} $\end{document}generation rate, H2O2 content, malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage and antioxidant enzyme activity of ryegrass under the cadmium stress were studied.ResultsUnder non-stress conditions, exogenous addition of EDTA and SNP significantly reduced the plant height, root length and root activity of ryegrass, and significantly increased the \begin{document}$\rm{O}_{\small 2}^{\overline {\,\cdot\,}} $\end{document} generation rate, H2O2 and MDA content in the above-ground and underground parts of ryegrass. The Cd stress significantly inhibited the growth of ryegrass. The addition of SNP and EDTA could alleviate the damage and their combined treatment had better effect. Compared with the Cd control, the shoot height and root length of the Cd + EDTA + SNP treatment were increased by 68.8% and 59.6%, and the fresh and dry weight were increased by 62.6% and 60.0% respectively. The SOD activities of shoots and roots were increased by 32.5% and 67.6%, the POD activities were increased by 49.8% and 67.6%, the APX enzyme activities were increased by 134% and 102%, the MDA contents were decreased by 30.4% and 21.8%, and the \begin{document}$\rm{O}_{\small 2}^{\overline {\,\cdot\,}} $\end{document} generation rates were decreased by 29.0% and 26.1%, respectively. At the same time, the contents of cadmium in shoots and roots were increased by 89.7% and 30.2%, respectively, and the difference was significant.ConclusionsThe addition of 100 μmol/L SNP, 0.5 mmol/L EDTA, 0.25 mmol/L EDTA and 50 μmol/L SNP has inhibitory effects on the growth of ryegrass under non-stress. The addition of both SNP and EDTA can promote the uptake and accumulation of Cd in the aboveground parts of ryegrass, enhance its tolerance to Cd and effectively alleviate the inhibiting effect of Cd stress on ryegrass growth. The simultaneous application of EDTA and sodium nitroprusside is proved of more efficient than the individual does, as a result, is recommended in the practical use.
Effects of applying dry powders of three crop seedlings on pepper seedling growth and rhizosphere soil biological characteristics in continuous cropping system
ZHANG Fu-jian, WANG Xin-yue, CHEN Yu, WANG Feng, FAN Shu-ying, WU Cai-jun
2019, 25(9): 1569-1576.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18395
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ObjectivesTo find a safe and effective way to alleviate pepper continuous cropping obstacle, the effects of applying dry powder of three crops seedlings on pepper seedling growth and rhizosphere soil biological characteristics.MethodsA pot experiment was conducted with four treatments: control treatment (CK, continuous cropping soil without application of plant dry powder), using mustard seedlings dry powder (M), barley young stem and leaf dry powder (B) and celery young stem and leaf dry powder (C).ResultsCompared with CK, three other treatments promoted the growth and development of pepper seedlings. Among them, M and B treatmens had the best treatment effect, and the height of the pepper plant at 30 days after planting was higher than that in CK. At the same time, the three treatments promoted root growth of pepper, leading to significant differences in root length, root surface area and root volume. Processed pepper leaf PSⅡ maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), PSⅡ actual quantum yield [Y (Ⅱ)] and light chemical quenching coefficient (qP) improved, but the three treatments had little impact on non chemical quenching coefficient (NQP). The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a + b of M treatment were higher than those in other treatments by 25.3%, 45.4% and 30.6%, respectively. All three treatments improved the pH of pepper soil by 27.6%, 24.5% and 25.4% compared to CK, respectively. The three treatments increased the amount of soil actinomycetes, bacteria and total bacteria. The amount of actinomycetes increased by 71.9%, 73.8% and 67.5%, compared with CK, the amount of bacteria increased by 1.18%, 55.5% and 30.4% compared with CK, and the total amount of bacteria increased by 4.55%, 57.1% and 33.9% compared with CK. All three treatments reduced the amount of soil fungi by 69.8%, 68.1% and 75.8%, respectively. After the treatments, the activity of sucrase, acid phosphatase and polyphenol oxidase was significantly increased, but the activity of soil urease was significantly lower than that of control.ConclusionsThe three crop dry powders all show the effect in promoting the growth and development of continuous cropping pepper, increasing the activity of soil invertase, acid phosphatase and polyphenol oxidase, increasing the number of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and reducing the number of fungi. Therefore their application is beneficial to improve soil environment and microorganism structure. Among the three tested dry powders, mustard seedlings dry powder has the best satisfactory effect.
The synergistic effect of lime, green manure and bio-organic fertilizer on restoration of acid field and improvement of tobacco production efficiency
DENG Xiao-hua, HUANG Jie, YANG Li-li, CHEN Jin, LI Yuan-huan, TIAN Ming-hui, ZHOU Mi-liang, TIAN Feng, ZHANG Ming-fa
2019, 25(9): 1577-1587.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18372
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ObjectivesLime, green manure and bio-organic fertilizer are popular amendments and nutrient sources of acid soil. Their combined use effect was studied to form efficient and sustainable remediation technology of acid soil.MethodsField experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018, using tobacco cultivar of Yunyan87 as tested materials. Four treatments were included, single application of lime (L), combined application of lime and green manure (LG), combined application of lime, green manure and biological organic fertilizer (LGB), and no above materials added as control (CK). At 30 and 60 d after transplanting, tobacco samples were collected, and the agronomic and economic traits, physical characteristics, chemical composition, and smoking quality of flue-cured tobacco were determined. When the tobacco plants were removed, the 0–20 cm soil samples were collected, and the main nutrient contents and acidity characteristics of the soil were measured.ResultsCompared with CK, , the soil alkali-hydrolyzable N in treatment L, LG, LGB was increased by 25.7%, 17.9% and 17.1%, available P was increased by 5.76%, 15.0% and 34.2%, soil pH was increased by 0.22, 0.80 and 1.07, the hydrolytic acid was reduced by 58.0%, 66.7% and 77.0%, exchangeable acid was reduced by 75.8%, 77.8% and 80.8%, exchangeable H+ was reduced by 94.6%, 96.6% and 97.7%, exchangeable Al3+ was reduced by 64.3%, 65.4% and 69.9%, exchangeable base cations were increased by 15.5%, 16.3% and 16.5%, cation exchange capability was increased by 13.2%, 15.5% and 17.6%, respectively. In treatment LG and LGB, soil bulk density was reduced by 5.73% and 6.56%, soil porosity was increased by 5.72% and 6.72%, and soil organic matter contents were increased by 27.0% and 35.2%, respectively. The three treatments led to slow down early stage growth of flue-cured tobacco, but promoted the mid-term growth of flue-cured tobacco. Compared with CK, the proportion of high-quality tobacco in treatment L, LG and LGB was increased by 20.4%, 23.2% and 28.4%, yields of tobacco leaves were increased by 3.71%, 17.8%, and 21.1%, output values were increased by 0.64%, 2.68%, and 2.71%, the chemical composition availabilities were increased by 0.59%, 11.0% and 14.6%, physical indexes of upper tobacco leaves were increased by 3.89%, 3.95%, and 12.87%, and total score of upper tobacco leaves was increased by 3.46% and 3.47% and 7.48%, respectively.ConclusionsGenerally speaking, the combined application of lime, green manure and bio-organic fertilizer has the best effect on remediating acid soil, followed by the combined application of lime and green manure, and the effect of single application of lime is the lowest. The combining application of the three materials could increase soil organic matter content and soil porosity, and stimulate the soil nutrient supply to tobacco growth, so achieve economic returns from both sides of tobacco leaf quality and yield, and the sustainable remediation of acid soil.
Nutrient utilization characteristics in biomass production in plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook
CHEN Ri-sheng, KANG Wen-xing, LÜ Zhong-cheng, HUANG Zhi-hong, ZHAO Zhong-hui, DENG Xiang-wen
2019, 25(9): 1588-1599.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18361
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ObjectivesThis study was to investigate the nutrient utilization characteristics in the material production of Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. ) Hook] plantations and to provide a scientific basis for the management of Chinese fir plantation.MethodsThe study was conducted at the Ecosystem Research Station for Chinese Fir Plantation (National Outdoor Scientific Research Observation Station) in Huitong County, Hunan Province, China. Four localized observation sampling plots were established in a seven-year-old plantation. In the 7th, 11th, 16th, 20th and 25th year, the stand biomasses were measured, the total Ca, Mg, K, N and P contents in different plant parts were analyzed. The transferred nutrient amounts from the dead branch and leaves were calculated via multiplying their biomass by the nutrient concentration difference values before and after their death. According to the periodical nutrient concentration differences, the supplemented or removed quantities of nutrients from various organs born before this forest age stage were estimated. These nutrients were combined with nutrients absorbed from soil.ResultsWith the increasing of forest age, the percentage of nutrient provided by soil, which was in range of 79.3%–96.5%, became decreasing; that by transfer out of branches and leaves before death, which was accounted for 3.52%–17.55%, became rising. Only since the 12th year of stand, there occurred reuse of nutrients transferred out of the biomass born before and still alive in a certain forest age stage. These shifts accounted for 3.11%–3.40% and showed a small amplitude downward trend with the increase of forest age. Before the fast trunk growth stage, nutrient use efficiency declined with the increasing forest age. Since the fast trunk growth stage, nutrient use efficiency rose with the increasing forest age.ConclusionsThe nutrients used for material production in stand come from three aspects: soil, pre-death transfer of branches and leaves and plant tissue transfer. As long as there are branches and leaves dying, nutrients will be transferred out for material reproduction before the dying of branches and leaves. Only after the closure of fir stand, the biomass produced by the previous stand in a certain forest age section, and some nutrients in the biomass still alive in the forest age section will be removed for reuse. The annual change of nutrient use in stands is restricted by the demand for nutrients in different growth stages, and the nutrient utilization processes are jointly controlled by the rules of nutrient redistribution and storage in Cunninghamia lanceolata, during the growth and development stages, along with the nutrient use efficiency in different growth stages.
Effects of foliar-spraying of different nutritional mixtures on stress tolerance to dry-hot wind and yield in winter wheat
LIU Wen-huan, LI Sheng-nan, HOU Ge-ge, YANG Jia-heng, DUAN Jian-zhao, ZHU Yun-ji
2019, 25(9): 1600-1606.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18365
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ObjectivesDry-hot wind always happens in wheat growing areas, it is one of the main yield decreasing factors in wheat production of China. In this experiment, two nutritional mixtures were attempted for their effect on tolerance to dry-hot wind in the early grain filling stage of winter wheat.MethodsA field experiment was conducted using wheat cultivar Guomai301 and Yunong816 as tested crops at the Science and Technology Demonstration Park of Henan Agricultural University. Five foliarspray treatments were designed, including CK (10 mg/kg Tween 80), A (0.2% zinc sulfate, 0.3% KH2PO4, 1% urea and 10 mg/kg Tween 80), B (0.02% oligochitosan added into A), C (0.1% marine polysaccharide added into A) and D (0.3% KH2PO4 and 10 mg/kg Tween 80). The green leaf number, SPAD and betaine content of flag leaves, grain filling rate and root activity were determined every 3 days from 9 to 28 of May during grain filling stage. Yield and yield components were investigated after harvest.ResultsUnder dry-hot wind stress, compared to treatment A, treatment B and C could maintain more green leaves, enhanced flag leaf SPAD and betaine contents effectively, and the effect of B was significantly higher than that of C. Compared to CK, treatment A, B and C could increase root activities during grain filling stage, although the root activates were fluctuated. Foliar-spraying of nutritional mixtures could promote grain filling rate, and treatment B had the best effect. B performed better in promoting the filling rate of superior grains and C did better in that of inferior grains. Nutritional mixtures did not impact spike number per hectare and grain number per spike, but significantly improved the 1000-grain weight. Compared to CK, the 1000-grain weights of cultivar Yunong816 and Guomai301 were increased by 4.50%–12.4% and 3.44%–13.9%, and the yields by 3.24%–15.05% and 3.11%–31.38% as result. The yield increases were in order of B > C > A > D > CK, and the differences among the treatments were all significant.ConclusionsUnder dry-hot wind stress, the addition of oligochitosan and marine polysaccharide are proved of further improving the root activity, keeping more green functional leaves, and promoting the photosynthesis efficiency of flag leaves, which contributes to delaying leaf premature senescence, accelerating grain filling, increasing thousand grain weight and achieving the goal of increasing yield. Adding oligochitosan shows better effect than adding marine polysaccharide.
Effect of combined application of fertilizer and bacillus subtilis on grain yield and fertilizer utilization efficiency of summer maize (Zea mays L.)
LI Rong-fa, LIU Peng, DONG Shu-ting, ZHANG Ji-wang, ZHAO Bin
2019, 25(9): 1607-1614.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18344
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ObjectivesBacillus subtilis can improve soil nutrients, soil structure and fertilizer utilization efficiency, and promote decomposition of organic matter, crop growth and yield. Better understanding the effects of combined application of bacillus subtilis and fertilizer on nutrient uptake and utilization, and yield of summer maize can provide theoretical basis for increasing fertilizers efficiency and reducing agricultural non-point source pollutions.MethodsA field experiment was conducted in 2016 and 2017 using a high yielding maize cultivar of Denghai605. The experiment consisted of 5 treatments: no N fertilizer (CK), urea (U), manure (M), manure plus bacillus subtilis (MB), and urea plus bacillus subtilis (NB). The attributes of yield and fertilizer utilization of summer maize under different fertilization modes were analyzed.ResultsAmong the treatments, MB treatment had the best effect. Compared with M treatment, yield increase of MB treatment was 20.2%, the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was increased by 30.8%, 63.5% and 30.8%, respectively, the partial productivity of fertilizer was increased by 20.7% on average in two years. Compared with U treatment, yield increase of UB treatment was 2.55%, the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was increased by 12.5%, 10.6% and 3.84%, the partial productivity of fertilizer was increased by 3.18% on average in two years. The economic benefit of MB treatment was 16.9% higher than that of M treatment, and that of UB treatment was almost the same as that of U treatment. The yield and efficiency improvement was mainly result from dry matter accumulation and nitrogen accumulation, especially during post-silking period. The effect of manure plus bacillus subtilis treatment was better than that of urea plus bacillus subtilis treatment.ConclusionsCombined application of bacillus subtilis and fertilizers increases the biomass and yield of summer maize, and improves the nutrient accumulation and utilization. On the basis of the application of nitrogen fertilizer, the appropriate dose of bacillus subtilis not only increases yield and efficiency, but also improves economic benefits of maize. Manure with bacillus subtilis is one of the important measures to increase the fertilizer efficiency of summer maize.
Effects and optimum rate of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization for Codonopsis pilosula
HU Jia-dong, WU Zi-ding, LIU Zi-zhe, LI Wen-jun, WANG Er-huan, LIANG Zong-suo, DONG Juan-e
2019, 25(9): 1615-1622.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18369
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ObjectivesThe effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth and bioactive component contents of Codonopsis pilosula were studied, and the optimum rates of N, P and K were proposed using mathematical model, in order to ensure reasonable fertilization for standardized cultivation of Codonopsis pilosula.MethodsUsing three−factor D−saturation optimal design, a field experiment was conducted. The effect functions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application codes on the yield, lobetyolin and polysaccharide of Codonopsis pilosula were established, and the optimum rates were calculated by the models.ResultsThe effect of N, P2O5 and K2O on yield is N > K2O > P2O5, on lobetyolin content is P2O5 > N > K2O, and on polysaccharide is P2O5 > K2O > N. From the results of the frequency analysis, the optimal fertilizer application rates of N, P2O5 and K2O were respectively 128.4−174.1, 49.26−80.41 and 45.31−70.42 kg/hm2 for the target yield between 2100 and 2500 kg/hm2 and confidence interval 95%, and 128.5−196.6, 77.09−118.0 and 41.34−53.72 kg/hm2 for the lobetyolin content over 0.75 mg/g and confidence interval 95%, and 96.04−141.6, 61.53−88.33 and 40.22−75.83 kg/hm2 for the polysaccharide content over 22.50% and confidence interval 95%.ConclusionsThe optimal fertilizer application rates for both high yield and high quality of Codonopsis pilosula are N 128.5−141.6, P2O5 77.09−80.41 and K2O 45.31−53.72 kg/hm2, respectively, and the corresponding fertilizer ratio of N:P2O5:K2O is 1:0.54−0.63:0.32−0.42.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(4179) PDF 2130KB(1909)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(3677) PDF 2629KB(15518)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(2570) PDF 929KB(1644)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(3601) PDF 876KB(2183)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(4520) PDF 1767KB(1056)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(1885) PDF 1119KB(1156)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(3120) PDF 1163KB(1551)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(5392) PDF 906KB(2072)
Effects of  green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 19(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(3553) PDF 1194KB(719)
Effects of interaction between density and nitrogen on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat
CAO Qian, HE Ming-rong, DAI Xing-long, MEN Hong-wen, WANG Cheng-yu
2011, 17(4): 815-822.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0545
Abstract(2864) PDF 930KB(1793)