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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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2020, (2): 1-5.  
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Potassium resource quantity of main grain crop straw and potential for straw incorporation to substitute potassium fertilizer in China
CHAI Ru-shan, AN Zhi-dong, MA Chao, WANG Qing-yun, ZHANG Li-gan, GAO Hong-jian
2020, 26(2): 201-211.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19151
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  Objectives  Crop straws contain high content of potassium (K), and the in-season K release rates of returned straws are high in Chinese croplands. Clearance of the quantity of crop straws and the contained K resources in the main grain crops planting areas of China would provide a scientific basis for soil K management under straw returning.  Methods  Based on latest statistical data and literature review, the K resource quantity of main grain crop straws and the potential of K fertilizer substitution were estimated for different provinces and agricultural regions of China.  Results  The results indicated that the amounts of crop straw from rice, wheat and maize were 232.12, 170.83 and 399.18 million tons per year, in the main grain crops-planting regions of China during 2015–2017. The crop straws were mainly produced in North China, Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River, and Northeast China, accounting for 33.6%, 25.4% and 22.8% of the total national crop straw yields, respectively. The annual straw K resources from rice, wheat and maize were 5.29, 2.16 and 5.68 million tons. The straw K resources were mainly distributed in Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River, North China and Northeast China, accounting for 30.4%, 28.2% and 22.0% of the whole resources in China. The K2O provided by rice straw incorporation ranged from 115.0 to 209.5 kg/hm2 in China, that by wheat straw incorporation was relatively higher (K2O 82.3–97.1 kg/hm2) in Henan, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces, where the sowing areas of wheat was about 71.1% of China. For maize, straw incorporation could substitute 67.2–170.7 kg/hm2 of K2O input. At the national scale, the substituting potentials of potash through straw incorporation were K2O 152.6, 82.4 and 124.4 kg/hm2 for rice, wheat and maize, respectively.  Conclusions  The straws of rice, wheat and maize could averagely provide K2O resources of 4.49, 1.93 and 4.79 million tons annually under straw returning. The available K2O amount in season from rice, wheat and maize straws are 152.6, 82.4 and 124.4 kg/hm2 in China. Therefore, using straws properly could satisfy the basic potassium requirement for grain production and soil potassium balance.
Differences in dry matter accumulation and nitrogen absorption and utilization among early, late and middle rice
YE Ting-hong, LI Peng-fei, HOU Wen-feng, XING Lie-huo, WU Hai-ya, ZHANG Jian-she, LI Xiao-kun
2020, 26(2): 212-222.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19056
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  Objectives  The pattern of dry matter accumulation, N absorption and utilization of early, late and middle rice were summarized, to provide a theoretical basis for scientific application of nitrogen fertilizer.  Methods  We collected data from China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database and China Science and Technology Journal Database. The searched key words included year 2000—2016, field experiment, indica rice, optimum fertilizer treatment for best target yield, etc. We analyzed the yield, N accumulation and uptake for 100 kg grain production in early, late and middle rice. Based on above results, field trials were carried out in Dajin Town, Wuxue City, Hubei Province, in 2016 and 2017. The dry matter weight and N content in the key growth period of rice were determined, and the N accumulation was calculated. The logistic equation y = K/ (1 + aebt) was used to fit the dry matter and N accumulation process of rice, to studied the dry matter accumulation and N absorption and utilization of early, late and middle rice.  Results   The qualified sample number for early, late and middle rice were 92, 116 and 132; for N accumulation were 55, 56 and 55; for N uptake per 100 kg grain were 50, 48 and 54. The experiments covered provinces of Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian and Sichuan. From the published literature the average yields of early, late and middle rice were 7.40, 7.84 and 8.67 t/hm2, respectively; the average N accumulation were 140.8, 148.9 and 157.7 kg/hm2; the N uptake for 100 kg grains were 2.00, 1.92 and 1.79 kg, respectively. Our field trial results showed that the dry matter accumulation of early, late and middle rice were in line with the growth trend of “slow–fast–slow”, and the rapid accumulation period of dry matter were 28–54 days, 24–54 days and 30–63 days after transplanting, all in jointing–filling stage. The duration of dry matter accumulation were 26 days, 30 days and 32 days, respectively, and in order of middle rice > late rice > early rice. The N accumulation of early, late and middle rice all showed a trend of “slow–fast–slow”. The rapid N accumulation period were 17–41 days, 14–46 days and 11–43 days after transplanting. Duration of N accumulation were 24 days, 33 days and 32 days, respectively. The rapid accumulation of N in middle and late rice were longer than that in early rice. The N use efficiency for grain output of early, late and middle rice were 50.5–54.4 kg/kg, 54.6–57.9 kg/kg and 62.7–64.8 kg/kg, and that of middle rice was significantly higher than early and late rice. The N partial productivity were 41.4–47.8 kg/kg, 56.1–58.8 kg/kg, 61.8–62.1 kg/kg, that of middle rice was significantly higher than early rice.  Conclusions  The dry matter and nitrogen accumulation process of early, late and middle rice are accordant and all in “S” shape, however, the intensity of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are different. The duration of rapid accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in middle and late rice are longer than that of early rice, so they can absorb more nutrients and accumulate more dry matter. And the yield level and nitrogen uptake are in order of middle rice > late rice > early rice, indicating that middle rice need more nitrogen input than early rice and late rice.
Leaf economic and hydraulic traits and their correlation under varying nitrogen and water supplies in maize
XU Hui-min, CAI Ming-lei, LI Yang-yang
2020, 26(2): 223-232.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19105
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  Objectives  The variation and tradeoff of leaf economic and hydraulic traits are the strategy of plant adapting to environment, which is the base of constructing water-carbon modeling. The variation and correlation between leaf economic and hydraulic traits as well as their association with plant performance under different N and water supplies in maize were studied, aiming to elucidate the relationship between leaf economic and hydraulic traits in response to different nutrient and water availabilities at the intraspecific level, and evaluate the possibility of using these leaf traits to predict whole plant biomass and water use.  Methods  A pot experiment with completely randomized two-factor-three level design was conducted. The three levels of urea application were no N (N0), N 0.2 g/kg dry soil before planting (N1), and N 0.2 g/kg dry soil before planting and during 5-leaf stage (0.4 g N in total, N2); the three watering levels were adequate irrigation (W2), moderate water stress (W1) and severe water stress (W0), the corresponding soil moisture in W2, W1 and W0 treatments was 75%–80%, 50%–55% and 30%–35% of field capacity, and lasted about 3 weeks. The measured leaf economic traits involved leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), tissue density (TD), mass-based N content (Nmass) and area-based N content (Narea); the measured hydraulic traits included vein density (VD), stomatal density (SD), stomatal length (SL) and maximum stomatal conductance to water (gwmax).  Results  N fertilizer significantly increased LMA, Nmass, Narea, VD, SD, SL and gwmax (P < 0.05), and irrigation significantly increased LMA, TD and Narea (P < 0.05). LMA and TD were larger under W2 than under W0 in all the three N levels, but SD and gwmax were larger in W2 than W0 treatment only under N0 and N1 levels, and lower in W2 than W0 treatment under N2 level, the interactions of nitrogen and water on LMA, TD, SD and gwmax were significant (P < 0.05). Leaf economic traits were closely coupled with hydraulic traits, in details, Nmass were positively correlated with SD and gwmax, Narea was positively correlated with gwmax (P < 0.05). The major leaf traits affecting biomass were Narea, Nmass and VD, those affecting water consumptions were Narea, Nmass, gwmax and LT, those affecting water use efficiency were Nmass, LMA, LT and VD.  Conclusions  Leaf N content is closely coordinated with stomatal density and the maximum stomatal conductance to water. This coordination may enhance the adaptation of plants to different resource availabilities. Leaf traits can be used to predict whole plant performance under different N and water supplies in maize.
Optimization of nitrogen rate based on grain yield and nutrient contents in dryland wheat production
HUI Xiao-li, MA Qing-xia, WANG Zhao-hui, ZHANG Xiang, LUO Lai-chao
2020, 26(2): 233-244.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19127
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  Objectives  It is of great significance to explore the wheat grain yield, soil nitrate nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), available potassium (K) and grain nutrient contents under the condition of a long term N application at different rates, for the purpose of appropriate N application, soil fertility improvement, wheat yield increase and grain nutritional quality improvement in drylands.  Methods  Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different N rates on soil nitrate N, available P and K contents, N, P and K absorption and utilization of wheat, grain N, P and K contents, wheat biomass, yield and yield components based on the long-term location-fixed field experiment, which was initiated in 2004 in the Loess Plateau. Soil and plant samples were collected in the consecutive experimental years of 2015–2017.  Results  The three-year averaged results showed that long-term application of N increased wheat grain yield by 67.1%, biomass by 52.0%, harvest index by 9.5%, spike number by 32.5% and grains per spike by 40.0%, respectively, while the 1000-grain weight was decreased compared with no N application. The grain wheat yield and biomass were quadratically correlated with the N rate, and the maximum yield was 6587 kg/hm2 obtained at a N rate of N 215 kg/hm2. The P content of grain decreased with the N rate increase, K content of grain showed no significant change, while the N content showed an opposite trend. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil nitrate N content and the N application rate. The soil nitrate N content was 7.2 mg/kg at sowing and 10.3 mg/kg at harvest when the maximum yield was obtained. Soil available P decreased with the N application rate increase, and soil available K showed no significant change. The N absorption and utilization efficiencies (i.e. N harvest index, N physiological efficiency, N partial factor productivity and agronomic efficiency) decreased with the increase of N rates.  Conclusions  For improving the winter wheat grain yield and grain key nutrient contents, the target grain yield should be 6300 kg/hm2 in drylands of the experimental area, and the corresponding fertilizer application rate should be kept at N 150 kg/hm2 and P2O5 100 kg/hm2, and the nitrate N would be sustained at 6.0–8.0 mg/kg in 0–20 cm soil at sowing or harvest, respectively, and available P be kept at 12.0–15.0 mg/kg, and available K at 139–140 mg/kg.
The fitness of nitrogen release of sulphur resin coated urea with wheat and maize growth and the optimal proportion in total fertilizer application
ZHANG Yu-feng, SHEN Yu-wen, WANG Jiang-tao, YANG Li, ZHANG Qiang, CHEN Jian-qiu, LIN Hai-tao, BIAN Wen-fan, TIAN Shen-zhong, LIU Zhao-hui
2020, 26(2): 245-255.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19082
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  Objective  The paper studied the nitrogen release characteristics in water and soil of sulfur and resin coated urea (SRCU) specially made for winter wheat and summer maize, and the fitness of their release with the nitrogen requirement of crop during growth periods, and the combination ratio of the SRCU with common urea, aiming to provide reference for the modifying of the nitrogen release characteristics and improving utilization efficiency of the SRCU.  Methods  The reseach includes experiments of nutrient release characteristies in both water and soil, and the experiment of the best combination ratio of the SRCU with common ureas. The release periods of SRCU in water for maize and wheat was two (SRCU2) and three months (SRCU3), respectively. In the experiment of nitrogen release in water, 10.00 g of SRCU was weighed in a 100 mesh nylon bag (pore size 0.15 mm), and the bags were loaded inside 200 mL of deionized water and incubated at 25℃. The N content in the water was determined regularly until the total release rate to 80%. In the soil bury experiment, 20.00 g SRCU was weighed inside a nylon bag and buried into 20 cm deep soil at the time of wheat and maize sowing. The bags were taken out of soil regularly for weighting, and the difference in weight of neighboring test was used to calculate the daily and cumulative release of nitrogen from SRCU. Fertilizer combination experiment included seven treatments: no nitrogen application (CK), twice application of common urea as basal and topdressing (FP), once basal application of common urea (100%U), once basal application and 100%, 70%, 50% and 30% of SRCU, respectively, combined with urea nitrogen. At harvest of wheat and maize, plant and grain were sampled for measuring N contents, yield and yield components. The nitrogen apparent efficiency and total income were also estimated.  Results  1) The cumulative release rates for SRCU2 and SRCU3 were 9.29% and 7.09% in water at the first day, respectively, and the nitrogen cumulative release rates in 28 days were 63.45% and 43.86%, respectively; The nitrogen cumulative release rate of SRCU2 was 89.77% at 64 days and that of SRCU3 was 85.70% at 90 days. 2) The nitrogen cumulative release rates in soil buried SRCU2 were 8.96%, 25.28%, 9.54%, 21.77%, and 15.82% at maize seedling (1–14 days), jointing (14–42 days), big trumping (42–56 days), silking (56–70 days) and grain filling stage (70–94 days), respectively. The relative high nitrogen daily average release rate was appeared at jointing stage of maize, and the highest nitrogen daily average release rate occured at silking stage. The periodical release rate in soil buried SRCU3 was 21.54% during overwintering period of winter wheat (1–128 days), 7.60% at reviving stage (128–170 days), 26.96% at jointing stage (170–201 days), 26.24% from flowering to harvest (201–239 days). The average daily release rates of nitrogen were relatively high at jointing and gain filling stages. 3) As compared with FP, the maize yield significantly increased with 100%SRCU and 70%SRCU treatments while wheat yield significantly increased only for 70%SRCU treatment. The economic incomes for maize were increased 1107.82, 1348.70 and 1065.80 yuan/hm2 under 100%, 70% and 50% SRCU treatments whease the income of the wheat increased by 1609.98 and 683.71 yuan/hm2 with 70% and 50% of SRCU treatments, respectively. The nitrogen appearent use efficiency of 70% SRCU in maize and wheat increased by 8.97 and 7.10 percentage point, respectively.  Conclusions  The nitrogen release rate of SRCU used for wheat and maize meets the industry standards but the release rate in soil should be adjusted to crop growth. The SRCU3 does no provide enough nutrients for wheat reviving and jointing stages while SRCU2 needs more nutrients during after maize flowering. Our results suggest that combination of 70% of SRCU with 30% common urea is suitable for once basal application in both maize and wheat.
Evaluation and spatial variability of paddy soil fertility in typical county of northeast China
WANG Yuan-peng, HUANG Jing, LIU Kai-lou, HAN Tian-fu, DU Jiang-xue, MA Xing-zhu, HAO Xiao-yu, ZHOU Bao-ku, LIU Cai-wen, JIANG Xian-jun, ZHANG Hui-min
2020, 26(2): 256-266.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19128
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  Objectives  The paper studied the spatial variability of paddy soil fertility in typical county of northeast China, aiming to provide a scientific basis for rational fertilization management of paddy soil in this region.  Methods  The study was conducted in Fangzheng County of Heilongjiang Province, where total of 114 representative paddy soil samples were taken in 2017. Soil bulk density, pH, total N content, available P content, available K content, organic matter content and CEC were selected as factors of soil fertility evaluation. The correlation coefficient method was used to determine the weight of each factor. According to the characteristics of the paddy soil in northeast China, appropriate membership function curves and turning points were selected to determine membership values. According to the multiplication principle of fuzzy mathematics, the soil integrated fertility index was calculated by weight values and membership values. The spatial variability and distribution pattern of fertility factors and integrated fertility index were determined by the combination of GIS and geostatistics. Principal component analysis was used to explore the contribution factors of soil fertility difference.  Results  The integrated fertility index of paddy fields in Fangzheng County was between 0.18 and 0.99, with an average of 0.60. The coefficient of variation (CV) of soil bulk density and pH were 9.15% and 5.69%, respectively, which belonged to weak variation intensity. The CV of other fertility factors ranged from 20.01% to 36.18%, belonging to moderate variation intensity. The nugget coefficients of soil bulk density, total N content, organic matter content and CEC were between 39% and 50%, which belonged to moderate spatial autocorrelation. The nugget coefficients of soil pH, available P content, available K content and integrated fertility index were below 25%, belonging to strong spatial autocorrelation. There was 16% of paddy fields with soil integrated fertility index value above 0.70, and 45% ranging from 0.60 to 0.70. The soil integrated fertility index was high in the south and low in the north, accordant to the distribution of available P and K content in soil. Soil pH and CEC decreased gradually in the paddy fields from middle to the north-south direction, and soil bulk density decreased gradually from northwest to southeast. The proportion of paddy fields with organic matter content above 30 g/kg was 97%, and that of paddy fields with soil total N content above 1.5 g/kg was 84%. The contents of total N, available P, available K and organic matter in the soil along the northern Ant River were relatively low. The general scores of fertility factors obtained by principal component analysis were as follows: soil available P content, available K content, organic matter content, CEC, total N content, pH and bulk density.  Conclusions  The soil fertility of 61% of paddy fields in Fangzheng County is at medium or above level, and the paddy field fertility generally high in the south and low in the north. Soil available P and K content are the main factors causing differences in soil fertility.
Physical and chemical properties of high yield cinnamon soils and the main soil factors deciding maize yield in western Liaoning, China
LI Song, HAN Wei, ZHANG Kai, YI Yan-li
2020, 26(2): 267-275.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19092
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  Objectives  Topsoil structure and fertility affect the growth and yield of maize. This paper studied the structure and fertility of topsoils under different maize yield levels, so as to clarify the important factors deciding yield, and provide a reference for the cultivation of fertile cinnamon soil in western Liaoning Province.  Methods  56 maize fields were selected and divided into 3 categories according to yield levels ( < 6000, 6000–9000 and > 9000 kg/hm2). Soil physical properties (topsoil and subsoil thickness, compaction, bulk density and porosity) and nutrient contents (organic matter, available N, available P and available K) were measured, and the maize root morphology was determined. The importance of the tested items was specified.  Results  Maize yield increased with the increase of topsoil thickness, but opsite with the increase of subsoil thickness. The soil compaction, bulk density and soil porosity among different maize fields were not significantly different in soil layer of 0–10 cm, but significantly different in soil layer of 10 cm–subsoil. All the indexes of soil structure in fields with yield > 9000 kg/hm2 were superior to those in fields with yield < 9000 kg/hm2. Also, the dry weight and length of maize roots in fields with yield > 9000 kg/hm2 were significantly higher than those in fields with yield < 9000 kg/hm2. Maize roots in all fields were mainly distributed in 0–20 cm soil layer. In maize fields with yield < 6000, 6000–9000 and > 9000 kg/hm2, the dry weight of roots in 0–20 cm soil layer were 83.3%, 79.8% and 81.1%, and the root lengths were 83.0%, 74.6% and 71.7% of the total in 0–40 cm soil layer, respectively. The water and nutrients absorbed by roots were thus mainly from 0–20 cm soil layer. In spite of that, the root distribution in 20–40 cm soil layer in fields with yield > 9000 kg/hm2 were still significantly higher than those in fields with yields ranged from 6000 to 9000 kg/hm2 and < 6000 kg/hm2. According to analysis of predicting the importance of variables, the topsoil thickness and available P content were the top two important factors affecting the yield of maize in western Liaoning.  Conclusions  For maize yield level of > 9000 kg/hm2 in the tested area, the ideal physical properties of the topsoil are 23 cm in thickness, compaction (0–20 cm) lower than 1000 kPa, bulk density 1.27 g/cm3, with total porosity of 52.2%, capillary porosity of 33.5%, and aeration porosity of 18.7%; The good chemical properties are organic matter 14.8 g/kg, alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen 34.7 mg/kg, available phosphorus 21.2 mg/kg and available potassium 159.9 mg/kg, respectively. Increasing available P content and topsoil sickness are the top two targets for middle and low yield fields in the tested area.
Deep tillage with straw returning increase crop yield and improve soil physicochemical properties under topsoil thinning treatment
HAN Shang, WU Ji, LI Min, CHEN Feng, WANG Yun-qing, CHENG Wen-long, TANG Shan, WANG Hui, Guo Xi-sheng, LU Chang-ai
2020, 26(2): 276-284.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19154
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  Objectives  The tillage layer become thin in the farmland of wheat-maize rotation system area, simply increase of tillage depth tends to deteriorate soil fertility. We studied the effects of deep tillage coupled with straw returning in the farmland through four years of continuous experiments.  Methods  The experiment was carried out in Suixi County in the southern part of the North China Plain in 2012–2016. The tested soil was lime concretion black soil. Before the start of the experiment, 5 cm of soil on the surface soil in the test area was artificially peeled off to simulate the soil with topsoil thinning. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments: rotary tillage (RT), deep tillage (DT), rotary tillage with straw returning (RTS), deep tillage with straw returning (DTS). At maturity, wheat and maize yields were investigated in field. After the fourth harvest, soil samples at 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm deep were collected, the soil organic carbon components, soil nutrient content and the weight of size > 0.25 mm soil aggregates were determined.  Results  Compared with the RT treatment, the DT did not increase maize and wheat yield significantly, but significantly reduced the contents of total soil organic C, organic C fractions and available K, the ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid in 10–20 cm soil layer, and the proportion of water-stable aggregates size > 0.25 mm in each soil layer. Straw returning coupled with deep tillage or rotary tillage had a good effect on increasing crop yield. The average yield increase of DTS in maize and wheat in the 4 seasons were 7.72% and 8.06%, and those of RTS were 7.55% and 7.05%, respectively. Both of DTS and RTS significantly increased the ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid in the soil. In the 0–10 cm soil layer, the contents of total and each organic C fraction, and the soil available K were higher in RTS, while in 10–20 cm soil layer, the soil humic acid, total N and available P content were higher in DTS. The proportion of size > 0.25 mm water-stable aggregates was highest in DTS in the 0–10 cm soil layer, which was increased by 23.09%, and that was highest in RTS in the 10–20 cm soil layer, which was increased by 6.32%, compared with those in RT.  Conclusions  In soil with thinning tillage layer, simply deep plough cannot increase crop yield, but against the increase of soil organic C and nutrient content, meanwhile destroy the soil aggregate structure. The straw returning coupled with tillage can significantly increase crop yield, and with rotary tillage can only effectively fertilize 0–10 cm soil, while with deep tillage can increases the topsoil thickness and improves the nutrient status of the 10–20 cm soil layer, and offset the adverse effect of simply deep tillage in soil structure stability in the 10–20 cm soil layer.
Effects of wheat straw and its biochar application on soil physiochemical properties and organic carbon fractions in flue-cured tobacco field
WANG Yi, ZHANG Jun-qing, KUANG Shuai, GUAN En-sen, ZHUO Qi-cui, SONG Xiao-pei, LU Wei-long, WANG Da-hai, LIU Yue-dong, ZHANG Ji-guang
2020, 26(2): 285-294.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19078
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  Objectives  To understand the effects of wheat straw and its biochar on soil physiochemical properties and organic carbon fractions to provide basis for improvement of flue-cured tobacco planting soil.  Methods  A two-year field experiment was carried on the meadow-cinnamon soil in 2016 and 2017 in Zhucheng, Shandong Province. Four treatments were designed, namely, chemical fertilizer alone (CK), chemical fertilizer plus wheat straw (FS), chemical fertilizer plus biochar of 2.25 t/hm2 (FB1), and 4.50 t/hm2 (FB2). At tobacco harvest, soil samples were collected in the plough layer (0−20 cm), and soil physiochemical properties and contents of microbial biomass C (MBC), hot-water extractable C (HWC), labile organic C (LOC), light fraction organic C (LFOC), and carbon pool management index (CPMI) were investigated.  Results  The TOC contents in FB1 and FB2 was 74.9% and 116.0% significantly higher than that in CK, whereas no significant difference was found between FS and CK. The variation trend of LFOC in the four treatments was similar to that of TOC, and LFOC content in FB1 and FB2 was 154% and 326% significantly higher than that in CK. No significant difference in HWC content was observed between FS and FB2, while HWC content in FS treatment was significantly higher than that in FB1 and CK. In comparison with CK, HWC content in FS was increased by 107%. MBC content in FS and FB2 was significantly higher by 252% and 144% than that in CK, but no significant difference was found between FB1 and CK. LOC content in FS was significantly increased by 68.9% compared to that in CK, while no significant difference was found among FB1, FB2 and CK treatments. In addition, wheat straw returning (FS) significantly decreased soil bulk density and increased soil water content and soil available P content, which had a better effect on some soil physical and chemical properties than those of biochar treatments. The FS treatment also had the highest value of CPMI, which was 73.5% significantly higher than that of CK. However, the biochar treatments (FB1 and FB2) decreased or changed a little CPMI in comparison with CK.  Conclusions  The continuous incorporation of wheat straw could increase the contents of soil labile organic carbon fractions of MBC, HWC and LOC, improve soil physiochemical properties, whereas wheat straw biochar could increase the stability of soil organic carbon, which is beneficial for the long-term stable fixation of soil organic carbon.
Effects of nitrogen management on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community structure in summer maize growing stages under straw incorporation
ZHANG Xin, ZHOU Wei, AI Chao, HUANG Shao-min, LIANG Guo-qing
2020, 26(2): 295-306.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19062
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  Objectives  Wheat straw directly returning to field before summer maize sowing is common practice in winter wheat–summer maize rotation system in North China Plain. Suitable nitrogen managements on maize in the system were studied from enzymatic activity and bacterial communities, aiming to deeper understanding on the mechanism in increasing yield and fertilizer efficiency.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted consecutively for five years in Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The treatments included zero fertilization (CK), mineral N application (the ratio of basal∶topdressing nitrogen was 1∶1, N), and whole wheat straw returned into field with mineral N separately applied in ratio of basal to topdressing of 1∶1 (SN1), 1∶1.5 (SN2) and 1∶2 (SN3). Soil samples were collected from topsoil (0–20 cm) at silking stage and harvesting stage of maize in 2016. The soil basic physicochemical properties were determined by conventional method, enzyme activities by fluorescence microplate enzyme assays, and soil bacterial community structures by PCR and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing platform.  Results  The three straw incorporation with N management treatments improved maize yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Compared with N treatment, SN1 treatment increased the yield by 9.98%. The nitrogen use efficiency of SN1 and SN2 treatments was 9.83 and 5.10 percentage points higher than that of N treatment, respectively. Compared with N treatment, the highest increase in soil total-N, NO3-N, NH4+-N, available P and available K contents at silking stage and harvesting stages were all in SN1; all the enzyme activities, except phosphatase at silking stage, were significantly enhanced in SN1 treatment; the diversity of bacterial community was significantly increased in SN1 at the silking stage. The dominant populations in the phylum and class levels were Proteobacteria, Actinomycetes and α-Proteobacteria, Actinomycetes, respectively. LEfSe analysis showed that the maximum LDA(linear discriminant analysis) value of individual SN treatments was α-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria at silking stage and harvesting stage, respectively; while that was Pcidobacteria at silking stage and Blastomonas at harvesting stage. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that soil pH (P = 0.002), organic matter content (P = 0.004) at silking stage and soil pH (P = 0.03), nitrate N (P = 0.036), available K (P = 0.044) at the harvesting stage significantly affected bacterial community structure.  Conclusions  Soil pH, organic carbon, nitrate nitrogen and available potassium contents are the main factors influencing the bacterial community structure. Under straw incorporation, the ratio of basal application to topdressing of nitrogen fertilizer significantly effects the soil enzymatic activities, the diversities and richness of bacterial community and the bacterial community structure. When the ratio of basal ∶topdressing N is 1∶1, the activities of most soil nutrients and enzymes, the relative abundance of α-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi and TK10 (unclassified)will be increased significantly, which implies the fast decomposition of returned straws and the effective nutrition regulation by the formed organic matters, thereby the increase of maize yield and nitrogen use efficiency.
Variation of bacterial community structure and the main influencing factors in Eum-orthic Anthrosols under different fertilization regimes
LIU Ping-jing, XIAO Jie, SUN Ben-hua, GAO Ming-xia, ZHANG Shu-lan, YANG Xue-yun, FENG Hao
2020, 26(2): 307-315.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19102
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  Objectives  The fertility change in nutrient contents and microbial structure of farmland after long-term fertilization was studied in this paper, which would provide theoretical base for reasonable fertilization practice to maintain a stable and healthy soil ecosystem.  Methods  The investigated farmland was from a 28-years’ long-term fertilization experiment in the “National Monitoring Base of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Efficiency on Loess Soil” in Yangling Demonstration Zone, Shaanxi Province, where the cropping system was winter wheat-summer fallow and without irrigation. The soil samples were collected from three of the experiment treatments, namely, no fertilization control (CK), pure chemical fertilizer (NPK, N–P2O5–K2O=135–108–67.5 kg/hm2) and chemical fertilizer and manure combination (MNPK, 70% of N from cattle manure). After harvest of wheat, soil samples of 0–20 cm in depth were collected. The soil nutrient contents, water content, microbial biomass C and N contents were determined. The DNA of genome in soil samples were extracted and detected by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, and sequenced afterwards. The Shannon, ACE and Chao1 indices were calculated.  Results  Compared with CK, the NPK and MNPK significantly increased soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen, while significantly reduced soil pH. The copy number of bacterial genes were 6.69 × 109 – 16.46 × 109 per gram of dry soil for the three treatments, and those in NPK and MNPK treatments were 77% and 146% significantly higher than that in CK. The Shannon diversity index of soil bacteria of MNPK was significantly higher, while Simpson index were significantly lower than those of CK and NPK treatments, and there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. The bacterial richness index (Chao1 index and ACE index) and the uniformity index were not significantly different among the 3 treatments. A total of 35 groups of bacteria were obtained at the level of phylum, in which Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were the main dominant ones (relative abundance > 10%), and accounted for 80.1%–81.7% of the total bacteria phyla. Compared with CK, MNPK significantly reduced the relative abundance of Actinomycetes (F = 5.845, P < 0.05) and increased that of Bacteroides (F = 4.461, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference for other phyla of bacteria among the 3 treatments. The results of redundancy analysis showed that the soil bacterial community structures were significantly different between no fertilization (CK) and fertilization (NPK and MNPK), and MNPK had a greater impact than NPK on soil bacterial community composition. The importance of soil physical and chemical properties affecting the bacterial communities was as follows: nitrate nitrogen > soluble organic carbon > pH > ammonium nitrogen > organic carbon > soil water content.  Conclusions  In the rain-fed farmland in Eum-orthic anthrosol area of Guanzhong, the bacteria population, diversity and richness are significantly improved in soils under long-term balanced chemical fertilization and combination of organic and inorganic fertilization. Combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers could increase the bacteria diversity that is more efficient in increasing the abundance of Bacteroides and decreasing that of Actinomycetes, which represents more stable and healthy in soil ecosystem.
Improvement of root development of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and soil fungal diversity under replant condition by three kinds of biofertilizers
WANG Yi-kun, SU Hou-wen, DUAN Ya-nan, LI Qian-jin, CHEN Xue-sen, SHEN Xiang, YIN Cheng-miao, MAO Zhi-quan
2020, 26(2): 316-324.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19122
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  Objectives  Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings were used as test materials, and three kinds of microbiological fertilizers, namely, Penicillium cyclopium D12, Trichoderma harzianum and Penicillium oxalicum A1, were used to investigate their effects on root morphology and rhizosphere soil environment of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings, which would provided theoretical basis for biological control of apple replant disease.  Methods  In a pot experiment, Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings were used as test materials, and soils were collected from an apple orchard of Tanqingwan Village, Tai’an City of Shandong Province, where apple had been replanted for 31 years. Five treatments were set up: the replanted orchard soil (CK1), the carrier of fertilizer (CK2), Penicillium cyclopium D12 fertilizer (T1), Trichoderma harzianum fertilizer (T2) and Penicillium oxalicum A1 fertilizer (T3). The addition amount of biofertilizer were 1.00% of apple replanted orchard soil. After four months of growth, the seedlings were harvested, the root respiration rate, root system protects enzyme activity were measured, and the diversity of soil fungi were investigated.  Results  Compared with CK1, T1, T2 and T3 significantly promoted the increase of root fresh weight and root respiration rate. After three kinds of biofertilizers were applied, the activity of root protective enzymes increased significantly, and the content of MDA decreased at the same time. Among them, T2 and T3 had better effects, and POD activities in T2 and T3 were increased by 120.06% and 108.73%, SOD activities were increased by 45.46%, 46.82%, and CAT activities were increased by 84.15% and 87.82%, respectively. At genus level, compared with CK1, the Fusarium relative abundance of T1, T2 and T3 decreased by 41.14%, 49.34% and 79.10%, respectively. The Penicillium and Trichoderma relative abundance of T1, T2 and T3 increased by 227.18%, 222.91%, 890.94%, and 76.55%, 462.71%, 213.56%, respectively. The Ace index, Chao index and Shan index increased significantly, while Simpson index decreased, indicating that the application of fertilizer could improve the diversity of soil fungi.  Conclusions  The antioxidant enzymes was greatly improved, the root activity of Malus hupehensis Rehd. was promoted, and the abundance of Fusarium in soil was reduced by applying three kinds of fertilizers. Trichoderma harzianum and Penicillium oxalicum A1 have better application effect and could be used as effective measures to prevent and control apple replant disease.
Effects of orchard grass on soil fertility and apple tree nutrition
YANG Lu, MAO Yun-fei, HU Yan-li, WANG Yun-yun, ZHANG Lu-lu, YIN Yi-jun, PANG Hui-ling, SU Xia-fei, LIU Ye-ping, SHEN Xiang
2020, 26(2): 325-337.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19104
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  Objectives  To explore the important role of orchard grass in promoting tree growth and development, improving soil physical and chemical environment and soil fertility, in order to solve the common problems of poor site conditions, difficult soil improvement, low organic matter content and lack of supplementary ways in orchards in China, and provide important supporting technology for sustainable development of fruit industry.  Methods  Taking seven grass species introduced from the United States, including sideoats grama (Bouteloua gracilis), rough dropseed (Sporobolus asper), little bluestem (Sporobolus asper), sand lovegrass (Eragrostis trichodes), weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis trichodes), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis) as experimental materials, and clear tillage and white clover (Trifolium pretense) as control, the experiment of growing grass among young trees of annual apple in Mazhuang experimental base of Tai'an City in spring of 2017 was carried out to explore the effects of different grass treatments on the growth and development of fruit trees and soil environment of orchards in two consecutive years.  Results  1) The biological characters of the 8 materials were different, among which the leaf width and plant height, density, coverage, aboveground and underground biomass of weeping lovegrass were the best. 2) The seven grass treatments have significant effects on improving the soil environment. From June to July, the soil temperature treated by growing weeping lovegrass decreased the most and the decrease of grass treatment was 23.62% and 27.45% respectively compared with that of clean tillage. From June to August, the pH value of the soil treated by growing little bluestem for two years was the lowest, which was 6.83%, 7.07%, and 7.19% lower than that of the same month. The soil porosity treated by growing weeping lovegrass increased by 6.76%, 8.35% and 9.09% respectively compared with that of clean tillage. 3) The soil microbial quantity in soil was increased by grass growing in orchard, and the effect was more obvious with the time of grass growing. The number of fungi and actinomycetes in soil treated with weeping lovegrass for two years was the largest. The number of bacteria in the soil treated with rough dropseed for two years was the highest. The number of bacterial OTUs treated with sand lovegrass for two years was the largest, at 5323, which was 7.93% higher than that of clear tillage. 4) Different grass treatments significantly improved the soil nutrients in the orchard. The soil organic matter content of growing weeping lovegrass was the highest, and the organic matter content of two-year-old grass was 23.53% higher than that of one-year-old grass. The contents of available iron, manganese, copper and zinc in soils after different grass treatments were significantly higher than those of clear tillage. 5) The contents of mineral elements in leaves of different grass treatments were significantly different from those of clear tillage. The contents of nitrogen elements in leaves were significantly reduced, and the contents of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc in leaves were significantly increased.  Conclusions  Different grass treatments in the orchard have important effects on apple saplings, soil environment and soil nutrients, which improved the content of mineral elements in the leaves of young trees, reduced soil temperature and pH, and improved soil porosity and soil organic matter and soil microorganisms. Grass treatments are conducive to exploring ways to improve the soil and trees of orchard gardens and promote the sustainable development of fruit industry in China.
CACTFTPPCA1 (YACT), Dof (AAAG) and MYB may be involved in the molecular response of Brassica napus to nitrogen stress
LIANG Gui-hong, HUA Ying-peng, SONG Hai-xing, ZHANG Zhen-hua
2020, 26(2): 338-353.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19112
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Abstract:
  Objectives  Oilseed rape requires high N supply whereas exhibits low N use efficiency (NUE). The allocation of N source and sink is considered the key factor controlling the NUE of plants. NRT1.7 gene in Arabidopsis mediates the re-transport process of phloem nitrates from senescent leaves to young leaves and horns. We identified and analyzed the expression of NRT1.7 gene in rapeseed, and studied their response to N levels.  Methods  NRT1.7 homologous genes in Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus were identified by bioinformatics with the basic sequences of AtNRT1.7, and were employed to predict and analyze some bioinformatical parameters of BnaNRT1.7s, including copy number, phylogenetic analysis, evolutionary selection pressure, molecular characteristics, conserved motifs, transmembrane domains, chromosome location, gene structures and the cis-acting elements binged in the promoter regions. Moreover, the expression pattern and gene expression response to nitrogen of BnaNRT1.7s were analyzed with the Real-time quantitative PCR detecting system (qRT-PCR). Seedlings of Brassica napus were used as materials in the N hydroponic experiment. The expression of NRT1.7 gene was determined after cultured in solution of NO3-N 9.0 mmol/L for 10 days; then transferred into solution of NO3-N 0.3 mmol/L for another 3 days (low-N stress), or into no N solution for another 3 days and then resupplied with NO3-N of 9.0 mmol/L for 6 h (N-starvation treatment).  Results  The identified BnaNRT1.7 gene family contained 6 members, all of them were in similar innovation process and distributed in the similar branch as Arabidopsis thaliana. The Ka/Ks of BnaNRT1.7s were lower than 0.3, indicating a strong purify selection was acting on the BnaNRT1.7s. All BnaNRT1.7s were stable and amphiphilic protein, which contained 12−13 transmembrane domains. The gene structures of BnaNRT1.7s were stable, which were disrupted by 3 introns. CACTFTPPCA1 (YACT), Dof (AAAG) and MYB were the most abundant cis-acting elements binding to the promoter regions of BnaNRT1.7s, which might be involved in the molecular response of plants to N nutrition. The qRT-PCR showed that the expression of NRT1.7 genes was regulated by different N levels. The expression of BnaA7.NRT1.7b and BnaC6.NRT1.7b genes in roots were up-regulated while BnaCn.NRT1.7 gene in shoots was inhibited by 72 h of N stress, which jointly regulated the rapeseed low-N tolerance. In N starvation treatment, the expression of BnaNRT1.7 genes were inhibited in both the shoots and roots. Geneco-expression network identified that BnaCn.NRT1.7 and BnaC6.NRT1.7b were the central members, which were proposed to play core roles in the phloem N remobilization of both the shoots and roots under limited N stresses, respectively.  Conclusions  The evolution of NRT1.7 proteins in oilseed rape are relatively conservative with stable gene structures, CACTFTPPCA1(YACT), Dof (AAAG) and MYB are bound to the promoter regions of BnaNRT1.7s, which may be involved in the molecular response of plants to N stress.
Effective stimulation of phytoremediation of Amaranshus mangostanus L. in cadmium contaminated soils through reasonable phosphorous fertilizer rate
WANG Li, ZOU Rong, WANG Xiu-bin, HUO Wen-min, CHI Ke-yu, FAN Hong-li
2020, 26(2): 354-361.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19109
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  Objectives  Soil property and chemical fertilization affect the remediation of plants to heavy metal contaminated soil. This study investigated the effects of different phosphate fertilizer rates on cadmium (Cd) absorption and accumulation of plants, aiming to provide reference through reasonable nutrient management.  Methods  Amaranth (Amaranshus mangostanus L.) was used as the test material, and yellow brown soil and lateritic red soil were used in a pot experiment. Adding CdCl2∙2.5H2O of (analytical grade), and standing for one month were to simulate Cd polluted soil (Cd 15 mg/kg soil). Five P levels were setup as: 0 (CK), 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg soil, using ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (analytical grade) as P source. After growing for 45 days, amaranth was harvested, the biomass of shoot and root were weighed, and the P and Cd contents were measured. Soil DTPA extracted available Cd content was measured as well.  Results  P addition in soil increased the biomass of amaranth significantly. Compared with CK, the biomass of shoots and roots of amaranth were increased by 9.2%−39.0% and 4.0%−15.0% in yellow-brown soil, and by 7.7%−46.0% and 10.0%−100.0% in lateritic red soil. The Cd contents in the shoots and roots were decreased by 7.4%−50.2% and 7.9%−58.8% in yellow-brown soil, and by 9.9%−55.8% and 21.7%−66.0% in lateritic red soil; however, the Cd accumulation of amaranth in the shoots and roots were increased by 36.2%−54.3% and 7.4%−38.9% in yellow-brown soil, and by 34.3%−62.8% and 5.4%−55.4% in lateritic red soil. The total Cd accumulation in amaranth reached the highest at P addition level of 50 mg/kg soil. P addition in soil significantly decreased the content of available Cd, and the decrease was 0.9%−7.2% in yellow-brown soil and 1.2%−7.9% in lateritic red soil. There was a negative correlation between the content of Cd and P in amaranth.  Conclusions  The application of phosphate fertilizer could promote the growth of amaranth and decrease the available content of Cd in soil. Although application of P fertilizer significantly reduce Cd content in root and root of amaranth, significantly increased biomass can increase the total uptake and accumulation of Cd, thus effectively enhance the phytoremediation of Cd contamination soil. In both the tested soils and the Cd pollution level, adding 50 mg/kg soil of P shows the best improvements.
Activation potential of soil legacy phosphorus by EDTA and citric acid evaluated with consecutive extraction method in the calcareous soil
DING Jia-hui, WANG Qi, FAN Bing-qian, ZHANG Shuai, CUI Jian-yu, HU Zhao-ping, CHEN Qing
2020, 26(2): 362-369.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19098
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  Objectives  Long-term phosphorus (P) application causes the occurrence of high residual but low available P in soil, in which soil acidification and leaching of Ca2+ and Mg2+ are prone to occur. We investigated the effect of using EDTA and citric acid to activate the P in calcareous soils, thereby providing a theoretical basis for reducing P fertilizer application and increasing P use efficiency.  Methods  All the calcareous soils were collected from Fangshan district, Beijing. The total P contents in low-P, high-P and dolomite amended (DA-soil) soils were 0.95, 1.90 and 1.91 g/kg, and available P contents were 7.39, 160 and 152 mg/kg, respectively. Indoor sequential extraction method was used to simulate the activation of P from soils, with EDTA and citric acid as extractants. In low-P soil, the concentrations of EDTA and citric acid were 0.05 g/L and extracting time was 12 h; in high-P soil and DA-soil, the concentrations were 0.5 g/L and extracting time were 12 h and 1 h. The extraction were repeated 10 times, with deionized water as control. The contents of P, Ca, Mg, Fe and Al in the extracts were measured, and the cumulative extracting amount of each element was calculated. Soil P fraction was conducted at the end of extraction.  Results  In low-P soil, both EDTA and citric acid were not significantly effective on the cumulatively extracted P which accounted for < 3% of the soil total P (TP). However, in high-P soil and DA-soil, both of EDTA and citric acid exhibited a strong P extracting capacity and the cumulatively extracted P accounted for more than 20% of the TP. Generally, the extracting amount of P in the high-P soil and DA-soil was 7−64 times higher than that in the low-P soil. And, citric acid extracted more P than EDTA (P < 0.05). The extracted P by deionized water, EDTA and citric acid were all significantly and positively correlated with the extracted Al and Fe in the low-P soil, significantly and positively correlated with Al, Fe, Ca and Mg in the high-P soil (r >0.78), but not significantly correlated with Al in the DA-soil. After 10 extractions by deionized water, EDTA and citric acid, the soil Ca2-P content was increased in low-P soil, compared to the pristine soil. The soil Ca2-P, Ca8-P contents on the other hand were significantly decreased by 16.1%, 14.9% and 37.1%, 5.4% in high-P soils extracted with the EDTA and citric acid, respectively, compared with those extracted with the deionized water. In addition, the soil Al-P content was significantly decreased by 31.4% with citric acid extraction. In the DA-soil, EDTA and citric acid showed similar extracting capacity on the change of the soil P content.  Conclusions  Both EDTA and citric acid may not possible to activate too much P from low-P soil, while may activate more than 20% of total P in the long run in the high-P soil, even though amended with dolomite. The activated P are mainly from Ca2-P and Ca8-P, and a small proportion from Al-P and Fe-P.
Comment on special topic
Review on new methods of in situ observation of plant micro-roots and interpretation of root images
XIAO Shuang, LIU Lian-tao, ZHANG Yong-jiang, SUN Hong-chun, BAI Zhi-ying, ZHANG Ke, TIAN Shi-jun, DONG He-zhong, LI Cun-dong
2020, 26(2): 370-385.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19186
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Abstract:
Root system plays key roles in fixing plants, obtaining water and nutrients for plants. As a hub connecting plant shoots and soil environment, the development of root system determines the formation of the aboveground part. Micro-root system is the main execution site of root function, consists of fine roots and root hairs. Due to the non-intuitive nature of the roots and complex stereo configuration of the root system in the soil, conventional research methods are ineffective for observing the real morphology of root systems. In-situ and non-destructive methods have been attempted and attracted more and more attention in present years. The main types of in-situ and non-destructive devices that can be used to observe the 2D morphology and stereo configuration of micro-roots, and some root image analysis software were introduced and evaluated for efficient use of them in root research.
Short communication
Physiological response and root development of areca-nut seedlings under boron deficiency
CAO Xian-mei, LIU Li-yun, LI Jia
2020, 26(2): 386-392.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19110
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  Objectives  The physiological characteristics were measured and the root morphology of areca-nut seedlings under boron (B) deficiency were observed, in order to provide theoretical basis for diagnose of B deficiency in areca-nut.  Methods  A sand culture experiment was conducted using areca-nut cultivar of ‘Reyan No.1’ as the research material. Treatments of B deficient (B0) and normal B supplies (B50) were done by adding 0 and 50 μmol/L of B in the nutrient solution. The plants were harvested after grown for 3 months, the biomass, plant height, B concentration, carbohydrate content, antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde content, photosynthetic rate were determined, and root tip morphology were observed with electron microscopy.  Results  The plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of root, B concentration of shoot and root, and the sucrose and starch content of leaves were significantly decreased, the soluble total sugar showed no obvious change, the content of malondialdehyde, the photosynthetic rate was also decreased, while the activities of peroxidase increased markedly under B deficiency (B0). And the roots became shorter, root tips were obviously enlarged and the cell walls were thicker, a large amount of particulates were accumulated on the inner walls, and the root activity was significantly decreased under B deficiency (B0).  Conclusions  B deficiency leads to the deformation of the apical structure of the areca-nut seedling roots, which reduces nutrient absorption capacity and result in the impairment of the antioxidant system of the leaves and the reduction in the photosynthetic capacity, and ultimately inhibit the growth of the whole plant.
Optimization of silicon and calcium fertilization in grafted cucumber in solar-greenhouse
ZHAI Jiang, ZHANG Ning, LI Fu-de, BI Huan-gai, AI Xi-zhen
2020, 26(2): 393-400.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19162
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  Objectives  Silicon (Si) is beneficial to mineral element absorption, yield and flavor quality of crops. The optimum amount of Si and Ca application in cucumber cultivated in solar-greenhouse was studied to provide a technical guidance for to improve the yield and quality of cucumber.  Methods  Microplot experiment was conducted inside solar-greenhouse, the used cucumber cultivar was ‘Jinyou35’, all the treatments were applied the same amount of NPK fertilizers. Using double saturated D-optimal design, 6 treatments containing different Si and Ca rates were setup, and the Si and Ca fertilizer were applied with drip irrigation evenly in four times. The yield and quality of cucumber were investigated. A mathematical model for the optimization was established using SiO2 and CaO amounts as the independent variables, and the yield and quality of cucumber as objective function.  Results  The regression of SiO2 (X1) and CaO (X2) amount with cucumber yield (Yy) was: Yy = 108455.82 + 80.27X1 + 138.91X2 − 0.15X12 − 0.40X22 − 0.05X1X2, and that with cucumber quality (Yq) was: Yq = 64.113 + 0.116X1 + 0.237X2 − 2.167E-04X12 − 5.552E-04X22 − 1.741E-04X1X2. In the two formulas, the partial regression coefficient for X1 was 80.27 and 0.12, which were significantly lower than those for X2 (138.91 and 0.24), indicating that Si has less effect on cucumber yield and quality than Ca. The SiO2 and CaO amounts for the maximum cucumber yield are 240 kg/hm2 and 159 kg/hm2, while those for the highest quality grade are 195 kg/hm2 and 183 kg/hm2.   Conclusion  Under the tested conditions, the optimum combination is SiO2 195–240 kg/hm2, and CaO 159–183 kg/hm2, with the suitable ratio of SiO2∶CaO at 1∶0.78.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(4820) PDF 2130KB(1922)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(4149) PDF 2629KB(15528)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(2934) PDF 929KB(1648)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(4017) PDF 876KB(2187)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(4970) PDF 1767KB(1066)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(2231) PDF 1119KB(1161)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(3475) PDF 1163KB(1553)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(5774) PDF 906KB(2078)
Effects of  green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 19(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(3999) PDF 1194KB(721)
Effects of interaction between density and nitrogen on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat
CAO Qian, HE Ming-rong, DAI Xing-long, MEN Hong-wen, WANG Cheng-yu
2011, 17(4): 815-822.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0545
Abstract(3171) PDF 930KB(1795)