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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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2020, (5): 1-5.  
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Integrated agronomic management practices improve nitrogen absorption, grain filling and nutritional qualities of summer maize
YU Ning-ning, ZHAO Zi-hang, REN Bai-zhao, ZHAO Bin, LIU Peng, ZHANG Ji-wang
2020, 26(5): 797-805.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19379
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Abstract:
  Objectives  Summer maize production is generally low in efficiency due to low planting density, unreasonable fertilization and early harvest. In order to improve yield, nitrogen use efficiency and grain quality, we studied an integrated agronomic management practice suitable for Huang-Huai-Hai region.  Methods  A summer maize cultivar of Zhengdan 958 was used as experimental material in a field experiment carried in Shandong Agricultural University. Four integrated agronomic practices managements were setup, including T1 (conventional management), T2 (increasing plant density, decreasing fertilizer input, optimizing application period of NPK fertilizers, and postponing the harvest dates), T3 for super high yield treatment (based on T2, further increasing fertilizer input and planting density), T4 for optimum high yield and high efficiency management (based on T3, reducing planting density and fertilizer input, and applying 30 kg/hm2 of ZnSO4). The dry matter accumulation and water contents of grains were measured at a five-day-interval from initial tasseling to the complete of grain filling stage, the filling and dehydrate rate of grains were calculated, and the yields were weighed at harvest.  Results  The three integrated managements increased grain filling rate, yield and economic benefits, and improved grain nutritional quality significantly. In the two years, the highest grain yield was in T3, with a significant increase of 46.0%–47.8% compared with that in T1 treatment, and followed by T2 and T4, with a significant increase of 14.9%–31.6% and 25.9%–33.6% respectively compared with that in T1 treatment. The N partial factor productivities (PFPNs) of T2 and T4 treatments were higher than those of T1 by 61.1%–84.5% and 53.6%–62.9%. The grain filling rate from the date reaching maximum grain water content to harvest was significantly increased under T2 and T4, and the dehydration rate and grain dry weight were increased significantly at harvest stage as well. The grain quality was improved through integrated managements. The best processing quality was obtained in T4, in which the contents of amylopectin, protein and soluble sugar were significantly higher than those in T3, and the crude fat content was significantly reduced, and the total starch and amylopectin content was 4.5% and 10.1% higher than those of T1 treatment, and amylose content decreased significantly by 7.6%, and the ratio of amylopectin to amylose increased by 0.4. The economic benefit of T4 treatment was also the highest, which was 613 and 1084 yuan more than those of T2 and T3 treatments in two years.  Conclusions  Through relatively decreasing plant density and fertilizer rate, the optimized high yield and high efficiency management (T4) can effectively increase the nitrogen fertilizer efficiency, improve grain nutritional quality and the maize production profit compared with the super high yield management (T3), and significantly increase maize yield than the general double-high management (T2).
Appropriate nitrogen fertilizer rate and organic N ratio for satisfactory photosynthesis and yield of maize in dry farming area of Longzhong, Gansu Province
GUO Xi-Jun, XIE Jun-hong, LI Ling-ling, WANG Jia-nan, KANG Cai-rui, PENG Zheng-kai, WANG Jin-bin, Setorkwami Fudjoe, WANG Lin-lin
2020, 26(5): 806-816.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19279
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  Objective  Gansu Province is characterized with dry climate and low soil fertility. Thus maize production relies heavily on input of chemical fertilizers. We investigated the appropriate N input and ratio of organic N in maize production to provide a theoretical and technical basis for the sustainable and high-yield maize production in this area.  Methods  From 2016 to 2018, a field experiment, using maize cultivar of Xianyu 335, was carried out in the Dry Farming Comprehensive Agricultural Experimental Station of Gansu Agricultural University in Lijiapu Town, Dingxi City. There were 6 treatments in which the total N rate was all 200 kg/hm2 with the organic N percentage of 50.0%, 37.5%, 25.0%, 12.5% and 0% (expressed as T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6), and three increased N input treatments with N rate and contained organic N percentage of 225 kg/hm2 and 22.2% (T7), 250 kg/hm2 and 40.0% (T8), and 275 kg/hm2 and 54.5% (T9). At the same time, no N fertilization was used as control (T1). The photosynthetic index and dry matter accumulation were measured at jointing, tasseling and grain-filling stage, and the yield and yield composition were measured at maturing stage of maize.  Results  Under the same N rate, the higher percentage of organic N did not bring higher chlorophyll content and leaf area index of maize, and did not improve the photosynthetic efficiency significantly as well. While increasing the total N rate increased the leaf area index, photosynthetic efficiency and dry matter accumulation of maize. At the flowering stage, the photosynthetic efficiency in T2–T5 treatments was lower than that in T6, while at the grain filling stage, there was no significant difference of dry matter accumulation between organic fertilizer combined with chemical fertilizer treatment and chemical fertilizer treatment under the same N application rate. At maturing stage, the dry matter allocation rate in grains in T8 (organic N 40.0%) and T2 (organic N 50.0%) were higher than those in the others, with the accumulation rate of 56.9% and 56.0%, respectively. However, the yield of T8 (organic N 40%) was lower than that of T6 (organic N 0%). In the wet year, higher N input did not increase the biological yields and grain yields; in the dry year, significantly higher grain yields were obtained in T3 (organic N 37.5%) and T2 (organic N 50.0%).  Conclusions  Under the implementation of membrane dual-grain maize planting technology, the appropriate total N input for maize production is 200 kg/hm2. At the jointing stage of maize, the increased organic N input tends to lower the photosynthetic efficiency, but the increased dry matter accumulation and distribution to gains will compensate the disadvantage, and achieve both high yield and high nitrogen efficiency as a whole. Therefore, nitrogen input N 200 kg/hm2 with organic fertilizer ratio not higher than 50% is thought available in the tested region.
Effect of soil tillage modes on root morphology and nutrient uptake and translocation of maize
ZHAN Wen-jie, LIU Jian-zhao, LIANG Yao, YUAN Jing-chao, ZHANG Hong-xi, LIU Song-tao, CAI Hong-guang, REN Jun
2020, 26(5): 817-825.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19324
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  Objectives  Tillage affects the development of maize root system and the utilization of plant nutrients. We compared the root development and morphology of maize under different tillage practices in the rain-fed areas of northeastern China, in order to provide technical support for the establishment of reasonable tillage modes.  Methods  A field experiment was conducted for two years (2011–2012) in Jilin Province. Four sets of tillage were set up, including seeding following light stubble (T1), deep loosening and compaction in seedling belts (T2), deep loosening between rows and compaction in seedling belts (T3), deep loosening in both intra- and inter-seedling rows (T4). At the 6-leaf stage, silking stage and maturity stage, both plant and root samples in 0–60 cm soil layer were collected for the analysis of yield, nutrient uptake and root system indexes.  Results  Tillage modes had significant effects on maize yield. The average grain yields in two years were in order of T3 > T2 > T1 > T4. Compared with T1 treatment, the grain yields in T2 and T3 treatments were increased by 8.1% and 10.2%, respectively. The accumulation of N, P and K and their contribution to grain were all increased significantly at the post-silking and maturity stage (P < 0.05), and which were increased by 0.4%–3.6%, 16.9%–33.8%, 70.5%–82.1% significantly in T2 and T3 treatments at the post-silking stage (P < 0.05), and all above increment in T3 treatment were higher than those in T2 treatment. Compared with T1 treatment, the total root weight, total root length, and total root surface area in T2 and T3 treatments were increased by 9.8%–22.8%, 16.1%–33.1% and 19.9%–38.2% from 6 leaf stage to maturity stage, respectively. The root morphology in T2 and T3 treatments were better than those in seeding following light stubble treatment (T1), especially in 20–40 cm soil layers (P < 0.05). Compared with T1 treatment, the root dry weight, root length, root surface area and root diameter in the 20–40 cm soil of T3 treatment were increased by 34.1%, 48.3%, 47.8% and 22.1%, respectively.  Conclusions  Deep loosening in both intra- and inter-seedling rows without compacting is adverse to the root growth. Deep loosening between rows and compaction in seedling belts treatment could promote the deep development and longitudinal extension of roots, especially in the 20–40 cm soil layer, which is beneficial to absorb the soil nutrients, and thus increase the nutrient accumulation after silking and the allocation to the grains, and achieve higher grain yield.
Synergistic effect of combined application of nitrogen and zinc on construction of good morphology and high physiological activities of wheat root
LIANG Zhen-kai, GUO Cong-ying, WANG Cai-zhi, LI You-jun, ZHANG Jun
2020, 26(5): 826-839.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19286
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  Objectives  Both nitrogen and zinc are essential nutrients for the growth, yield and quality of crops. We studied the root morphology and physiological characteristics of wheat under combined application of nitrogen and zinc, to deeply understand the mechanism of the yield and quality effects of N and Zn application.  Methods  Field experiments were conducted in the farm of Henan University of Science and Technology from 2016 to 2018, using wheat cultivar of ‘Luomai 28’ as tested materials. A complete design of 2 factors and three levels was used. The three N levels were N 120, 180 and 240 kg/hm2 (expressed as N120, N180, N240), and those for Zn (ZnSO4·7H2O) were 0, 20 and 40 kg/hm2 in turn (expressed as Zn0, Zn20, Zn40). At the stages of jointing, booting, filling and maturity, soil pillars of 20 cm × 20 cm × 40 cm were dug up, and the roots inside were washed out for measurement of root dry weight, root length, root surface area, N metabolism related enzyme activities, and Zn and N contents. At maturity, yield and its components were investigated.  Results  In the same N application level, the root dry weight, the root length, the root surface area, and the activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, indoleacetic acid oxidase and the concentrations of N and Zn at main growth stages were all highest under Zn application level of 20 kg/hm2, while ribonuclease activity was the lowest. In the same Zn application level, the root length, the root surface area, and the activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, indoleacetic acid oxidase and the concentrations of N and Zn at main growth stages were all highest under the N application level of 180 kg/hm2, while ribonuclease activity was the lowest. N and Zn had significant synergistic effect on yield, root dry weight, root length, root surface area, nitrate reductase activity, glutamine synthetase activity, indoleacetic acid oxidase activity, N content and Zn content. In the treatment of middle N and Zn combination, the number of panicle per hectare, grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight of wheat were the highest, and the yield increased by 3.5%–53.4% (2016–2017), 5.3%–54.5% (2017–2018). The grain yield was positively correlated with the root dry weight, the root length, the root surface area, and the activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, indoleacetic acid oxidase and the concentrations of N and Zn. And the grain yield was negatively correlated with the activity of ribonuclease.  Conclusions  N and Zn fertilizers significantly affect wheat root dry weight, root length, root surface area, nitrate reductase activity, glutamine synthetase activity, indoleacetate oxidase activity, ribonuclease activity, N and Zn contents. Appropriate levels of N and Zn fertilizer have synergistic effect in promoting the establishment of good root morphology, regulating the physiological activity of roots and the absorption of N and Zn nutrients, thus beneficial to the formation of high yield of wheat.The comprehensive analysis shows that the N180Zn20 treatment is the best combination under the experimental conditions.
Functional characterization on the wheat potassium channel gene TaPC1 in mediating plant adaptation to potassium deprivation
SHI Xin-xin, ZHANG Jia-qi, ZHANG Yu-meng, WANG Ni, MA Jin-rong, XIAO Kai
2020, 26(5): 840-849.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19381
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  Objectives  Potassium channel (PC) proteins mediate the transportation of potassium ion (K+) across the cellular membranes and play critical roles in improving plant uptake and utilization of potassium under the potassium starvation stress. In this study, we characterized the molecular characterization, expression patterns and function of TaPC1, a differentially expressed gene under low-K stress identified by our previous RNAseq analysis.  Methods  Using bioinformatic tools analyzed the molecular property of TaPC1. Adopting hydroponic culture solutions supplemented with sufficient K (6 mmol/L K2O) and deficient K (0.06 mmol/L K2O) grew the plants of wheat and transgenic lines. Utilizing DNA recombinant approach constructed the expression plasmids for subcellular location and overexpression of TaPC1. Using genetic transformation approach mediated by Agobacterium tumefaciens transforms leaf discs of tobacco. Adopting conventional phenotypic, physiological and qPCR methods studied the plant growth traits, physiological traits and gene expression patterns.  Results  TaPC1 shared high similarities to its plant homologous genes. The protein translated by TaPC1 possessed the conserved transmembrane domains shared by PC proteins and targets to cytoplasm membrane after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sorted. Under K-deficient treatment, the expression of TaPC1 was upregulated in both roots and leaves. Moreover, its induced transcripts in above tissues were gradually reduced following the sufficient-K recovery treatment (6 mmol/L K2O), suggesting that it responds to the modified external K levels at transcriptional level. Compared with wild type (WT), the tobacco lines with TaPC1 overexpression were shown to be improved on plant biomass production and cellular antioxidant enzymatic (SOD, CAT and POD) activities and reduced on malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Expression analysis on the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes revealed that a suite of them, including, NtSOD1, NtCAT1;1, NtPOD1;2 and NtPOD1;6, were upregulated on transcripts in the K-deprived transgenic lines with respect to the WT plants challenged by K deprivation, which suggested the involvement of these genes in mediating reactive oxygen species homeostasis in the K-deficient plants. In addition, the transgenic lines displayed much more accumulated potassium in plants and more improved photosynthetic function than WT under K-deficient treatment.  Conclusions  Our investigation indicated that TaPC1 is K starvation-response in expression, whose overexpression confers plants improved K accumulation and cellular ROS homeostasis. Thus, TaPC1 plays critical roles in positively regulating the biomass production and mediating the low-K tolerance of plants.
Effects of different nitrogen rates on potato yield and nitrogen use efficiency in a typical black soil
LI Jun, LIU Shuang-quan, QIU Shao-jun, ZHAO Shi-cheng, XU Xin-peng, GUO Teng-fei, ZHANG Jia-jia, HE Ping
2020, 26(5): 850-857.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19348
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  Objectives  The situation of unbalanced nutrient application in potato production in China is serious, and excessive nitrogen application is disadvantagous to agricultural sustainable utilization and ecological environment protection. In this study, the effects of different nitrogen application rates on potato yield, nutrients uptake and nitrogen use efficiency were studied to provide a scientific support for rational fertilization of potatoes based on Nutrient Expert (NE) system.  Methods  In this study, two field trials were conducted in different plots in Keshan, Heilongjiang Province during 2017–2018, respectively. Six different nitrogen rates were set up based on the NE system, including no nitrogen fertilizer (N0), N rate based on NE system decreased by 50% N rate (N90) and 25% N rate (N135), NE-recommended N rate (N180), N rate based on NE system increased by 25% N rate (N225) and 50% N rate (N270) . Potato yield, nutrient uptake, and fertilizer utilization efficiencies were measured.  Results  In both 2017 and 2018, the potato yield was highest in N180 treatment recommended by NE, with an average increase of 40.4% compared with that in N0 treatment for two years. When N rate was ≤ 180 kg/hm2, the potato yield increased with the nitrogen rate increased; when nitrogen rate was > 180 kg/hm2, potato yield didn't continue increasing with N rate increased. Compared with N0 treatment, the averaged increase of nitrogen uptake by tuber, straw and whole plants in N180 treatment during 2017–2018 were 49.8%, 58.2% and 52.0%, respectively; correspondingly, the averaged increase of the phosphorus uptake were 36.3%, 52.2% and 39.8%, as well as those of the potassium uptake were 26.4%, 46.8% and 31.3%, respectively. The demand of N, P and K was 4.6, 1.1 and 5.8 kg per ton potato fresh weight, respectively. The potato yield and uptake of N, P and K in N180 treatment were the highest. And the N agronomic efficiency and recovery efficiency in N180 treatment were not significantly different from those in N90 and N135 treatments.  Conclusions  Rational application of nitrogen fertilizer can significantly increase potato yield and nitrogen uptake, and increase nitrogen use efficiency when N rate does not exceed N demand in potato. NE system can recommended N rate scientificly, ensure potato yield and improve N fertilizer efficiencies.
Status-quo and reduction potential of chemical fertilizer application for facility cultivation of early maturing watermelon and sweet melon
GUO Ya-wen, CUI Jian-zhao, MENG Yan, YANG Shuang, HUANG Dong-lin, WEN Ya-jun, CHEN Zhu-jun, ZHOU Jian-bin
2020, 26(5): 858-868.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19317
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  Objectives  Investigating the status of fertilization of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and sweet melon (Cucumis melo) in Shaanxi to provide scientific basis and technical strategy for reducing the use of fertilizer and enhancing nutrient use efficiency.  Methods  We surveyed the types and rates of applied fertilizers, and fertilizing methods of watermelons and sweet melons in Shaanxi to make the reasonable fertilizer recommendation based on the target yield and the fertilizer experiments from literatures at the study regions. We also conducted the field trial to verify the recommended fertilizer rates, and evaluate the potential of reducing fertilizer rates.  Results  The total inputs of N, P2O5 and K2O in the main cultivation areas in Shaanxi were 582, 412, and 541 kg/hm2 for watermelon and 1059, 763 and 842 kg/hm2 for sweet melon. And the average application rates of chemical N, P2O5 and K2O were 266, 213, 304 kg/hm2 for watermelon, and 315, 317, 281 kg/hm2 for sweet melon, which were 1.8, 3.6, 2.3 times of the recommended chemical N, P2O5 and K2O rats for watermelon and 2.9, 6.3, 3.1 times of those for sweet melon, respectively. Apparent surpluses of N, P2O5 and K2O were 455, 369 and 388 kg/hm2 for watermelon, and 980, 728 and 692 kg/hm2 for sweet melon, respectively. The application rates of N, P2O5 and K2O in both higher and too high grades accounted for 79.6%, 88.9% and 79.6% for watermelon, and 74.9%, 91.0% and 74.9% for sweet melon, and the nutrient utilization efficiency was thus low, in range of 4.6%–28.3% in the surveyed area. The general nutrient reduction potential of N, P2O5 and K2O was 46%, 72%, and 57% for watermelon, and 65%, 84%, 68% for sweet melon, respectively. The proportion of N from organic manures in watermelon and sweet melon was 39.5% and 65.8% in average, so the over input nutrients were mainly from chemical fertilizer. The ratios of N∶P2O5∶K2O from chemical fertilizers for watermelon and sweet melon were 1.0∶0.8∶1.1 and 1.0∶1.0∶0.9, respectively, and P2O5 ratio was too high for both crops. The basal applied chemical N + P2O5 + K2O nutrients in watermelon and sweet melon accounted for 91.2% and 59.4% of total chemical fertilizers, which were too high, especially for those using fertigation technology.  Conclusions  In the total nutrient input of watermelon and sweet melon in the surveyed area, the proportion of organic nutrient are generally in suitable range, over input is mainly caused by chemical fertilizers, especially that of P. In addition, the ratio of basal fertilizer is too high, and that is worse when using fertigation technology. It is urgent to make the optimum fertilization systems based on nutrient requirements of watermelon and sweet melon, and the application rates of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers of farmers could be reduced by 46%, 72% and 57% for watermelon, and by 65%, 84% and 68% for melon, respectively
Kinetics of nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by litchi under different temperatures and nitrogen forms
ZHU Lu-wei, ZHOU Chang-min, BAI Cui-hua, OU Yu-cheng, YAO Li-xian
2020, 26(5): 869-878.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19325
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  Objectives  Temperature affects nutrient uptake by plant directly, and plant has a preference for nitrogen (N) form. The N and P uptake of litchi with varied temperatures and N forms was investigated, aiming to provide a basis for selecting suitable N source and P source with season (phenology) in litchi.  Methods  A hydroponic experiment was conducted using litchi seedlings of cultivar ‘Heiye’as test materials. The designed growth temperature was 10℃, 15℃, 20℃, 25℃, 30℃ and 35℃, and the supplied N forms included nitrate (NN), 1/2 nitrate + 1/2 ammonium (1/2NN + 1/2AN) and ammonium (AN). After the seedlings were kept in hungry for 48 h, they were loaded into the treatment solution. At the 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h since the treatment, the N and P contents of the nutrient solution were measured, the uptake kinetic parameters of N and P nutrients were determined.  Results  Temperature and N form had significant effects on uptake of N and P nutrition by litchi (P < 0.01). With the increase of temperature, the maximum absorption rate (Imax) of N by litchi under treatments of nitrate and 1/2NN + 1/2AN supply fluctuated, but that was not impacted significantly under treatment of AN. The Imax of N uptake under AN at 15℃ and 30℃ was significantly higher than those under the other two N nutrition treatments, and that under 1/2NN + 1/2AN condition was the highest at any other temperatures. When a sole N source was fed, both the affinity to N (Am) and ion compensation concentrations (Cmin) in litchi fluctuated with increasing temperature; while fed with 1/2NN and 1/2AN, the Am was increased with temperature(10℃–30℃) but Cmin decreased. The Imax of N uptake of litchi was related to temperature, however, the lowest Imax and Cmin and the highest Am were all obtained in litchi seedlings fed with sole nitrate. Under 1/2NN + 1/2AN nutrition, litchi plant showed significantly higher Imax with higher Cmin and lower Am for NH4+ absorption, compared with NO3 uptake. The role of N sources on H2PO4 absorption by litchi was related to temperature as well. There was no significant difference for the Imax of H2PO4 uptake among N sources at various temperatures, except that at 15℃ and 25℃, the Imax ranked as 1/2NN + 1/2AN > AN > NN nutrition. The Am and Cmin of H2PO4 uptake were similar under different N nutrient conditions, with the exception of significantly higher Cmin or lower Am under nitrate supply at 15℃.  Conclusions  Litchi prefers nitrate, and its absorbing capability for nitrate is higher as well. Supplying sole ammonium at 15℃ and 30℃ or supplying nitrate and ammonium simultaneously at other tested temperatures are beneficial to N uptake by litchi. The simultaneous addition of both nitrate and ammonium shows promotion of H2PO4 uptake by litchi only at 15℃ and 30℃, followed by sole ammonium nutrition. In order to improve the absorption of N and P nutrients, nitrate fertilizer should not be applied in one time heavily in litchi production.
Growth and development of olive under low temperature stress influenced by phosphate fertilizer application
WANG Tian, SONG Jia-cheng, YAN Shi-peng, LI Chao-zhou
2020, 26(5): 879-890.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19349
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  Objectives  The growth of olive trees in Gansu is always stressed by low temperatures in spring season every year. Phosphorous fertilization is studied to alleviate the stress and promote the growth of olive seedlings.  Methods  In this experiment, olive cultivar of ‘Ezhi No.8’ was used as experimental material and NaH2PO4·2H2O as phosphate. The application rates of P2O5 were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 g per olive tree(expressed as P0, P15, P30, P45, P60 and P75), and natural low temperature was used for low temperature stress treatments. Accordingly, the leaves and roots of olive were collected on 16 September (17.6℃), 15 November (3.1℃) and 30 December (–5.3℃) in 2018. Those temperatures were the averaged values of the sampling date and two days before the sampling. These plant samples were used to determine the leaf frost index, osmotic adjustment substance, membrane damage index, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, phosphorus content, root vigor and morphology, as well as biomass of olive seedlings.  Results  Under low temperatures of 3.1℃ and –5.3℃, the application of P reduced the frost damage index, leaf membrane permeability, superoxide anion production rate and malondialdehyde content, but increased the contents of proline, soluble protein, soluble sugar, chlorophyll and P, antioxidant enzyme activities, and root vigor. Under P45 treatment at 3.1℃, the activities of SOD, CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in olive leaves were increased by 104.75%, 95.02% and 100.01%, and the chlorophyll and P contents increased by 114.83% and 33.66% compared with P0, respectively; although the root development and aboveground biomass accumulation of oil olive seedlings were all inhibited at under low temperature, the root dry weight, length, surface area, volume and number of root tips in P45 treatment were significantly higher than those in P0 by 80.27%, 42.60%, 28.79%, 55.50% and 25.01%, respectively, but the average root diameters had no significant difference among the different P treatments; and the plant height and above-ground dry weight were increased by 48.48% and 34.51%, respectively.  Conclusions  Low temperature inhibits the growth and development of olive seedlings, appropriate application of phosphate could effectively alleviate the stress and enhance the cold resistance of the olive seedlings as a whole. Our results suggested that an optimum application rate of phosphorus fertilizer was P2O5 45 g/plant under low temperature stress.
Intercropping of citrus with Hylotelephium spectabile reduces Cd uptake by removing Cd in rhizosphere soil of citrus
LI Dan-dan, YANG jun, YANG Wu-nian, GUO Jun-mei, YANG Jun-xing, ZHENG Guo-di, WAN Xiao-ming, CHEN Tong-bin
2020, 26(5): 891-900.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19376
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  Objectives  Intercropping of hyper accumulator with cash crops is an effective measure to preventing cash crop from injury of heavy metals in contaminated soil. So, we studied the effect of H. spectabile and citrus intercropping on the absorption and accumulation of Cd by citrus in order to confirm a cost-effective measurement for safe citrus production.  Methods  Both early and late maturing citrus and HHylotelephium spectabile were used as test materials in a pot experiment, in which the total Cd content in contaminated and uncontaminated soil were 0.92 mg/kg and 0.06 mg/kg, respectively. The seven treatments included early and later maturing citrus monoculture, intercropped with H. spectabile with and without limitation of root growth space, and H. spectabile monoculture. When plants were grown for 74 days (July) and 218 days (December), taking plants and soil samples to investigate plant biomass and Cd content, soils were tested for total Cd and available Cd content, respectively.  Results  Under intercropping, the Cd content of citrus leaves decreased by 26.7% compared with that of citrus under monoculture, and had no significantly difference with that in citrus leaves grown in uncontaminated soil (0.011 mg/kg). The total and available Cd contents in intercropped citrus rhizosphere soil was significantly lower than those of monocrop citrus (P < 0.05), with the total Cd from 0.92 mg/kg to 0.75 mg/kg, and the available Cd decreased from 0.82 mg/kg to 0.78 mg/kg, respectively. The reduction of total Cd in intercropped citrus rhizosphere soil was 2.83 times of that in citrus-H. spectabile restrictive intercropping (6.52%). Due to intercropping with citrus, the annual extraction and annual removal rate of soil Cd by H. spectabile were 1.40 mg/pot and 3.3%, respectively, compared with H. spectabile monoculture (1.50 mg/pot, 3.7%), the removal efficiency was reduced by 10.6%.  Conclusions  Although the citrus-H. spectabile intercropping has certain negative effect on the Cd remove efficiency of H. spectabile, it significantly reduces total and available Cd contents in the citrus rhizosphere soil, so decreases the Cd contents in citrus leaves. The intercropping of citrus with H. spectabile is thus a cost-effective measurement for achieving the target of safe production and remediation of Cd contaminant at the same time.
Mechanism of maize intercropping peanut improving iron nutrition to increase photosynthetic performance of peanut
WANG Fei, LIU Ling, WU Yan-yan, LI Xue, SUN Zeng-guang, YIN Fei, JIAO Nian-yuan, FU Guo-zhan
2020, 26(5): 901-913.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19156
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Abstract:
  Objectives  The mechanism of improving photosynthetic performance of peanut through intercropping of maize and peanut was studied in terms of iron nutrition, light energy absorption, trapping and electron transport, and CO2 fixation in functional leaves of peanut.  Methods  A random complete design of field experiment with two factors and two levels was conducted in the Farm of Henan Science and Technology University. The two cropping patterns were intercropping and sole cropping of peanut. The factor of P application included no applying (P0) and applying P2O5 180 kg/hm2 (P1). The leaves of sole cropping peanut appeared yellowish in 14 July and became serious yellowing in 2 August, while those of intercropping peanut did not appear yellowish at all. Both the yellowing and normal peanut plant samples were collected, and the photosynthesis response to light intensity and CO2 concentration were measured, and the related parameters in functional leaves of peanuts were analyzed. The kinetic curve of chlorophyll fluorescence and the related parameters were drawn using JIP-test method.  Results  Compared with the yellowing peanut, the intercropping obviously increased the light energy absorption (ABS/CSo), trapping (TRo/CSo), electron transport (ETo/CSo) per unit area, the energy of electron reduction at the photosystem I receptor side (REo/CSo), the number of reaction center per unit area (RC/CSm) of peanut, enhanced the electron transport ability of the photosynthetic electron transport chains in functional leaves of peanut, and significantly increased (P < 0.05) the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemical of photosystem Ⅱ (ΨPo), probability of trapped excitons moving electrons into the electron transport chain beyond QA (Ψo), quantum yield for electron transport (ΨEo), efficiency of electron transport from the reduction system to the photosystem I electron receptor side (δR), and quantum yield of PS I terminal receptor reduction (ΨRo) in the functional leaves, with the increments of 36.7%–39.6%, 79.6%–92.2%, 151%–163%, 16.3%–20.0% and 177%–215%, respectively; and significantly improved the photosystem I photochemical activity (ΔI/Io) and the coordination between photosystem I and photosystem II (ΦPSⅠ/PSⅡ) of intercropping peanut. Intercropping significantly increased (P < 0.05) the SPAD value, net photosynthetic rate at light saturation (LSPn), light saturation point (LSP), carboxylation efficiency (CE), net photosynthetic rate at the CO2 saturation (Amax), and the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vc, max), electron transport driving regeneration of RuBP (Jmax) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) at the CO2 saturation. P application significantly increased the SPAD value, ΨPo, Ψo, ΨEo, δR, and ΨRo, iron content, net photosynthetic rate of functional leaves and the dry matter accumulation of the intercropped peanut (P < 0.05), but aggravated the symptoms of iron deficiency of sole cropping peanut, and significantly reduced all the SPAD value, ΨPo, Ψo, ΨEo, δR, and ΨRo, iron content, photosynthetic rate of functional leaves and the dry matter accumulation. Compared with the no yellowing peanut, intercropping significantly reduced the ABS/CSo, TRo/CSo, ETo/CSo, LSPn in functional leaves and dry matter weight per plant of intercropping peanut, while significantly improved the ΨEo of intercropping peanut functional leaves.  Conclusions  Intercropping with maize improved greatly the iron nutrition of peanut, and prevented from yellowing. When intercropped with maize, the light energy absorption, trapping and electron transport of PS II, photochmical activity of PS I, coordination between PS II and PS I, and stability of electron transport chain were all improved significantly, the capacity of CO2 carboxylation fixation in functional leaves of peanut was also enhanced greatly. As a result, the net photosynthetic rate and biomass of peanut were increased. Phosphorus application would aggravate the symptom of iron deficiency in sole peanut, while enhance the interspecific effect of the intercropping.
Allelopathic effects of ferulic acid inducing Fusarium wilt occurrence and abnormal root tissue structure of faba bean
YUAN Ting-ting, DONG Kun, GUO Zeng-peng, DONG Yan
2020, 26(5): 914-923.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19388
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Abstract:
  Objectives  Phenolic acid compounds are common autotoxin in rhizosphere soils of crops, and the allelopathic autotoxins play a key role in soil sickness and soil-borne disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ferulic acid (FA) in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fabae (FOF)-infected faba bean roots, reveal the mechanism of continuous autotoxins promoting the occurrence of soil-borne diseases.  Methods  Effects of ferulic acid on the growth of faba bean seeding and Fusarium wilt occurrence were studied using hydroponics method. Faba bean seedlings of 4–6 open leaves were cultured in 2 L Hoagland nutrient solution with ferulic acid concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively. After 2 days’ culture, 25 mL of FOF suspension (1 × 106 cfu/mL) were incubated into the solution. Continuously cultured for another 40 days, faba bean samples were collected for investigation of faba bean growth and Fusarium wilt incidence. Faba bean roots tissue structure changes were observed using microscope. The effects of FA on growth and pathogenicity of FOF in vivo were also examined.  Results  Compared to the 0 mg/L, the FA treatment significantly reduced the growth of faba bean seedlings, the higher the treatment concentration, the stronger the inhibition; in addition, FA treatments increased the incidences of Fusarium wilt by 300.0%–500.0% and the disease index by 113.3%–1666.7%, with the maxima at FA concentration of 200 mg/L. The FA inhibited the mycelium growth of FOF, but significantly increased the activities of pectinase, cellulase, amylase and protease secreted by FOF, with increase ranges of 44.8%–59.0%, 78.2%–145.6%, 975.6%–2435.4% and 165.1%–622.9%, respectively, and significantly stimulated fusaric acid secretion of FOF by 107.6%–236.2%. Under FA stress, the epidermal cells of faba bean roots were distorted, the xylem vessels became thinner, and the duct wall thickened. The whole cells were fully filled with jelly and inclusions, hindering the normal transportation of nutrients and water, thus accelerating the death of the faba beans.  Conclusions  FA inhibits the growth of FOF, but stimulates the mycotoxin production and the activities of pathogenesis-related hydrolytic enzymes (pectinase, cellulase, amylase and protease), which is related to the damage of root tissue structure and benefit the invasion of FOF, and accelerate the incidence of Fusarium wilt consequently. Therefore, FA could be involved in plant–pathogen allelopathy as a stimulator.
Response of phosphorus components to phosphate surplus in cinnamon soil under long-term fertilization
YANG Zhen-xing, ZHOU Huai-ping, XIE Wen-yan, LIU Zhi-ping
2020, 26(5): 924-933.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19291
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Abstract:
  Objectives  The effects of different P source inputs on soil P composition and accumulation in maize feild of cinnamon soil under long-term fertilization were studied, and the correlation between different P components and soil P surplus was analyzed, which will provide basis for regulating the utilization efficiency of P fertilizers.  Methods  The long-term experiment, located in Beiping plateau, Shouyang County of Shanxi Province, was started since 1992.There were 9 fertilization treatments in the experiment, they were: no fertilizer control (CK), N1P1, N2P2, N3P3, N4P4, N2P1M1, N3P2M3, N4P2M2, N0P0M6. Among them, N1, N2, N3 and N4 represent urea N application rates of 60, 120, 180, 240 kg/hm2; P1, P2, P3, P4 represent super calcium phosphate rates of P 16, 33, 49, 66 kg/hm2; M was manure compost, the followed digital of M1, M2, M3, M6 represent the manure P application rates of 14, 28, 42 and 83 kg/hm2. Soil samples were taken from 0−20 cm topsoil during 1992 to 2016 after harvest. The contents of different soil P fractions were analyzed, and the surplus amount of P in top soil and the correlation between it and the P fractions were calculated.  Results  After 25 years of continuous fertilization, the P composition in the soil changed differently. Except for H2O-Pi and Residual-P, P contents in different forms were lower than that at the beginning of the experiment. The application of inorganic fertilizer mainly increased the HCl-P in the soil, and N4P4 treatment increased the most, which was 127.7% higher than that of the initial experiment. The application of organic fertilizer could significantly improve the active P in soil. After applying high rate of organic fertilizer, the total content of H2O-P was 8 times higher than that at the beginning of the experiment, and the annual increase rate of NaHCO3-Pi was 11.50 mg/(kg·a).The surplus amount of soil P in different fertilization treatments was in order of N0P0M6 > N3P2M3 > N4P4 > N4P2M2 > N3P3 > N2P2 > N2P1M1 > N1P1 > CK. P surplus was an important factor influencing the change of P composition in soil, and the response order of various P component to P accumulation in the season was NaHCO3-Pi > NaOH-Pi > HCl-P > NaHCO3-Po > Residual-P > H2O-Po > NaOH-Po > H2O-Pi.  Conclusions  Long-term fertilization has significantly changed the contents of different fraction of soil P. Combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer is conducive to the conversion of active P in soil. Excessive application of phosphorus results in a large surplus of phosphorus in the soil, and the highest surplus of phosphorus is obtained in high application rate of organic fertilizer. When inorganic fertilizer is applied, P 33 kg/(hm2·a) of superphosphate can basically meet the requirements of plants. When inorganic and organic fertilizers are applied with superphosphate P 16 kg/(hm2·a) and manure P 14 kg/(hm2·a) , the surplus of phosphorus in soil is the least.
Establishment and verification of the relationship between soil organic carbon storage and exogenous carbon input
CAI An-dong, XU Ming-gang, ZHANG Wen-ju, WANG Bo-ren, CAI Ze-jiang
2020, 26(5): 934-941.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19287
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Abstract:
  Objectives  Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in soil fertility, and exogenous carbon (C) input is an important source to regulate its balance. The establishment of their internal relationship will provide an effective tool for quantitative soil fertility improvement in agricultural ecosystem.  Methods  Two localized fertilization experiments were used in this research: one was 25-year long and the other was 8-year long. The data were collected from the treatments of no fertilizer (CK), chemical N and P (NP), chemical NPK fertilizers (NPK), NPK with manure (NPKM1), 1.5 times of NPKM1 (1.5NPKM1) and manure (M2) alone, and the data were used to establish the relationship between SOC and exogenous C input in the 25-year experiment. The data were also collected from the four treatments in the 8-year experiment, including chemical NPK fertilizers (T0) and NPK combined with 15 t/hm2 (T1), 30 t/hm2 (T2) and 45 t/hm2 manure (T3). These data were used to verify the accuracy of the established relationships.  Results  Compared with CK in the 25-year experiment, the application of chemical fertilizer (NP and NPK) significantly increased the annual C input of crop residues by 0.45–0.75 t/hm2. The application of manure (M2) and manure combined with chemical fertilizer (NPKM1 and 1.5NPKM1) showed an annual C input of crop residues with 1.59–9.36 t/hm2, which was significantly higher than that in CK, NP and NPK treatments (P < 0.05). However, the annual C input of crop residues had no significant difference among T0, T1, T2 and T3 treatments in the 8-year experiment. SOC storage under long-term fertilizations could reach a steady value, namely SOC storage did not change with the increase of experimental years, with 24.01, 25.16, 48.44, 48.46 and 49.83 t/hm2 under NP, NPK, NPKM1, 1.5NPKM1 and M2 treatments, respectively. The mineralized amount of SOC storage was 4.69 t/hm2 based on long-term different fertilizations. To maintain the initial SOC storage, 8.52 t/hm2 of exogenous C was inputted. There was a 17% error in predicting SOC storage through the relationship between the change of SOC storage and exogenous C input. Considering the difference of initial SOC storage, only 3% error existed in the prediction of SOC storage through the relationship between SOC storage and exogenous C input. According to the relationship between SOC storage and exogenous C input, the amount of exogenous C needed to maintain initial SOCa storage and increase SOC storage to SOCb was 54.35 × [34.62 / (48.71 − SOCa) − 1] and 1881.60 × (SOCb − SOCa) / [(48.71 − SOCb) × (48.71 − SOCa)], respectively.  Conclusions  The relationship between SOC storage and exogenous C input based on the initial soil fertility status, could be used to accurately quantify the exogenous C input to improve soil fertility.
Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and influential factors along vegetation transect on west slope of Mount Segrila, southeastern Tibet
SHI Fei, XU Meng, ZHANG Xu-bo, WANG Zhen-bo, SUN Zhi-gang, ZHANG Chong-yu
2020, 26(5): 942-953.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19284
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Abstract:
  Objectives  The montane ecosystems located in the southeastern part of Tibetan Plateau possess great potential of soil carbon sequestration. It is therefore necessary to investigate the variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) with different ecosystems and the influential factors, which can help to improve understanding of soil carbon cycling and the regional balance between carbon source and sink on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.  Methods  The present study conducted an intensive soil sampling from 3000 m to 4600 m above sea level along the west slope of Mount Segrila. Vertical variations in SOC storage under different vegetation types along the elevation gradient were investigated, and the effects of various environmental factors were analyzed.  Results  We found that SOC concentration in 0–5 cm surface soil increased with the increasing of elevation. The averaged SOC content for the four vegetation types was alpine meadow (8.31% ± 0.77%) > dark coniferous forest (7.20% ± 0.90%) > alpine shrub meadow (6.74% ± 0.80%) > coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (3.88% ± 0.46%). SOC contents of 5–10 cm, 10–15 cm, 15–20 cm, 20–30 cm, 30–40 cm and 40–60 cm first increased and then decreased with elevation, and the averaged SOC content was dark coniferous forest > alpine shrub meadow > alpine meadow > coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. SOC concentration decreased significantly with the increasing of depths along soil profile. The vertical distribution of SOC content showed a surface-accumulated pattern under alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow, but a gradually decreasing pattern under dark coniferous and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests. The variations in SOC stock of 0–20 cm, 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm with elevation also presented a unimodal pattern. The SOC stock of surface 0–20 cm in alpine meadow (C 95.66 ± 4.81 t/hm2) was the highest among all four vegetation types on west slope of Mount Segrila. Dark coniferous forests had the highest SOC stock in 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm, and the total SOC stock of 0–60 cm (C 199.14 ± 11.10 t/hm2) was significantly higher compared to other vegetation types. The SOC stock in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests was significantly lower at each profile depth, making the total SOC stock (C 111.45 ± 10.30 t/hm2) the lowest among the four vegetation types. The variation in SOC stock was negatively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) and litter C/N, but positively correlated with elevation, mean annual precipitation (MAP) and soil moisture. Results of stepwise regression analysis suggested that soil moisture was the key influential factors controlling the variations of SOC in each soil layer and the whole soil profile. Random forest models explained 50.32%–65.82% of variation in SOC. Soil moisture was the most important predictor of variations in SOC storage in the topsoil. MAT, MAP and litter quality were significant predictors of SOC variations in both topsoil and subsoil. The relative importance of vegetation type in predicting SOC increased with soil depth.  Conclusions  The storage of SOC along an elevation gradient of Mount Segrila varies significantly with vegetation type and depth of soil profile. Environmental factors such as soil moisture are the key factors that control the variations of SOC in the topsoil, whereas vegetation types significantly contribute to the prediction of changes in SOC in deep layer of soil profile.
Variations of heavy metal contents and the risk management of commercial organic fertilizers in Zhejiang Province
YE Xue-zhu, XIAO Wen-dan, ZHAO Shou-ping, CHEN De, ZHANG Qi, HUANG Miao-jie
2020, 26(5): 954-965.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19299
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  Objectives  Organic fertilizer is an important nutrient sources in agricultural production. Studying the safety quality of organic fertilizer could provide reference for its rational and safe application.  Methods  A total of 99 commercial organic fertilizer samples were collected from 96 organic fertilizer manufacturers in Zhejiang Province in 2017. The contents of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni were determined. The heavy metal sources were discussed and the application risks were proposed. And the heavy metal content variation was compared with that in literature of 2013.  Results  1) The average contents of Hg, As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni in the 99 organic fertilizer samples varied greatly, averaging 0.17, 5.5, 0.63, 17.3, 33.2, 213.8, 660.5 and 17.7 mg/kg, respectively, with coefficients of variation ranging from 54.9% to 151.3%. The contents of Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg and As had declined significantly by 23.0%–72.7% in 2017, compared with those in 2013. Among them, the contents of Hg and As declined year by year. In 2017, the average contents of Hg and As declined by 74.2% and 51.8% compared with 2009, Cr and Pb contents declined by 74.9% and 54.4% compared with 2010, and Cd contents declined significantly in recent four years, with a decline of 72.7% compared with 2013. Even so, the content of As in 8.1% of organic fertilizer samples still exceeded the standard. The contents of Cu and Zn were relatively high, and Ni content tended to increase, which were the main risk factors for commercial organic fertilizers in Zhejiang Province. 2) The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis showed that the pollution sources of Cu-Zn, Cr-Ni-Hg and Cd-Pb were homologous. The main source of Cu, Zn and As pollution was feed addition. Cr, Hg and Ni might mainly come from feed raw materials, while Cd and Pb might mainly come from feed raw materials or from the production of binders or environment. 3) The components of commercial organic fertilizer were various, and the pig manure were the main raw material, which followed by chicken manure and cow manure. According to organic fertilizer standard of NY 525—2012, the As contents in 9.6% of pig manure exceeded the standard, but all heavy metal contents in chicken manure and sheep manure were below the standard. According to the standard of German mature compost, there were more organic fertilizer samples of pig manure and chicken manure with Cu and Zn contents exceeding the standard, but excessive Ni was found only in organic manure with the main raw material of pig manure and chicken manure. 4) Long-term unreasonable application of commercial organic fertilizers caused the risk of heavy metal accumulation in soil, according to the annual fertilization amount of organic fertilizer at 30 t/hm2, the risk of Cu, Zn and Cd was relatively higher, with safe application period of 14 years, 18 years and 34 years, respectively.  Conclusions  The overall quality and safety are relatively high in the commercial organic fertilizer in Zhejiang Province. In recent years, the contents of Cr, Pb, Hg, As and Cd have been well controlled. Nevertheless, there are still some samples in which the Cu, Zn and Ni, and As contents exceeded the up limit of national standard. Long-term and large amount application of such organic fertilizers might bring accumulation of heavy metals in soils. Therefore, in order to ensure the long-term sustainable development, it is necessary to strengthen the control of heavy metals in organic fertilizers and formulate the limit standards of Cu, Zn and Ni in commercial organic fertilizers.
Short communication
Optimum combination of chemical and bio-organic fertilizers for high active components and low heavy metals in the cultivation of Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) Ker-Gawl
LI Si-jia, DENG Qiu-lin, WEN Qiu-shu, ZHOU Juan, ZHANG Ya-qin, LEI Fei-yi, CHEN Yu, LIU Zhi-wei, CHEN Xing-fu
2020, 26(5): 966-974.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19363
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Abstract:
  Objectives  The optimum combination of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and bio-organic fertilizers (BF) was studied for the cultivation of Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) Ker-Gawl, so as to achieving products with high medical quality and safety.  Methods  L9 (34) orthogonal design was used in a field experiment. The contents of quality related active components, specific O. japonicus saponins and heavy metals were determined. The DTOPSIS method was used for comprehensive optimization of the fertilizers.  Results  Rational application of N, P, K and bio-organic fertilizer could significantly increased the contents of water-soluble extracts, total saponins, soluble polysaccharides, saponins D and saponins D', and decreased the contents of Cu, Ge, As, Pb and Hg. Among them, water-soluble extracts, the contents of total O. japonicus saponins, saponins D and saponins D' were the highest in the treatment of N1P3K3BF3, in which they were 74.52%, 0.38%, 112.208 μg/mL and 56.293 μg/mL respectively, and the highest content of soluble polysaccharides was in N3P3K2BF1 (42.47%). The lowest content of Cu and Pb were in N1P2K2BF2, the lowest As in N3P2K1BF3, the lowest Cd in N2P1K2BF3, and the lowest Hg in N2P2K3BF1.  Conclusions  Through the evaluation of DTOPSIS method, the optimum combination of fertilizers is chemical N 598 kg/hm2, P2O5 240 kg/hm2, K2O 595.80 kg/hm2 and bio-organic fertilizer 2700 kg/hm2.
Effects phosphorus application rates on dry matter translocation and nutrient uptake and utilization of winter wheat under different seeding patterns
LIU Chong, JIA Yong-hong, ZHANG Jin-shan, SUN Peng, LUO Si-wei, WANG Huan, LI Peng, SHI Shu-bing
2020, 26(5): 975-986.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19199
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Abstract:
  Objectives  To select the suitable application rates of P that adapted to the uniform seeding technology of winter wheat in Xinjiang, changes in dry matter, yield and nutrient efficiency of winter wheat were investigated under different application levels of P.  Methods  A field experiment with two-factor complete split-plot design was conducted, using wheat cultivar Xindong 22 as tested material. The main treatment factor consisted of two seeding ways: drill seeding pattern (D) and uniform seeding pattern(U), and sub-treatment was four P2O5 application levels of 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/hm2, which were represented by P0, P60, P120 and P180 in turn. In the main growing stages, plants samples were collected for measuring dry matter distribution and transportation. At the flowering and maturity stage, plant samples were taken for measuring NPK contents. At harvest, the yield and yield components were investigated.  Results  The stem diameter and plant height of winter wheat in uniform seeding pattern had significant advantages (P < 0.05) over drill seeding one. Under uniform seeding pattern and among the four P level treatments, the translocation and distribution of dry matter and the phosphorus translocation and utilization in P120 treatment were higher than other treatments, and the yield advantage was significant (P < 0.05). The reason was that more dry matter was translocated from the vegetative organs to the seeds of the tillers, and more N, P and K were allocated into the grains and thus promoted plant phosphorus transportation and utilization. In addition, the P120 was the best for both seeding patterns contributed to the distribution of dry matter to leaves, stems and sheaths and panicles during flowering and maturity period, thus effectively increased the dry matter transportation rate and the contribution rate of dry matter transported to the grain, thereby increased the eoonomic coefficient and achieved high yield.  Conclusions  Uniform seeding is more suitable to the growth of wheat than traditional drill seeding. The appropriate application rate of phosphorus fertilizer could promote the tillering and the allocation of dry matter and NPK nutrients to the grains in tillers, thus increase the yield consequently. Under the experimental condition, the optimum P2O5 application rate is 120 kg/hm2.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(5055) PDF 2130KB(1935)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(4767) PDF 2629KB(15541)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(3159) PDF 929KB(1653)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(4268) PDF 876KB(2201)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(5208) PDF 1767KB(1075)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(2411) PDF 1119KB(1165)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(5952) PDF 906KB(2087)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(3663) PDF 1163KB(1555)
Effects of interaction between density and nitrogen on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat
CAO Qian, HE Ming-rong, DAI Xing-long, MEN Hong-wen, WANG Cheng-yu
2011, 17(4): 815-822.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0545
Abstract(3344) PDF 930KB(1796)
Effects of  green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 19(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(4221) PDF 1194KB(724)