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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Association profiles between the expression of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene ZmPAO and dynamic variation of chlorophyll contents in maize
WEI Ning-ning, NIE Jia-wei, WANG Ya-hui, LI Ting, ZHAO Zi-xin, ZHANG Xin-hua, XUE Ji-quan, XU Shu-tu
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18268
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ObjectiveTo better understand the polymorphism of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) in maize and the functional sites related to the contents of chlorophyll components in maize ear leaves, the structural information used for the development of ZmPAO functional markers was analyzed to clarify the genetic mechanism of chlorophyll metabolism at late maturity stage of maize.MethodsA total of 141 of maize inbred lines with extensive genetic variation was used as a related population. The chlorophyll component contents in two sites from 7 time points were measured as phenotypic data. Tassel 5.0 was used to analyze the relationship between the expression profiles of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) and the changes of chlorophyll components at different periods after maturity by the mixed linear model (MLM, Mixed linear model), and the effective association sites were investigated by haplotype analysis.ResultsThe chlorophyll contents at the late growth stage of maize revealed greater variation, and chlorophyll a generally has lower accumulation than chlorophyll b, but the total chlorophyll (the sum of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) showed a downward trend. A total of 19 of effective functional sites were identified, in which 4 sites were existed in the exon region, one of them located at UTR and others settled in the intron. The phenotypic interpretation rate in the functional site for chlorophyll component content variation was ranged from 3.89% to 16.57%, the total phenotypic effect ranged from 5.24% to 41.78%. Site S3235 from the sixth intron had a phenotypic interpretation rate of 16.57% for Yang-chlb6; Site S3675 of the seventh exon represented 12.16% phenotypic interpretation rate for the phenotypic variation for Yang-chla1 and 14.14% for Yang-chlb1, respectively. The favorable trait sites with obvious haplotypes was the same as preferred variation sites in association analysis.ConclusionsThe excavation of effective functional sites and haplotype analysis of traits showed that two amino acids mutated in the ZmPAO exon, and the hydrophobic amino acids were transformed into hydrophilic amino acids, indicating that the ZmPAO gene might be regulated by the protein structure variation and as well as the transcriptional level because more related sites appeared in noncoding regions, although they are not yet identified. However, the transcription level is greatly affected by environmental factors which usually lead to the inconsistency of the related sites that found in different locations of the gene at different growth stages, but the existence of effective mutation sites is universal.
Improving subsoil fertility through a new technology of continuous in belt and deep incorporation of corn stover
DOU Sen
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17316
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Subsoil often suffers from " organic matter hunger” because of the long term shallow tillage and less organic material returning. The over-tight and poor soil physical properties makes it necessary to find a simple and effective method to break up the plow pan and add organic matter to the hunger soil. In this paper, the three existing deep incorporation methods of corn stover were summarized briefly, and the concept of corn stover enrichment and deep incorporation (CSEDI) was introduced. In CSEDI, the whole-harvested corn straw is collected onto belts, then the special tube plough is used to embed straw into the 20–40 cm depth of subsoil by wind power injection. The soil layer will keep in original order, the following year’s planting would not be disturbed. CSEDI simulation test showed that after straw was embedded into soil for 330 days, the decomposition rate was above 65%, the residual straw became humified and soil organic carbon content was increased by 10%–15%, the arable layer thickness increased from the original 15–18 cm to 30–35 cm. The H/C and hydrophilic ratio of humic acid were also improved. The CSEDI was not found causing the reduction of maize yield in the second year, on the contrary, achieved about 5% of increase than that of traditional cultivation. These results proved that with the CSEDI, the full amount of corn stover could be returned to the field year by year, the alternative belt-corporation of straw made the separated planting and returning come to truth. This method was also proved to be effective to break up the plow pan and increase subsoil organic matter content quickly.
Advance in research of synergistic effects of soil carbon sequestration on crop yields improvement in croplands
XU Ming-gang, ZHANG Xu-bo, SUN Nan, ZHANG Wen-ju
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17340
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Soil carbon sequestration is the key to improve soil fertility and to secure and achieve sustainable and stable crop productivity. Identifying the synergistic effects of soil carbon sequestration on crop yield improvement in agricultural soils could provide scientific basis for soil fertility improvement sustaining and improving crop productivity in different regions. In agricultural soils, soil carbon sequestration is mainly affected by climate, soil properties, management practices (especially fertilization and tillage) and cropping and rotation. Soil carbon sequestration is significantly correlated with crop productivity, showing obvious impact on crop productivity synergistically. There is an obvious threshold value of the synergistic effect of soil carbon sequestration on crop yield improvement. In addition, the threshold value of soil organic carbon varied among regions. For instance, the threshold value of soil organic carbon is approximately (ca.) C 44–46 t/hm2 for the Northeast of China, ca. C 26–28 t/hm2 for the Northwest of China, ca. C 22 t/hm2 for the North China and ca. C 35 t/hm2 for the South of China. Based on the results from empirical equations and model simulations, the magnitude of crop yields improvement by each 1.0 C t/(hm2·a) of enhanced soil carbon sequestration is averaged 0.7 t/hm2 for wheat, maize and rice yields. It indicated that the synergistic effects of soil carbon sequestration on crop productivity improvement was regulated by these relevant environmental factors and management practices. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of soil carbon sequestration process and interaction of the synergistic effects on crop productivity is important for guiding the improvement and enhancement of soil fertility, crop productivity and nutrient resource use efficiency. Future studies should be focused on identifying the attainable potential of soil carbon sequestration, further revealing the mechanisms of soil carbon sequestration under intensive cropping conditions, paying more attentions to the effects of soil carbon sequestration in deep soil on the improvement potential and contribution of crop yield, and quantifying the contributions and controlling theory of environment or anthropic practices to the interactions between soil carbon sequestration and crop yield improvement.
History of plant nutrition and fertilizer research in China
BAI You-lu
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17474
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The researches of plant nutrition and fertilizer have gone through 60 years' development, with fruitful achievements since the foundation of Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The researches could be divided into four periods, according to the research focus. Before 1980 was the period of mono-nutrient effects. During that period, the effects of N, P and K fertilizers were tested individually, which laid a foundation for the fertilizer industry in China. From 1980 to 1990, it came into the second period, when the combined application of N, P and K fertilizers and the combining ways had been concerned in most researches. The achievements provided important support for the importing and introducing of compound fertilizers in China. From 1990 to 2000 belonged to the third period, when was characterized by balanced fertilization researches, and the effects of micronutrients in the main crops as well. Since 2000, the researches come into the forth or present period, which could be named comprehensive nutrient managements. The typical researches include precession agriculture, soil testing and nutrient recommendation, fertilization and environmental safety, new type fertilizers and the key techniques for value-added fertilizers. All the researches played important roles for guarantee of the grain supply safety of China.
Organic fertilizer resources and utilization in China
NIU Xin-sheng, JU Xiao-tang
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17430
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The literatures published mainly in recent 30 years were reviewed to estimate the basic organic fertilizer resources in China, and inquire into the reasons for the huge yearly discrepancies in the amount of organic fertilizer resources. From the statistics, about 5.7 billion tons (partly in fresh and partly in air dry) of organic resources stock will be produced annually nationwide at present, of which about 3.8 billion tons from animal manure (in fresh), 0.8 billion tons from human excreta (in fresh), one billion tons coming from crop straw (in air dry), 0.1 billion tons from green manure (in fresh) and 0.02 billion tons from cake manure (in air dry), which could provide about 73 million tons of total nutrients (N+P2O5+K2O) with 30 million tons of N, 13 million tons of P2O5 and 30 million tons of K2O respectively. However, the huge organic resources were not fully used, the causes could be blamed on many factors including society, economy, policies, techniques and extension of technologies. The nutrient loss during collection, storage and processing of organic resources was thought one of key reasons for the low utilization of the resources and therefore the environmental pollution. The technique strategies should be concentrated on developing recycling agriculture, i.e combining the crop production with intensive breeding to create a whole benefit chain from the collection, procession to application of organic fertilizer resources. Government subsidies should be allocated to the construction of standardized facilities required for the above strategies.
Advances in coupling big data technique with nutrient site-specific management: scheme, methods and outlook
HE Shan, SUN Yuan-yuan, SHEN Zhang-quan, WANG Ke
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17317
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In this review, the methods and techniques of the field nutrient precision management were summarized, including soil testing and formulated fertilization technique, soil nutrient testing technique and crop nutrition diagnosis technique. The long term promotion of precise nutrient management work in our country has accumulated large amounts of soil types, soil fertility and other basic data, as well as some data related to field nutrient management, such as rural cadastral survey, agricultural census, characteristics of crop’s demand for nutrient and so on. However, some shortages remind to deal with. A lot of attention has been paid on theoretical researches but less on the application of the technical researches. The researchers are in state of over-divided and fragmentized, hardly connecting traditional field nutrient managements with modern precision ones. The research achievements are also need to be modified for better practical application for both technicians and farmers. Nowadays, the big data technology provides solutions for the explosive growing data integration, exchanging and sharing. In this review, a fertilization management scheme of " basic fertilization and precise adjustment” was proposed by using the big data technology. Firstly, the basic fertilization plan was created through a comprehensive analysis and data mining, combined with the principle of formulated fertilization technique. The basic plan included the time and quantity of basal and top-dressed fertilizers. At the same time, the spatial visualization of field management of fertilization scheme could be realized by the use of cloud GIS, which laid the foundation for pushing fertilization scheme on mobile terminal and realizing the spatial and precise management of field information. The type and degree of crop nutritive stress were recognized by the nondestructive diagnostic technology such as digital image processing and the nutritional diagnostic model by machine learning characteristic parameters of crops. Therefore, the near-real-time monitoring and diagnosing could be performed to generate a precise adjustment to the quantity of topdressing in basic fertilization plan. An operating mode of " Pushing basic fertilization scheme, nondestructive diagnosing, precise adjusting, receiving feedback and optimizing the scheme” by the system framework of " cloud technique, handheld terminal and digital image” was proposed to support the application and updating of the fertilization scheme.
The historical venation in research on microbial mechanisms of soil nutrient cycling in the past 60 years—Based on bibliometric analysis and big data visualization
SUN Bo, WANG Xiao-yue, LÜ Xing-hua
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17292
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Objectives Nutrient cycling plays an essential role in soil fertility and plant growth, which is mainly driven by soil microorganisms. Exploiting the potentiality of microbe in regulating nutrient turnover in soil–plant systems has become an important tendency to increase nutrient use efficiency. Reviewing the historical advance in researches on nutrient cycling and soil microbial community, and figuring out our advantages and disadvantages in these fields on the world will be great helpful to find the key research fields and further promote the domestic research level. Methods In this study, bibliometrics and big data visualisation were used to quantitatively analyze the historical advances achieved in nutrient cycling and microbial community researches in the past 60 years. The similarities and differences in different periods were compared between domestic and international researches. Main advances The domestic studies could be classified into starting (1981–1990), developing (1991–2005) and maturing stages (2006–2016). At starting stage, the " hot spots” were scattered and researchers mainly focused on the fertility related function of specific microorganisms and enzyme activities in red soil, paddy soil and purple soil. During the developing stage, researchers were mainly focused on microbial biomass and enzyme activities that related to soil fertility and environmental functions, and the connecting among the research works was strengthened. After entering the maturing stage, the connections among research hot spots were more developed, and the interaction of microbial community structure and soil nutrient cycling became the dominant hot spots. Since the 1990s, the domestic researchers have followed the cutting-edge international research. This process could be categorized into initial (1990–2005) and rapid catch-up stages (2006–2016). During initial catch-up stage, domestic scholars followed the international trends and studied the interaction between microbial community and carbon and nitrogen cycling. However, the domestic networks were still immature, lacking of rhizosphere studies and merely concentrated on red soil. When coming to rapid catch-up stage, domestic scholars strengthened the studies on microbial mechanisms of nutrient dynamics in paddy soil and rhizosphere. In addition, the rising of research on soil microbial network structure and function conducted by domestic academia appeared at the same time as that by the international academia. However, the new findings on soil microbial network structure and functions need more solid proofs. Over all, domestic studies developed dramatically fast, although relatively later than international ones. Within the past 20 years, more and more researches have transferred from simply enzyme activities to the interaction of microbial co-occurring network and soil function. The domestic network are maturing, and showing the convergent tendency with international network. However, the studies are relatively weak on the driving mechanism of microbial community evolution applied to nutrient cycling.Conclusions and Prospectives In the future studies, efforts should be put on developing appropriate regional practices that are suitable for microbial regulation to improve nutrient use efficiency, and on developing the fundamental theories of the synergetic changes in microbial community structure and function as well.
Reconsideration of the changes of plant nutrition from organic fertilizers to chemical fertilizers
ZHOU Jian-bin
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17287
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Agriculture had been relied on the nutrients from the different organic fertilizers over thousands of years. Organic nutrients had played pivotal role in keeping low but stable crop yields and soil fertility. This period is refined as organic nutrition period. The foundation of mineral nutrition theory in the 19th century stimulated the development and application of chemical fertilizers, and chemical nutrients replaced organic ones quickly and became the main nutrient sources for crops. This period is considered as inorganic nutrition period. The application of chemical fertilizers significantly increased crop yields, at the same time, over-application of them results in a series of economic and environmental problems. Negating or doubting the application of chemical fertilizers could be heard here and there. Therefore, the history and roles of plant nutrition are recalled and the practices of integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers are reviewed in this paper. It is pointed out that only using the traditional ways could not meet the needs of agriculture. The nutrient supply should be transferred from purely considering mineral nutrients (N, P, K, etc.) to comprehensively nutrients from chemical and organic sources. Nutrient utilization and management should also consider the concordant relation among plant-soil-microbial. More attentions should be paid on nutrient flows in the different scales, including field, catchment, and region; and their effects on quality of soil, water, and air are also needed to evaluate. Combining technological measures with policy tools is also key to increase nutrient use efficiency, and reduce their losses.
More attention to organic nutrition research and innovation of organic carbon fertilizers—A modern thinking about classic plant nutrient theory
LIAO Zong-wen, MAO Xiao-yun, LIU Ke-xing
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17315
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Carbon is listed on the first of the 17 necessary nutrient elements for plants. For a long time, however, there is little researche on carbon nutrition, even worse on the role of organic carbon in supplementation of plant carbon requirement. Plants are capable of acquiring carbon nutrition from atmosphere through photosynthesis and transferred CO2 to organic carbon compounds for physiological metabolism and growth, which could only meet about 1/5 of plant demand in theory, and plants often suffer from carbon hunger actually. Some researches have proved the supplementary C nutrition through fertilization an effective way for increasing yield and quality of crops. The production of efficient carbon-containing fertilizers has offered a new opportunity for modern fertilizer industry. The concept of organic nutrition is proposed in this paper, and the features and importance of organic C fertilizer and its application in balanced fertilization are discussed. Organic C might become the frontier of new fertilizer and modern plant nutrient theory in research and development.
Nutrient use efficiency in crops and its genetic improvement
MI Guo-hua
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17283
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Genetic improvement of nutrient use efficiency has been a hotspot of plant nutrition research. However, there are still quite a few of misunderstanding on the concepts of nutrient efficiency and their physiological components, and nutrient efficient plant traits as well, which resulted in biased evaluation on the breeding efficiency for nutrient-efficient cultivars. The concepts and the meaning of nutrient use efficiencies and their components were discussed in detail. The general advances in the studies of nutrient genetic efficiencies of plants and the genetic breeding were introduced. From the point of views of crop science, plant nutrition, plant molecular biology and genetics, the physiological characteristics of efficient nutrient uptake and utilization were analyzed. In addition to the limitation of the field-level high-throughout phenotyping techniques, the lack of understanding of the physiological mechanism of efficient nutrient use at field level and the lack of a clear concept of the secondary indicator for genotype identification have been limiting the progress of breeding for nutrient efficiency. The molecular tools should be used to enhance the understanding of the physiological mechanism of nutrient use efficiency at field level. Genetic improvement on nutrient use efficiency should link nutrient uptake, allocation and reutilization with the regulation of plant growth and development. The optimum plant traits under population condition must be stressed and the selection should be conducted under true field conditions.
Potential analysis on winter oilseed rape production under reducing nitrogen input and increasing its efficiency in China
ZHANG Zhi, CONG Ri-huan, LU Jian-wei
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17083
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ObjectivesEvaluation of nitrogen fertilizer saving potential in oilseed rape under the national plan of zero growth in chemical fertilizers would be meaningful for the development of high yield and high efficiency for oilseed rape production.MethodsThe statistical dataset (2005–2014), literature dataset (after 2000), fertilization dataset (2005–2015) and investigation dataset (2009–2011) were combined in our study for quantifying the oilseed rape yield gap and partial factor productivity of nitrogen (PFPN) gap in domestic and abroad and determining the nitrogen saving potential of recommended level compared to farmers’ level in the major winter oilseed rape producing provinces. The nitrogen saving potential of winter oilseed rape under the different scenarios in the future was explored using the Quantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils (QUEFTS) model.ResultsThe statistical results showed that oilseed rape yield in China was approximate with that in the world (1800 kg/hm2) in the past ten years, and winter oilseed rape yields were mainly from 1500 to 2100 kg/hm2, but lower than those in Europe. The national yield increase was at a low level, and appeared to yield stagnation. The investigation results showed that the nitrogen rates at the farmers’ level were generally higher with an average of 188 kg/hm2. Combination of the planting area (6238×103 hm2) and recommended nitrogen rate (162 kg/hm2) for winter oilseed rape, the nitrogen saving potential was calculated, i.e. 16.6×104 t. And the main nitrogen saving provinces were Jiangsu, Hunan, Hubei, and Sichuan. Considering that soil indigenous nitrogen supply (INS) is a critical factor for the yield potential and nitrogen saving potential, the N supply levels were divided into low, middle and high according to the nitrogen uptakes of the nitrogen omission treatments of N 30, 50 and 70 kg/hm2 (corresponding yields were about 500, 1000 and 1500 kg/hm2), respectively. On the basis of farmers’ level, the recommendation level was set as the scenario Ⅰ, and PFPN amounts increased by every 5 units were set as the scenarios Ⅱ (foreign normal level), Ⅲ (foreign medium level), and Ⅳ (foreign high level). The result showed that nitrogen demand was improved by increasing target yield, and the increment was growing bigger. Under the low level of INS and the target yield was more than 2500 kg/hm2, nitrogen rate could be saved only when the foreign normal level was reached. Under the middle or high levels of INS, nitrogen saving capacity was sufficient when different target yields were achieved.ConclusionsCombination of INS, target yield of oilseed rape and other agricultural measures was crucial for accomplishing high yield, high efficiency and nitrogen saving.
Improving water use efficiency and rhizosphere microbial diversity of purple leaf lettuce using negative pressure irrigation
GAO Xiang, ZHANG Shu-xiang, LONG Huai-yu
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18245
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ObjectivesIn view of the problems of water evaporation and loss of water and fertilizer on soil layer in the current irrigation system in the facilities agriculture, and do not supply water and fertilizer according to the crop requirements ally, this study aimed to compare different irrigation methods, and discuss the mechanism of the increase of the yield and quality on purple leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), water use efficiency and rhizosphere microbial diversity on purple leaf lettuce by negative pressure irrigation (NPI).MethodsThe pot experiments were conducted in greenhouse and employed purple leaf lettuce as test material, 3 irrigation treatments were set up: flooding irrigation (FI), drip irrigation (DI) and NPI. After harvest, the yield and quality (vitamin C, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and nitrate content) of the purple leaf lettuce, the nutrient concentration and uptake of the plant, the dynamic soil water content, water consumption and use efficiency were analyzed, and the diversity index of rhizosphere soil microbes and the structure composition of bacteria in the phylum classification were calculated.ResultsThe yield and quality of purple leaf lettuce under NPI could significantly increase by 68.1% and 29.0% compared to the FI and DI, respectively. NPI also increased the content of vitamin C, soluble sugar and anthocyanin, and reduced the nitrate content on purple leaf lettuce. The water consumption of the purple leaf lettuce under NPI was the least, being 23.8% and 23.8% lower than that of FI and DI, respectively. Under NPI, the concentration and uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of purple leaf lettuce were significantly increased, which were remarkably increased by 13.0%, 14.4%, 38.4% and 90.2%, 92.6%, 135.5% compared with FI treatment, respectively. The water use efficiency was the highest with NPI treatment, which was noteworthy increased by 122.2% and 70.5% compared with FI and DI, respectively. Meanwhile, the dynamic soil water content variation from 10.3% to 11.3% for NPI, lower than that from 9.2% to 11.6% for FI and DI. Through high throughput sequencing of soil rhizosphere microbial communities, it was found that NPI has the highest microbial diversity index with the highest value of OTU, Chao1 and Shannon indices, which were 1808, 2437 and 8.48, respectively, or 15.2%, 15.7% and 3.16% higher than those of FI treatment. The relative abundance of bacteria at the phylum classification was also changed by different irrigation treatments, and the abundances of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes on the bacterial phylum were increased under the NPI treatment than these of FI and DI.ConclusionsPlanting purple leaf lettuce by NPI system could achieve the goal of high yield and quality and water utilization efficiency through the steady supply mechanism of soil water and fertilizer. Therefore, the NPI system significantly improved the yield and quality, water use efficiency and diversity of the rhizosphere microbial communities on purple leaf lettuce, and provided a reliable scientific basis for the sustainable development of facilities agriculture.
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2019, 25(7): 1-5.  
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Effects of long-term different fertilizations on organic carbon fractions of macroaggregates in Anthrosol
XIE Jun-yu, PENG Bo, WANG Ren-jie, ZHANG Shu-lan, YANG Xue-yun
2019, 25(7): 1073-1083.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18304
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Objectives To characterize organic carbon fractions within macroaggregates in arable soils and understand mechanisms of soil organic carbon sequestration and optimize the fertilizer management. Methods Soil samples were collected from 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm layers of a 35-year long term fertilizer experiment in an Anthrosol in Yangling, Shaanxi Province, and organic carbon (OC) contents were analyzed within the macroaggregate size fractions (coarse particulate organic carbon referred to as cPOC, fine particulate organic carbon referred to as fPOC, intra-microaggregate particulate organic carbon referred to as iPOC and mineral associated organic carbon referred to as MOC). The fertilization treatments were 1) Control, receiving no fertilizers; 2) NP, receiving chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers; 3) M, receiving organic manure alone, and 4) MNP, receiving the combined application of chemical NP fertilizers and organic manure at the same rates as treatments NP and MNP. Results The long-term application of chemical fertilizers (NP) had no effects on the OC contents of any macroaggregate size fractions. However, application of manure alone or combined with chemical fertilizers greatly enhanced cPOC contents by 174%–338% (0–10 cm) and 215%–245% (10–20 cm), iPOC content by 127%–241% (0–10 cm) and 106%–130% (10–20 cm), and MOC content by 28.9%–34.6% in the 0–10 cm soil layer. Moreover, application of manure plus NP significantly increased fPOC content in the 0–10 cm layer by 482%. In addition, OC contents of all macroaggreagte fractions were significantly and positively correlated with cumulative C input, especially for the iPOC content. These results indicated that the differences among fertilization regimes in OC sequestration occurred primarily in the physically protected OC fractions contained in macroaggregates. Conclusions Application of NP showed no effect on OC contents within macroaggregates, while application of M treatment could increase OC contents within macroaggregates, and MNP treatment significantly enhanced OC contents within macroaggregates, especially for iPOC content. Amendment of organic manure, alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers, could increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. Our data indicated that the combination of organic and chemical fertilizer is the most effective practice for increasing SOC storage in an Anthrosol.
Characteristics of nutrients and microbial biomass in soil aggregates under different fertilization modes in greenhouse vegetable production
RONG Qin-lei, LI Ruo-nan, HUANG Shao-wen, ZHOU Chun-huo, TANG Ji-wei, WANG Li-ying, ZHANG Yan-cai
2019, 25(7): 1084-1096.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18472
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Objectives Excessive application of chemical fertilizers or unreasonable combined application of chemical and organic fertilizers is a common practice in greenhouse vegetable production. Therefore, a fixed-site greenhouse vegetable fertilization experiment was carried out to study effects of partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic amendments on nutrient and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) distribution of soil aggregates in order to provide a scientific basis for high quality and efficient vegetable production in greenhouse and fertilizer reduction. Methods The greenhouse field experiment was started in 2009, with 25% or 50% nitrogen of inorganic fertilizer replaced by nitrogen of corn straw or pig manure. Soil samples were collected from each plot at 0–20 cm depth during the uprooting stage of the 11th growing season (winter-spring cucumber) in the sixth year. The distribution and stability of soil aggregates, nutrient and MBC and MBN contents of soil aggregates were determined. Results 1) The predominant size fractions in greenhouse vegetable soil were 250–1000 μm fractions and > 2000 μm fractions, which accounted for 32.0% and 38.4% on average by weight, respectively. Compared with 4/4CN treatment, organic amendments increased the proportion of >250 μm fractions. And soils amended with straw had a relatively large impact on the distribution of soil aggregates, following with a significantly improvement in soil aggregate stability. The MWD and GMD values in straw-treated soil were 6.1% and 11.2% higher than those in 4/4CN-treated soil, respectively. 2) The organic carbon content in organic-amended soil (3/4CN + 1/4MN, 2/4CN + 2/4MN, 2/4CN + 1/4MN + 1/4SN, 2/4CN + 2/4SN) was much higher than that in the 4/4CN treatment with the increasing ranges of 36.8%–89.6%, 34.9%–100.3%, 29.5%–69.2% and 21.7%–72.1% in < 250 μm fractions, 250–1000 μm fractions, 1000–2000 μm fractions and > 2000 μm fractions, respectively, which was respectively averagely increased by 69.8%, 76.6%, 56.9% and 49.2% compared with that of 4/4CN treatment. Actually, effects of the organic amendments on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus were basically the same. 3) The organic carbon and total nitrogen in 250–1000 μm fractions and > 2000 μm fractions were the main sources of the organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil, which accounted for 34.1% and 35.2% of the total organic carbon stocks, and 34.0% and 36.4% of the total nitrogen stocks, respectively. 4) The content of soil nitrate nitrogen was higher in 250–1000 μm fractions and 1000–2000 μm fractions than that in other aggregate fractions. Soil readily available potassium, MBC and MBN contents increased with the increasing of soil aggregate-size, whereas soil available phosphorus decreased with the increasing of soil aggregate-size. Conclusions The predominant size fractions in greenhouse vegetable soil were 250–1000 μm fractions and > 2000 μm fractions. And soil aggregate stability was significantly improved by partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with straw. Partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic amendments increased the content of organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and available phosphorus in soil aggregates. The organic carbon and total nitrogen were mainly stored in 250–1000 μm fractions and > 2000 μm fractions, while MBC and MBN contents increased with the decreasing of soil aggregate-size.
Effects of agricultural measures on soil profile physical properties of winter wheat field in Weibei highland, China
WANG Huan, FU Wei, HU Jin-sheng, FAN Jun, HAO Ming-de
2019, 25(7): 1097-1106.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18301
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Objectives This study aimed to compare the effects of long-term different fertilization and mulching methods on physical properties in 0–40 cm soil layer of winter wheat field in arid farming area of Loess Plateau, to provide the guideline for maintaining good soil physical properties and seeking for suitable and sustainable development agricultural measures of the Weibei Highland. Methods A 15-years' winter wheat field experiment, started in 2002 and located in Weibei Highland, was used in this study. Six treatments were setup, NP (N 150 kg/hm2 + P 75 kg/hm2), NPK (NP + K 30 kg/hm2), NPB (NP + biochar14.0 t/hm2), NPFFT (NP + film mulching during summer fallow period), NPFGT (NP + film mulching during growth period) and NPFWT (NP + whole year film mulching). After winter wheat harvested in 2017, samples were collected in 0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, 20–30 cm, and 30–40 cm soil profiles, and the soil moisture, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) and water-stable aggregate contents were determined. Results Compared with NP treatment, NPK treatment decreased the 0–20 cm soil bulk density, increased the 0–20 cm soil total porosity and the > 2 mm size water-stable aggregate content in 0–40 cm profiles. The > 2 mm size water-stable aggregate content in 0–10 cm layer increased by 1.3 times (P < 0.05). NPB treatment decreased the soil bulk density, increased the soil total porosity, but decreased the SHC significantly by 27.9% in 0–20 cm layer. Both water content and > 2 mm size water-stable aggregate contents increased in the profile, and the > 2 mm size water-stable aggregate contents in the surface layer increased by 1.0 times significantly. NPFFT reduced the water content in the profile, but increased the soil bulk density and decreased the soil total porosity of tillage layer at harvest time. NPFGT reduced the water content of the profile, increased the soil bulk density but reduced the soil total porosity of tillage layer, meanwhile reduced the SHC of the profile, among which especially in the surface layer it was reduced by 60.2% significantly. NPFWT increased soil bulk density but decreased the total soil porosity of tillage layer, decreased the SHC in surface layer, but increased it in 10–40 cm layers by an average of 57.5%, meanwhile the water content, > 2 mm size water-stable aggregates content, MWD and GMD of profile were all increased. Affected by the local traditional tillage depth, the effects of different fertilization and mulch measures on soil bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity were mainly concentrated in 0–20 cm soil layer, while little effect had in the 20–40 cm soil layer. Conclusions Based on the combination of N and P fertilizations, the application of potash, biochar and film mulching around whole year could effectively improve soil physical properties. From the perspective of economic input and degree of improvement in soil physical properties, the addition of potash and whole year film mulching were effective measures to maintain the good physical properties of soil profile in Weibei Highland.
Effect of adding different exogenous nitrogen sources on nitrogen transformation in long-term straw incorporated soil
CONG Ri-huan, ZHANG Li, LU Yan-hong, NIE Jun, LI Xiao-kun, REN Tao, LU Jian-wei
2019, 25(7): 1107-1114.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18295
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Objectives This paper was to study the effects of adding different N resources on various N forms in soils long-term applied by NPK with or without straw incorporated, aiming at analyzing the difference in the content of active N pools affected by long-term straw returning. Methods Surface soil samples from long-term chemical fertilization (NPK) and long-term chemical fertilization with straw incorporation (NPKS) treatments were collected after late rice harvest in 2014 in Wangcheng, Hunan. Indoor incubation experiment was carried out with two main treatments: soil with sterilization and non sterilization onto above-mentioned two kinds of soil samples, respectively. Each main treatment had four subsidiary treatments: the control (CK), application of urea (N 150 kg/hm2, U), application of straw (N 150 kg/hm2, S) and application of urea and straw (N 300 kg/hm2, U + S). Each treatment had four replications. Soil ammonium N (NH4+), nitrate N (NO3), microbial N (MBN) and dissolved organic N (DON) were analyzed at various incubation dates. Results 1) The contents of soil NH4+ and NO3 were significantly increased by urea, straw and urea with straw, with a sequence as U > U + S > S > CK. Under non-sterilization condition, soil NH 4+ of U treatment was 90.85%–288.07% more than those of the other three treatments. 2) Under sterilization condition, soil NH4+ maintained at a high level, which would hinder the transformation process from NH4+ to NO3. Soil contents of NO3, MBN and DON were quite low in the first 90 days of incubation. 3) Under the condition of non-sterilization, soil NO3 increased rapidly after 50 days of incubation, reaching to the maximal value (117.43–243.17 mg/kg) at the end. 4) Soil MBN and DON reached the maximum value at 20 days (106.72–244.01 mg/kg) and 30 days (95.76–140.63 mg/kg), respectively. 5) At the end of incubation, under sterilization condition, soil DON content of U + S treatment from the long-term NPKS soil was significantly higher than those of the other treatments, with 51.55% and 29.96% more than the U and S treatments, respectively. Conclusions Adding different exogenous N sources is beneficial to increasing the content of active organic N pool in the soil with long-term straw returning especially adding straw and urea, which would improve soil N supply capacity significantly.
Effects of biochar on mitigating nitrous oxide emission from an intensive vegetable field and crop yields
FENG Lian, ZHOU Jun, DONG Yu-bing, LI Shuang-shuang, XIONG Zheng-qin
2019, 25(7): 1115-1124.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18315
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Objectives The study evaluated the long-term effect of biochar amendment on both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields, which are crucial for the efficient field application of biochar. Methods A field experiment was conducted on an intensive vegetable field in 2016 in Nanjing, Jiangsu. Four treatments included no nitrogen fertilizer control (CK), urea in each crop (N), urea in each crop and fresh biochar (NCF) once in 2016, and urea in each crop and field-aged biochar which was amended into the field for four years in 2012 (NCA), with biochar amendment at 40 t/hm2. Vegetables of pakchoy, water spinach, edible amaranth and spinach were planted in sequence during the observed consecutive year from November 2016 to November 2017. Urea (N 240 kg/hm2) was applied once as basal fertilization for each crop, except for water spinach which received an extra topdressing N 240 kg/hm2 after its first harvest with 3 harvests in total. The static chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure dynamically nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Results The N2O was mainly emitted during the second and third crop seasons, with yield-scaled N2O emissions of 0.038–0.131 and 0.107–0.482 kg/t, respectively, with being 0.033–0.209 and 0.007–0.070 kg/t for the first and fourth crop seasons, respectively. Neither soil temperature nor inorganic nitrogen was correlated significantly with N2O emission in all treatments. Significant correlation (P < 0.01) was detected between soil moisture and N 2O fluxes with WFPS (water filled pore space) ranging from 37%–93% during the experimental period. Relative to the N treatment, the NCF treatment significantly reduced the annual N2O cumulative emissions and the annual N2O emission factors by 35.6% and 46.2%, respectively. Relative to the N treatment, the NCA treatment significantly reduced the annual N2O cumulative emissions and the annual N2O emission factors by 38.8% and 49.9%, respectively. Compared with N treatment, the NCF and NCA treatments improved crop yield by 4.6% and 17.9%, respectively, being significant for the NCA treatment. Moreover, relative to the N treatment, the NCF and NCA treatments significantly reduced yield-scaled N2O emission by 49.8% and 41.3%, respectively. Conclusions Since field-aged biochar showed obvious effects on N2O mitigaion and crop yield after 4 years, biochar incorporation showed long-term effect on GHGs mitigation and crop improvement in the intensive vegetable ecosystem.
Comprehensive evaluation for carbon and nitrogen footprints of rice–wheat rotation system in Middle Yangtze River Basin
CHEN Zhong-du, XU Chun-chun, JI Long, FANG Fu-ping
2019, 25(7): 1125-1133.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18308
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Objectives The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river are important rice–wheat rotation areas in China, due to great contribution to national food security. Crop production is a main source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and reactive nitrogen (Nr) emissions, quantitatively evaluating the differences in carbon footprint (CF) and nitrogen footprint (NF) of rice–wheat rotation system will benefit the achievement of low-carbon and green agriculture. Methods Based on farmer's production survey data from middle Yangtze River Basin, the CF and NF of rice–wheat rotation system in middle Yangtze River Basin were estimated using a life-cycle assessment method in the agricultural sector. The proportion of different agricultural inputs and the influence factors in the CF and NF of rice–wheat rotation system were explored. Results The CF and NF per unit area for rice–wheat rotation systems in middle Yangtze River were CO2-eq 7728.8 kg/hm2 and N-eq 190.6 kg/hm2, respectively. The largest fraction of CF and NF of rice–wheat production system was the share of CH4 emission (39.0%) and NH3 volatilization (91.8%), respectively. Progressive regression analysis showed that CF and NF of rice–wheat production were mainly affected by diesel and fertilizer. In this study, the scaled planting was negatively correlated with the CF and NF, and a decrease in the CF and NF of rice–wheat production was found in larger farms by 22.6% and 43.9%, respectively, compared to smaller-scale farms. The carbon footprint and nitrogen footprint of rice and wheat production system increased significantly with the increase of yield. Conclusions Developing water and fertilizer saving technology, as well as increasing farm machinery operation efficiencies and developing large-scale farms is an important way for energy saving, emission reduction and green manner agriculture in the middle Yangtze River Basin.
Improving photosynthetic efficiency of flag leaves at anthesis stage and nitrogen utilization of winter wheat by deep placement of common and control-released urea mixture
DONG Qing-ling, LOU Huan-chang, ZHANG Hui, ZHAO Ruo-lin, ZHENG Bin, LI Zeng-jia, LI Geng, NING Tang-yuan
2019, 25(7): 1134-1145.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18285
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Objectives Nitrogen supply has important impact on photosynthetic characteristics, photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) performance and nitrogen utilization as well. The effects of urea type and application depth on the nitrogen utilization and yields were studied from the aspect of photosynthesis. Methods A field experiment with a split-plot randomized block design was conducted using urea type as main plot and fertilization depth as subplot in 2015–2017. The urea types included normal urea (T1) and the mixture of normal urea, sulfur coated urea and polymer coated urea at 4∶3∶3 (T2); the two fertilization depth was 5 cm (D1) and 10 cm (D2). The normal urea was applied in basal / topdressing ratio of 4∶6 in T1 and the mixed urea T2 was once applied as basal fertilizer. The gas exchange parameters and fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics of main stem flag leaves after anthesis, nitrogen accumulation of aboveground plant at different stages and the final yield and its components were monitored. The fertilizer nitrogen efficiencies were calculated. Results Urea type and fertilization depth affected grain yields significantly. Treatment T2D2 got the highest yield in 2 years; T2 increased spike number per hectare and the weight of 1000 grains, and D2 increased the weight of 1000 grains in 2016–2017. In contrast to spike number per hectare and the weight of 1000 grains, no significant difference between T2 and T1 was found for grain number per spike. Similarly, there were no significant differences in spike number per hectare and grain number per spike between D1 and D2 treatments. The gas exchange parameters of flag leaves were remarkably different under different treatments. Under the same fertilization depth, mixed urea (T2) led to a significantly higher net photosynthetic rate (Pn) with a significantly higher stomatal conductance (Gs), but significantly decreased the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci). With the same type of urea, the Pn and Gs of wheat flag leaves were significantly increased in D1 than in D2, but Ci decreased. The treatment of T2D2 increased photosynthetic capacity of flay leaves as the prolonged duration of the stead photosynthesis at late stage as well. T2D2 obtained higher maximal photochemical efficiency (φPo) and quantum yield of electron transfer (φEo) of photosystem Ⅱ. Moreover, the increase of φPo was higher than φEo, resulting in improved fluorescence photochemical quenching coefficient (ψo). Meanwhile, fluorescence at K-step (Wk) of PS Ⅱ electron donor side and the fluorescence at J-step (Vj) of acceptor side were declined in treatment T2D2, which significantly improved the performance of PS Ⅱ reaction center, and enhanced the photosynthetic capacity of flay leaves after anthesis as well. Compared with T1, T2 increased the nitrogen accumulation of aboveground in later stage. Nitrogen accumulation in D2 was increased in all the growth stages than those in D1 treatment. Besides, the final results in yield of T2 and D2 were higher than T1 and D1, which increased nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE), nitrogen partial productivity (PEPN) and nitrogen apparent recovery rate (NRE) in maturity stage. Conclusions The mixed application of normal and control-released urea at 10 cm depth of soil could effectively stimulate the photosynthetic rate after anthesis, which showed significant priority to conventional fertilization and shallow fertilization in nitrogen utilization and wheat yield, being a labour-saving and high efficient measurement in winter wheat production.
Effect of long-term fertilization patterns on dry matter and phosphorus accumulation and translocation in rice
LIU Yan-ling, LI Yu, BAI Yi-jing, HUANG Xing-cheng, ZHANG Ya-rong, ZHANG Meng, ZHANG Wen-an, JIANG Tai-ming
2019, 25(7): 1146-1156.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18335
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Objectives Phosphorus (P) is often deficient in yellow soil, improving P efficiency in crop production is greatly concerned in researches. The effects of fertilization patterns on the dry matter and P accumulation and translocation in rice were compared in this paper, aiming to setup rational P fertilization in yellow paddy soil. Methods The study was based on a successive 22-years’ field experiment in the yellow paddy soil. Six treatments were chosen from the experiment, they were blank CK, NK, NPK, manure alone (M), 0.5 MNP and MNPK. Except CK and MNPK, NK, NPK, M and 1/2 MNP had the same N input of 165 kg/hm2, and P2O5 input of 82.5, 79.4 and 81.0 kg/hm2 in turn. MNPK treatment had N and P2O5 input of 331 and 161.9 kg/hm2. Rice aboveground parts were sampled at tillering, flowering and maturity stages, the grain yield, dry matter and P contents were measured. P accumulation and transfer characteristics, P uptake and utilization efficiency were calculated. Results Rice yield, dry matter and P accumulation ranked as follows: MNPK > M > 0.5 MNP > NPK > CK > NK. Compared with dry matter accumulation, the start time ( t1) and the end time (t2) of P accumulation during fast-accumulation period advanced 2–8 d and 5–20 d, and the duration (Δt) of P accumulation in fast-accumulation period was shortened by 4–12 d, which indicated that the P accumulation was faster than dry matter and lasted for a shorter time. In contrast to the CK and M treatments, the t0 [days of the maximum dry matter accumulation rate (Vm) occurred], t1, t2 of dry matter accumulation in the treatments with chemical fertilizer application (NK, NPK, 0.5 MNP, MNPK) lagged 5–10 d, 1–4 d, 6–16 d, respectively. The Δt of dry matter and P accumulation also prolonged 1–14 d and 1–15 d, respectively. The Vm of dry matter and P accumulation ranked as M, MNPK > 0.5 MNP, CK > NPK > NK. Dry matter and P accumulation amount of rice grain were mainly derived by post-anthesis period dry matter accumulation and pre-anthesis period P translocation, respectively. The post-anthesis period dry matter accumulation rate of each treatment was 29.5%–43.4%, and the treatments with chemical fertilizer had significantly better effect than that of CK and M treatment. The pre-anthesis period P accumulation rate of treatments was 60.5%–85.6%, and the order was CK > NPK, M > NK, 0.5 MNP, MNPK. Compared with the NPK treatment, 0.5 MNP and M treatments significantly increased the P absorption efficiency, P partial factor productivity and P utilization efficiency by 0.43 kg/kg, 48.9 kg/kg, 40.8 percentage points and 0.26 kg/kg, 32.2 kg/kg, 25.3 percentage points, respectively. Conclusions Long-term P deficiency was not conducive to dry matter accumulation in post-anthesis period and P accumulation in pre-anthesis period, which seriously restricts the improvement of rice yield and phosphorus uptake. Long-term solely application of organic manure could promote the dry matter and P accumulation and transport in pre-anthesis period, but restricted those in post-anthesis period. Long-term solely application of chemical fertilizer could prolong the Δt of dry matter and P accumulation, but the Vm was small. Long-term integrated fertilization with organic manure and chemical fertilizers could promote the dry matter and P accumulation both in pre-anthesis period and after-anthesis period, leading to high grain yield and P use efficiency, which is the best fertilization pattern in yellow paddy soil.
Effects of wheat and faba bean intercropping on the available phosphorus contents in rhizospheric soil and phosphorus uptake by crops under different phosphorus levels
ZHANG Meng-yao, XIAO Jing-xiu, TANG Li, ZHENG Yi
2019, 25(7): 1157-1165.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18346
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Objectives The purpose of the study was investigating the effects of wheat and faba bean intercropping on the available phosphorus (P) contents in rhizospheric soil and P uptake by crops, in order to increase utilization rates of P fertilizers. Methods Field trials were conducted on arable red soil in Pilot Base of Yunnan Agricultural University in 2016 and 2017. The tested wheat cultivar was Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yunmai-52 and fafa bean cultivar was Vicia faba L. cv. Yuxidalidou. The three P application rates were: P2O5 0 (P0), P2O5 45 kg/hm2 (P45) and 90 kg/hm2 (P90). The planting patterns included mono-cropped wheat (MW), mono-cropped faba bean (MF), and wheat-faba bean intercropping (I). The rhizosphere soil samples were taken at tillering, joining, heading, filling and maturity stages of wheat, and at branching, flowering, podding, seed filling and harvesting stages of faba bean every year for determining available P contents in rhizosphere.The grain yields of wheat and faba bean were weighed, and the P contents in aboveground parts of crops were measured. The land equivalent ratios (LER) and phosphorous agronomy efficiencies were calculated. Results Compared to monocropping, the grain yields of intercropped wheat in P0, P45 and P90 treatments were increased by 12.5%, 21.7%, and 17.3%, respectively in 2016, while the seed yields of intercropped faba bean were decreased by 16.8%, 11.7%, and 8.2% respectively in 2017. The land equivalent ratio (LER) ranged from 0.95 to 1.18, showing land use advantages of intercropping over monocropping. The yields of intercropped wheat and faba bean were not declined in the P45 treatment, compared to corresponding monocropping in P90 treatment. Intercropping had no significant effect on available P contents in wheat rhizosphere (except at the mature stage in 2016), but decreased those in the faba bean rhizosphere by 20.8%, 44.5% and 18% in 2017 at the branching, flowering and podding stages of faba bean, as compared to those of MF. Meanwhile, the available P contents in the rhizosphere of intercropped wheat and faba bean under P45 rate were not reduced as compared to those of monocropping wheat and faba bean under P90 rate. The total P uptake by wheat and faba bean were mainly regulated by P rates, not by the planting patterns, and there was no difference in the agronomy efficiency of P fertilizers between mono-cropped and intercropped wheat. Conclusions Under the tested conditions, intercropping could increase wheat grain yield but decrease faba bean yield, and increase the general land use efficiencies. The intercropping has impact on the available P contents in the rhizosphere mainly at early growth stages of faba bean, so has no effect on the P uptake by crops. Wheat and faba bean intercropping shows potential to reduce P application rate while sustain crop yields and rhizosphere available P.
Phytoextraction efficiency of P by mining ecotype of Polygonum hydropiper grown in soils amended with swine manure
WEI Wen-jing, LI Ting-xuan, ZHANG Xi-zhou
2019, 25(7): 1166-1172.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18282
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Objectives Excess phosphorus (P) in soil is concerned for easy loss into environment. The phytoextraction efficiency of P by mining ecotypic Polygonum hydropiper (ME), a P enriching plant, was investigated for the effective remediation of excess P from soils and reduced risk of P loss. Methods A field plot experiment was conducted with 4 swine manure application rates of 0 (CK), 1, 2, 3 kg/m2 with 3 replicates based on the safety rate of P fertilization in farmland (< 200 kg/hm2). The shoots of the ME were harvested after 3 months of transplanting and digested with a microwave digestion system (CEM MARS5, USA). The P contents in plant samples were determined by an auto discrete analyzer (AQ2, UK). Soil samples in the 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm layers before transplanting and after harvest were obtained using the five-point sampling method. The concentrations of water-soluble P and available P in soils were measured. Results The shoot biomasses of ME with different dosages of swine manure treatments were significantly greater than that of CK, with the increase of 18.4, 24.6 and 42.0 g/plant. The shoot biomass of ME in treatment of 3 kg/m2 swine manure was 2.16 times greater than that of CK. P concentrations in the shoots of ME applied with different dosages of swine manure were significantly greater than that of CK, with the increase of 0.60, 0.91 and 1.49 g/kg respectively. The P content in shoot of ME in treatment of 3 kg/m2 swine manure was 1.53 times greater than that of CK. Compared with CK, P accumulations in shoots of ME significantly increased with increasing application rate of swine manure, with the increments of P 84.0, 124 and 236 mg/plant respectively for the three manure dosage treatments. The P accumulation in shoots of ME under treatment of 3 kg/m2 swine manure was 3.32 times greater than that of CK. The concentrations of water-soluble P and available P in the 0–20 cm soil layer after harvest decreased by 74.9%–81.5% and 48.9–60.0% respectively, compared with those before transplanting. However, no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of water-soluble P and available P in the 20–40 cm soil layer. Conclusions Mine ecotype of Polygonum hydropiper was proved to be an efficient plant for phytoextraction of P brought into soils by swine manure application. The significant decrease of water soluble and available P in surface soils reduce the possible P loss into environment.
Effects of auxin on tobacco root growth and potassium uptake under low potassium stress
GUO Ze, LI Zi-shen, DAI Xiao-yan, WANG Ying-feng
2019, 25(7): 1173-1184.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18321
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Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of auxin on the growth, development and potassium uptake of plant roots under low potassium stress,to provide a theoretical basis for increasing potassium levels in plants. Methods Using indoor hydroponic method, model plant tobacco was used as the test material, and two potassium concentrations (5 mmol/L, 0.15 mmol/L) and five exogenous auxin concentrations were set (exogenous auxin was selected from 3-indole acetic acid, the concentration was set as 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 μmol/L), the physiological characteristics of plant roots, endogenous auxin concentration, potassium accumulation, potassium uptake kinetics and related potassium channel gene transcriptional expression were compared. Results 1) Compared with the normal potassium level, the dry weight of the aboveground part of the plant decreased by 15.6% under low potassium stress, among the 8 indicators of root scan, except for the average root diameter, the other 7 indicators were significantly lower, the activity of ATPase decreased by 43.3%; the concentration of endogenous auxin in the main root tip, lateral root tip and leaf increased significantly, the Vmax and Km values of the parameters were reduced by 89.2% and 99.6% respectively, plant root and leaf potassium concentrations were reduced by 93.0% and 62.2% respectively, controlled potassium ion influx gene NtKC1 in roots was reduced by 56%. 2) After adding exogenous auxin, the root dry weight, root activity, main root tip and lateral root tip endogenous auxin concentration of the normal potassium level plant increased. The Vmax value and the expression of the relevant channel gene that regulated the influx of potassium ions were significantly increased. Under low potassium conditions, the plants showed similar regularity to normal potassium level. In addition, the root growth of low potassium plants was significantly improved. The ATPase activity and the aboveground and root potassium concentration increased significantly, while the expression level of the outflow-type potassium channel gene Ntork1 was significantly reduced. 3)When the concentration of auxin added was 10 μmol/L, compared with no auxin added, the dry weight of the aboveground part and root of the regular potassium level plants increased by 6.05% and 8.54%; the root volume and root overlap increased by 16.5% and 23.2%; the root activity increased by 298%, and the Vmax value increased by 118%. The dry weight of the aboveground part and root of the low potassium level plant was increased by 5.61% and 28.6% compared with no addition, and the root activity reached 113 μg/(g·h), FW, which was 3.3 times of that of no auxin. The root ATPase activity was increased by 87.5%. Root potassium concentration increased by 250% and potassium channel gene NKT2 in roots increased by 7.04 times and the expression of Ntork1 in roots and leaves was reduced by 49.5% and 72.5%. Conclusions Low potassium stress affects plant root growth and plant uptake and accumulation of potassium. Adding appropriate concentration of exogenous auxin can improve the growth and development of plant roots, increase the expression of the influx potassium channel genes NKT2 and NtKC1, and reduce the expression of the outflow-type potassium channel gene Ntork. Moreover, the plant potassium kinetic parameter Vmax value is increased, which increases the absorption capacity and affinity of the plant for potassium ions, thereby increasing the potassium content of the plant.
Physiological mechanisms of tolerance to ammonium toxicity in different ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana
HAN Qing-fen, CHEN Hai-fei, ZHANG Zhen-Hua
2019, 25(7): 1185-1193.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18355
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Objectives The physiological mechanisms of tolerance to ammonium toxicity were researched in order to study tolerant genes and provide physiological basis and theoretical guidance in different ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods A hydroponics experiment was used to culture 95 Arabidopsis materials in normal culture medium (2 mmol/L nitrate treatment) for 8 days after Arabidopsis seedlings transplanted, and then transferred to nutrient solution containing 1 mmol/L (NH4)2SO4 (2 mmol/L ammonium treatment) for 8 days. After harvesting, total nitrogen content, free ammonium concentration and glutamine synthase (GS) activity in shoot were measured. After 3 days of cultivation, the expression levels of major ammonium transporter genes AMT1; 1 and AMT1; 2 in root by RT-PCR were analyzed. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultured in normal medium for 8 days after transferring to 1 mmol/L (15NH4)2SO4 with 5% abundance, shoot was harvested at 3, 6 and 24 hours for isotope analysis. Results 2 mmol/L ammonium significantly inhibited the growth of shoot in Arabidopsis thaliana population, and ammonium accumulated in the shoot. The ammonium concentration under ammonium application was more than 1.5 times of that under nitrate, and ecotype Si-0 was 19.17 μmol/g, FW under ammonium, which was 20 times of that of the control. The content of endogenous ammonium was negatively correlated with the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana shoot under 2 mmol/L nitrate and 2 mmol/L ammonium treatments. Therefore, we used ammonium content of tissues in 2 mmol/L ammonium treatments as the main factor, screened ammonium-tolerant Arabidopsis ecotypes Or-1, Ta-0, HSM and ammonium-sensitive Arabidopsis ecotypes Rak-2, Lpv-18, Hi-0. The results showed that ammonium concentration in sensitive ecotypes was 1.7 to 10 times higher than that in tolerant Arabidopsis ecotypes under nitrate. The expression levels of AMT1;1 and AMT1;2 in the root of tolerant ecotypes was higher than those in root of sensitive ecotypes. The results of total nitrogen and 15N tracer analysis showed that the ammonium uptake rate in tolerant ecotypes was higher than that of sensitive ecotypes. Moreover, the results of glutamine synthetase (GS) showed that the GS activity of tolerant ecotypes was 1.1 to 1.8 and 1.2 to1.6 times of that of sensitive ecotypes under nitrate cultivation and ammonium cultivation respectively, which indicated the ammonium assimilation capacity of tolerant ecotypes was stronger than that of sensitive Arabidopsis ecotypes. Conclusions Ammonium-tolerant Arabidopsis thaliana has higher GS activity to alleviate ammonium toxicity by assimilating large amounts of free ammonium in plants, rather than by reducing ammonium uptake.
Effect of ethephon on absorption, distribution and utilization of nitrate-nitrogen by T337 apple dwarf rootstock seedlings
LI Xiu-li, ZHENG Xu-feng, JIANG Yuan-mao, WEI Shao-chong
2019, 25(7): 1204-1210.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18267
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Objectives The effect of foliar spray of ethephon on the absorption, utilization and distribution of 15N-NO3 by seedlings of T337 apple dwarf rootstock was studied, to provide a reference for its rational application in apple production. Methods The seedlings of T337 were used as the tested materials in a pot experiment, in which the nutrients were supplied with Hoagland nutrient solution containing 10 mmol/L of NO3. The seedlings were cultured in normal solution until 10 leaves, and stopped nutrient supply for 7 days for ethephon treatment. The ethephon treatment concentrations were 200 μL/L (E1) and 400 μL/L (E2), using water spray as control (CK). Seedling samples were taken at the 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 days for the measurement of the root activity and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in roots and leaves. At the end of experiment (20 days after treatment), the absorption, distribution and utilization of 15N by seedlings were determined. Results The root activity of each treatment increased first and then decreased with the prolongation of the experiment time, and reached the maximum at the 8th day. The root activities in E1 and E2 were significantly higher than that in the control, and that of E2 was significantly higher than that of E1 as well. The activities of NR and GS in both the roots and leaves of all the three treatments increased first and then decreased within the treatment period, with the peak at the 8th day. The activities of the two enzymes in the roots of seedlings in E1 and E2 treatments were higher than those in CK, but those in the leaves were higher only within the first 12 days, and became lower afterward. The NR activity of leaf in E1 and CK were higher than that of root during the monitoring period, while the phenomenon only appeared in the first 12 days in E2, and became opposite from 16 days to 20 days. Ethephon treatment significantly increased the biomass of seedlings. The dry leaf biomass of E1 was significantly higher than that of CK. The root and leaf dry biomass of E2 were 87.0% and 28.8% higher than those of CK, and the root-shoot ratio of seedlings was significantly increased as result. The 15N utilization rates in E1 and E2 treatments were increased by 3.44 and 15.32 percentage points, and the root distribution rates were increased by 33.3% and 67.4% respectively, compared with CK. Conclusions Foliar spray of ethephon could affect the activity of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in root and leaf of T337 seedling, increase the biomass and root-shoot ratio, and lead to significant increase of the use of nitrate nitrogen and increase of the distribution rate of 15N in seedling root. Among them, the best result was treated with 400 μL/L ethephon.
Physiological and biological mechanisms of molybdenum on alleviating chilling stress of peach leaves
GAO Huai-feng, PENG Fu-tian, XIAO Yuan-song, ZHANG Ya-fei, WANG Guo-dong, SUN Xi-wu, HE Yue
2019, 25(7): 1211-1221.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18274
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Objectives This study examined the physiological and biological mechanisms of ammonium molybdate on alleviating the frost damage of peach leaves, in order to provide a theoretical reference for alleviating low temperature stress through nutrient management in peach production. Methods Peach seedlings with 20 open leaves were used as test materials in pot experiments. In optimum spraying concentration experiment, ammonium molybdate solutions of 0.01%, 0.04%, 0.08% and 0.12% were sprayed three times, each spraying consumed 50 mL of Mo-containing solution and in 5 days’ interval, and water was sprayed at the same way in control (M0). When the spraying was completed, the seedlings were cultivated at 0℃. At 0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h of treatment, samples of seedling functional leaves were collected, and the frost index, relative electrical conductivity, proline and soluble sugar contents were determined. In biological response pot experiment, seedlings were sprayed with 0.04% ammonium molybdate solution in the same way as above. When spraying was completed, the seedlings were cultivated under normal (20℃) and low temperature (0℃) condition. At the 0, 24 and 48 h of treatment, samples of seedling functional leaves were collected, and oxidative damage to cell membranes, osmosis regulating substance contents and the gene expression levels for molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (LOS5/ABA3), proline synthase (P5CS1) and peroxidase (RCI3) under normal temperature conditions were determined. Results 1) Optimum spraying concentration experiment showed that under low temperature stress, compared with M0, the frost index was significantly decreased by 23.8%, 38.4%, 29.6%, 24.0% in treatments of 0.01%, 0.04%, 0.08% and 0.12% of ammonium molybdate, respectively. The relative conductivity was significantly decreased by 5.10%, 7.19%, 3.77%, 5.03%, respectively. The SPAD values and net photosynthetic rates decreased slowly, the proline contents were significantly increased by 0.89%, 11.67%, 8.54%, 5.06%, respectively, and the soluble sugar contents were significantly increased by 1.95%, 9.64%, 6.73%, 4.50%, respectively. The optimum sparying concentration appeared to be 0.04% of molydbate. 2) Biological response experiment showed that as compared with M0 at 0℃, the gene expression levels for LOS5/ABA3, P5CS1 and RCI3 were all significantly increased, the increment were 2.76 times, 2.64 times and 1.50 times respectively at 24 h, and 2.54 times, 2.29 times and 1.66 times respectively at 48 h. With 48 h of treatment, the proline and soluble sugar contents were increased by 8.27% and 8.69% respectively, the activities of CAT (catalase), POD (peroxidase), SOD (superoxide dismutase) were increased by 1.98%, 11.79% and 9.15% respectively, and the MDA (malondia ldehydes) content was decreased by 10.8%. Conclusions Spraying of ammonium molybdate could regulate the gene expression of LOS5/ABA3, P5CS1, and RCI3 in functional leaves of peach seedlings, increase the contents of soluble sugar, proline and the activity of antioxidant enzyme, relieve cell membrane oxidation damage, and alleviate the damage of low temperature stress to peach seedling.
Soil nutrient status in coffee plantation of Yunnan and the main factors related to quality of green coffee beans
MA Guan-run, LIU Han-qing, TIAN Su-mei, BAI Xue-hui, ZHAO Ming-zhu, LI Jin-hong, XIAO Zi-wei
2019, 25(7): 1222-1229.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18333
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Objectives Soil fertility in coffee plantations of Yunnan was surveyed through sampling analysis to understand its effects on quality of green coffee beans and provide reference for soil management in the area. Methods A total of 49 soil samples (0–20 cm depth) and 38 green coffee bean samples were collected in main coffee growing-regions of Yunnan Province. The soil organic matter, pH, available N, P and K contents were measured. The ash content, caffeine, total sugar, reducing sugar and fat contents of green coffee bean samples were analyzed. The membership function types and their thresholds for each fertility index were determined. The principal component analysis was employed to calculate the weight of each fertility item, and the additive and multiplicative theorem was used to estimate integrated fertility index (IFI) of each soil sample. The IFI values were clustered by using the Euclidean distance clustering method, and then each class was defined according to the IFI values. The correlations between quality of green coffee beans and soil nutrients were analyzed by using the canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Results The results of the comprehensive evaluation indicated that there was significant variation (P < 0.05) in soil fertility in Yunnan coffee growing regions. The IFI values of the soil samples mostly ranged from 0.43 to 0.67 with a mean value of 0.53. Four well-defined clusters of IFI values were formed roughly at the same dissimilarity levels. The class Ⅰ was defined as suitable soil fertility (IFI 0.55–0.67), the class Ⅱ was defined as moderate soil fertility (IFI 0.43–0.53), the class Ⅲ was defined as poor soil fertility (IFI 0.35–0.39), and the class Ⅳ was defined as very poor soil fertility (0.24–0.29). The sum of class Ⅰ and the Ⅱ area accounted for 98.8% of the total coffee growing-regions, among them the class Ⅰ accounted for 54.2%, mainly distributed in Puer and Dehong districts. The class Ⅱ (44.6%) was mainly distributed in Lincang and Baoshan districts. The order of IFI values in different coffee growing-regions was as the following: Dehong (0.64) > Puer (0.58) > Lingcang (0.46) > Baoshan (0.43). The quality of green coffee bean was significantly correlated with soil nutrients( P < 0.05). The canonical correlation analysis indicated that the contents of caffeine and total sugar decreased with the increase of soil readily available potassium content and the fat content decreased with the increase of soil pH value and alkali-hydrolytic nitrogen content. Conclusions Soil characteristics of Yunnan coffee growing regions are suitable for coffee growing. Soil readily available potassium, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen contents and pH have important effects on the quality of green coffee bean. Hence, an excessive or a defficient level may decrease quality of green coffee bean.
Nutrient uptake rules of Polygala tenuifolia and its relationship with accumulation of bioactive components
ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Ying, JIA Xiao-yun, SUN Bao-xu, ZHANG Rui-rui, MA Cun-gen, LIANG Jian-ping
2019, 25(7): 1230-1238.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18299
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Objectives Polygala tenuifolia, a Chinese medicine herb whose root is the harvested part, is one of the main commoditized raw materials. The rules of nutrient absorption and its relationship with the accumulation of bioactive components were studied, in order to provide theory for scientific fertilizer application in Polygala tenuifolia. Methods The 3-year-old P. tenuifolia plants were taken as the research material. Since turning green on March 26 of 2017, plant samples were collected at the 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 195 days after revival. The dry matter accumulations, the contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) in roots and the aboveground parts were analyzed. At the same time, the contents of saponins, flavonoids and phenols in roots of different growth periods of P. tenuifolia were measured. Results The dry matter accumulation in the aboveground parts of P. tenuifolia increased first and then decreased, and that in roots kept a linear increasing during the whole growing period. The dry matter accumulation of the aboveground parts was greater than that of roots from 40 days to 140 days after turning green. With the growth center transferred to roots from the 160 days to 195 days after revival, the dry matter accumulation of roots was greater than that of the aboveground parts. The maximum N absorption capacity of P. tenuifolia was from 100 days to 140 days after revival with the absorption amount of 18.77 g/m2, and the maximum P and K absorption capacity was 140 days after revival, with the absorption amounts of 3.07 g/m2 and 3.36 g/m2, respectively. The accumulation of saponins and flavonoids in the whole growth period in roots of P. tenuifolia all showed two peaks, for saponins they appeared at 140 days (6.28 g/m2) and 180 days (6.43 g/m2) and for phenols at 80 days (2.37 g/m2) and 180 days (4.31 g/m2) after revival. The accumulation of flavonoids appeared one peak at 180 days revival green (2.35 g/m2). The economic yield of root bioactive components reached the highest at the 180 days after revival. A positive and significant correlation was found between flavonoid content and Zn content in root (P < 0.05), and it was extremely significant between phenol content and Zn content in root ( P < 0.01). Conclusions The rapid dry matter accumulation in roots is from 140 days to 195 days after the revival of P. tenuifolia plants, which is more than 40 days behind the peak accumulation of N P and K by the plants. Zinc content plays very important role in the contents of the bioactive components. For the highest economic profits, balanced fertilization of NPK with Zn should be paid more attention, and the proper harvest time of P. tenuifolia is also very important, which is at about 180 days after the revival (25 th, September) under the experimental condition.
Effects of fertilizer placement and weed management on yield and growth of intercropped maize and potato
ZHANG Xiao-yun, WU Bo-zhi, WU Kai-xian, ZHANG Lei-lei, LI Yong-xian, LI Jian, WANG Chao
2019, 25(7): 1239-1246.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18287
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Objectives Position is greatly concerned in fertilization of precise agricultural production. This study was to investigate the effects of fertilizer placement and weed management on the growth and yield of intercropped maize and potato. Methods A field experiment was conducted using maize and potato intercropping system with 2 : 2 row ratio. In both plots of with and without weed control, 3 fertilizer placements were designed as: homogeneous fertilization in all rows (HF), fertilization in interspecific rows (TERF), and fertilization in intraspecific rows (TRAF). There were total 6 treatments with triplications. The plant height, biomass, root total biomass and yields of the intercropped maize and potato were measured. So was the weed biomass. Results Both the fertilizer placement and weed management had significant effects on yield (P < 0.001), biomass ( P = 0.002) and plant height (P = 0.007) of maize. Without weeds control, compared to the HF, both the TERF and TRAF significantly increased the yield, biomass and plant height of maize, while with weeds control, only the yield and biomass of maize were significantly increased by the TRAF, and the plant height significantly increased by TERF.Weeds control did not significantly affect plant height (P = 0.494), but significantly increased the yield and biomass of tomato (P < 0.001). Fertilizer placements had no significant effect on potato yield ( P = 0.114), biomass (P = 0.580) and plant height (P = 0.772). For both the maize and potato, weeds control significantly increased the total root biomass of maize and potato under the condition of HF and TRAF (P < 0.001), but had no significant influence under TERF. The TRAF significantly increased the total root biomass of maize and potato with and without weeds control ( P < 0.001). Weed biomass was affected significantly by fertilizer placement ( P = 0. 001) and growth row (P < 0.001). Compared with the HF, the TRAF significantly decreased the weed biomass of the rows between maize and potato and rows inside potato, while the TERF had no significant influence on the weed biomass in the rows between maize and potato, but significantly reduced the weed biomass in rows inside maize or potato. Conclusions In maize and potato intercropping system, it is recommended applying fertilizer inside the rows of each crop, and weeds control is strongly recommended for good root development and high fertilizer use efficiency by crops for high yield.
Response of wheat yield components in global climatic zones to the warming during reproductive period
GAO Mei-ling, TANG Ling-yun, WU Zheng-xiao, ZHANG Xu-bo, SUN Zhi-gang, SUN Nan, GAO Yong-hua, ZHANG Chong-yu
2019, 25(7): 1247-1256.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18247
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Objectives Climate warming, especially during the reproductive period of wheat, has an important influence on the growth and development of wheat. However, the influence of high temperature during the reproductive period on wheat yields and yield components in different climatic regions has not yet been systematically quantified. Therefore, it is important to summarize and analyze the effect of temperature increment in reproductive stage on the growth and development of wheat in different climatic regions. This paper explores the differences in effects of warming at different intervals of day and night on wheat yield and its components, in order to provide a corresponding strategy for dealing with the impact of climate warming on wheat production. Methods This study collected and selected 61 articles mainly focus on the effect of experimental warming on wheat yield and its typical physiological indicators. Meta-analysis was used to quantify the influence of 0–5℃ and 5–10℃ warming during reproductive stage of wheat on the yield and its components in various climatic regions, and to elucidate the differences in the effects of warming on wheat yield in various intervals during day and night. Results The temperature increase of 0–5℃ during the wheat reproductive stage had a significant negative effect on wheat yield and its components. Wheat yield was reduced by 11.7%, and 1000-grain weight, grains per spike, and panicle numbers per area were reduced by 7.4%, 5.0% and 3.5%, respectively. The response of wheat reduction for yield to 0–5℃ and 5–10℃ warming in different climatic regions was ordered as: subtropical monsoon climate (15.2% and 38.8%) > temperate maritime climate and temperate continental climate (14.9% and 30.6%) > Mediterranean climate (10.6% and 15.6%) > temperate monsoon climate (9.3% and 10.2%); whereas for thousand grain weight, the order was: temperate continental climate (24.7% and 21.1%) and temperate monsoon climate (10.5% and 28.0%) > temperate maritime climate (9.7% and 15.0%). Especially during the reproductive period, the degree of 5–10℃ warming decreased the wheat yield components more than that of 0–5℃ in the subtropical monsoon climate and temperate monsoon climate. In addition, the decrease of wheat yield caused by nighttime warming during reproductive period was 14.7%, greater than that during daytime (11.3%). Conclusions The wheat yield reduction during reproductive period in different climatic regions is caused mainly by the significant decrease of thousand grain weight and grain numbers per spike. The negative effect of nighttime warming on wheat yield in reproductive period is greater than that during daytime. The results of this study can provide a new perspective for wheat breeding in the future, as well as a scientific basis for coping with climate change and maintaining or increasing wheat yield.
Optimization of parameters using modified recycling oil for preparation of degradable polyurethane coating material of slow-release fertilizer
WANG Qian, XIONG Yu-zhu, LUO Hui-yuan, JIANG Meng, ZHANG Qing-po, XIE Lan
2019, 25(7): 1257-1264.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18303
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Objectives The polyurethane, synthesized directly from the purified recycled cooking oils, is weak in hot and humid resistance, and not qualified for fertilizers coating materials. In this paper, a silane coupling agent γ-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (KH550) was introduced in the process of polyurethane synthesis, and the availability of the modified coating materials for making coated fertilizer was tested. Methods The oil used was collected from the restaurants in Guiyang. The oil was firstly purified with phosphorous acid, distilled water, NaOH and NaCl in turn. Then the oil was pre-modified by peracetic acid and ethylene glycol. The pre-modified oil was mixed in different ratios with KH550 to form mixtures containing KH550 of 0, 10%, 20% and 30%. Urea was coated with the above PUs in rate of 3% of urea weight to make slow-release fertilizers. The nitrogen release period of the coated fertilizers was determined using modified Oertli method. Results 1) The recycled oil was achieved when the recovered oil was treated with multi-step purification, and it maintained the molecular structure of carbon-carbon double bonds groups. 2) After pre-modification of recycled oil, it supplied the hydroxyl groups for the synthesis of polyurethane. 3) The experimental results showed that KH550 was successfully introduced and amended PUs coating material was synthesized. 4) Compared with the unmodified PUs, the hydrophobicity of modified PUs was increased by 48%–74%; the coating porosity was reduced by 31%–54%; the thermal stability was increased by 3%–11% atT5%, 6%–32% atT50%, and 4%–11% atT80%. As a result, the N cumulative release rate of modified PCUs was significantly reduced. The N cumulative release of modified PCUs was less than 70% on the 30 th day, which was considerably lower than the rate of unmodified PCUs (90%). 5) When the content of KH550 was 20%, the water contact angle was the biggest (113.31o), and the porosity was the lowest (10.91%). The comprehensive performance of PCUs was the best. Conclusions A novel bio-based polyurethanes has been synthesized by pre-modified recycled oil and the introduce of silane coupling agent in the process of polyurethane synthesis. Using the modified polyurethanes containing 20% of KH550 as coating material, cumulative N release is less than 70% on the 30 th day, proving the prospect of the practical use of the modified polyurethanes.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 21(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(4286) PDF 2130KB(1914)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 22(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(3570) PDF 2629KB(15526)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 22(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(4403) PDF 1767KB(1060)
Effects of green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 21(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(3632) PDF 1194KB(724)
Effects of long-term straw return on soil fertility, nitrogen pool fractions and crop yields on a fluvo-aquic soil in North China
ZHAO Shi-cheng, CAO Cai-yun, LI Ke-jiang, QIU Shao-jun, ZHOU Wei, HE Ping
2014, 22(6): 1441-1449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0614
Abstract(3323) PDF 1272KB(969)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 22(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(2813) PDF 1228KB(1253)
Effects of organic fertilization on soil nutrient, enzyme activity and crop productivity in semi-arid areas of southern Ningxia
ZHANG Peng, JIA Zhi-kuan, LU Wen-tao, ZHANG Xiao-fang, SUN Hong-xia, YANG Bao-ping
2011, 19(5): 1122-1130.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.1105
Abstract(3493) PDF 1203KB(1491)
Effects of different organic fertilization on fertilityand enzyme activities of yellow clayey soil
RONG Qin-lei, LIANG Guo-qing, ZHOU Wei, LIU Dong-hai, WANG Xiu-bin, SUN Jing-wen, LI Shuang-lai, HU Cheng
2014, 22(5): 1168-1177.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0513
Abstract(2291) PDF 1238KB(1023)
Effects of long-term straw-returning on corn yield, economic benefit and water use in arid farming areas
ZHOU Huai-ping, XIE Wen-yan, GUAN Chun-lin, YANG Zhen-xin, LI Hong-mei
2013, 21(2): 321-330.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0207
Abstract(3956) PDF 1106KB(650)
Effect of potassium application and straw returning on spring maize yield, nutrient absorption and soil potassium balance
XIE Jia-gui, HOU Yun-peng, YIN Cai-xia, KONG Li-li, QIN Yu-bo, LI Qian, WANG Li-chun*
2014, 22(5): 1110-1118.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0507
Abstract(3269) PDF 1138KB(1077)