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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Effects of green manure on yield and nitrogen utilization of double rice under reduced 20% chemical fertilizer input in Jiangxi province
ZHANG Lei, XU Chang-xu, LIU Jia, LI Shun, GAO Song-juan, CAO Wei-dong
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021508
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  Objectives  Utilizing green manure is an important method for reducing chemical fertilizer application. In green manure-rice cropping system, the characteristics of soil nitrogen (N) supply and rice crop N uptake are still unclear.   Methods  The field experiment was conducted in Jiangxi double-cropping rice area. Under the condition that the amount of N, P and K fertilizers for early rice was reduced by 20%, we set up winter planting with fresh milk vetch incorporation at 15000 (G1F80), 22500 (G1.5F80), 30000 (G2F80), and 37500 (G2.5F80) kg/hm2, as well as winter fallow and late rice with no chemical fertilization as control (CK), winter milk vetch and rice with no chemical fertilization (GM), and winter fallow with conventional fertilization (F100). Rice yield, plant N uptake, N fertilizer use efficiency, and soil inorganic N content during rice growing stages were assessed, while the relationships between soil properties, rice yield, and plant N uptake were analyzed.   Results  Compared with F100, G1F80 treatment significantly increased the yield of early rice by 11.64%; G2F80 treatment of late rice significantly increased yield by 7.81%; G1F80, G1.5F80 and G2F80 treatments significantly increased the total yield of double rice by 5.79%, 5.38% and 7.17%. Compared with F100, other treatments with different incorporation amounts of milk vetch did not reduce the rice yield. Utilization of milk vetch combined with 80% chemical fertilizer significantly increased the N uptake of early rice, the N fertilizer use efficiency of early rice and the partial productivity of early rice, and increased soil total N and organic matter at the harvest stages of early rice and late rice. In the booting stage of early rice, harvest stage of early rice and harvest stage of late rice, the soil ammonium N content of G2.5F80 treatment was significantly higher than that of F100, and was the highest among all treatments. From the booting to harvest stage of early rice, the N accumulation rate of each green manuring treatments was positive, indicating that the N uptake of rice plants increased. However, the N accumulation rate of F100 was negative, indicating that the N uptake of rice decreased. During the growth period of rice, when the incorporation amount of milk vetch was less than 22500 kg/hm2, the N uptake of rice plants increased with the increase of incorporation amount, and the amount of N uptake was significantly reduced when the incorporation amount was greater than 22500 kg/hm2. Soil available potassium content had the largest contribution rate to rice yield and N uptake. The contribution rate of soil available K to early rice yield and N uptake by early rice were 35.17% and 40.16%, and to late rice yield and N uptake were 21.22% and 25.22%, and to double-cropping rice yield and N uptake were 34.83% and 27.86%, respectively.  Conclusions  Under the condition of 20% reduction of fertilizer, planting and incorporating appropriate amount of milk vetch can improve the N uptake of early rice and increase rice yield. Incorporating a high amount of milk vetch is beneficial to soil carbon and N pools and improve soil N supply capacity. Based on various analyses, incorporation of milk vetch at 30000 kg/ha in the double rice area of Jiangxi province was the best.
Effects of straw returning on microbial necromass carbon in black soil under long-term fertilization
LI Ting-yu, LIU Xu, LIU Yao-cen, QU Tian-ru, PENG Chang, ZHU Ping, GE Zhuang, LI Shuang-yi
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021512
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  Objectives  To study the effects of long-term fertilization and straw returning on the content of biomarker amino sugars in black soil. The current research seeks to provide some theoretical support for regulating soil carbon cycle.  Methods  The long-term test on the black soil of Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences was established in 1990, and the soils were collected from the treatment of no fertilizer control(CK), inorganic fertilizer(NPK), and organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizer treatment(MNPK) in a containerized experiment that was conducted in 2018. Adding 6000 kg/hm2 of corn stalks with 1 cm length(CKS, NPKS, MNPKS) and not adding corn stalk (CK, NPK, MNPK) were set in each soil sample, making a total of 6 treatments, which were placed in PVC frames with the height of 0.9 m in length, 0.6 m in width, and 0.6 m in height after mixing. And the upper end of the PVC frame was 20 cm above the ground. Soil samples were taken from the PVC frame that was buried in the soil for 60 days (in summer) and 150 days (in autumn) were taken to determine the physical and chemical properties as well as the contents of GluN, GalN, and MurN, on this basis, the contents of fungal necromass carbon and bacterial necromass carbon were calculated.  Results  Compared with CK, inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizer treatment promoted the accumulation of amino sugars in soil. On the 60th day, GluN content increased significantly by 18.81% and 105.36%, respectively; MurN content increased significantly by 19.62% and 129.30%, respectively. Both fertilization methods increased the content of microbial necromass carbon in soil, moreover, the accumulation of microbial necromass carbon in the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer was twice as high as that in CK. The content of fungal necromass carbon was notably higher than that of bacterial necromass carbon, both fertilization treatments reduced the proportion of fungal necromass carbon to microbial necromass carbon, this shows that fertilization increases the contribution of bacteria to soil organic carbon accumulation in this process. After straw incorporation, the percentage of glucosamine in inorganic fertilization treatment in the total glucosamine content increased significantly, and the percentage of fungi derived glucosamine in organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizer treatment also increased gradually on the 60th and 150th day.   Conclusions  The treatment of organic fertilizer combined with chemical fertilizer after straw addition promotes the accumulation of microbial necromass carbon in black soil. The combination of chemical fertilizer and straw addition improves the ratio of fungal necromass carbon to microbial necromass carbon. Therefore, fertilization and straw returning will change the composition of microbial community in soil, which will affect the accumulation characteristics of microbial residues.
Effects of different forms of nitrogen addition on N2O emissions from the soil of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) forest
JIANG Wen-ting, TIAN Li-bin, ZHU Gao-di, TANG Rong-gui, LIN Yong-xin, Pan Lin-qiang, CAI Yan-jiang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021492
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  Objectives  Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission is one of the main ways of nitrogen (N) loss in subtropical region, and the effects of different forms of nitrogen compounds on soil N2O emission were investigated in this study.   Methods  A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted using soil from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) forest. The N fertilizer treatments were addition of KNO3, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl with equal mole of N input, KCl was added for comparison of K+ and Cl, and no N addition was set as the control (CK). The soil N2O emission rate, NH4+-N, NO3-N, soluble organic carbon (DOC) and water-soluble N (WSN) concentrations were measured after 0.5 h, 1 day (d), 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d and 60 d incubation. On the 14th day of incubation, the gene abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA), nirS, nirK, nosZ I and nosZ II were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR.  Results  The N fertilizers and KCl addition significantly increased soil DOC concentration, while NH4NO3 and NH4Cl addition significantly increased soil WSN concentration and decreased soil pH after 60 days of incubation. Both N and KCl additions increased soil AOA, AOB, and nirK gene abundance, but decreased nosZ I and nosZ II gene abundance. The N2O emission in all the treatments reached peaks at the 14th day of incubation. Compared with CK, KNO3, NH4NO3, NH4Cl, and KCl increased cumulative N2O emissions by 524.3%, 771.1%, 652.7%, and 98.6%, respectively. The N2O emission rates were positively correlated with NO3, WSN, and nirK gene abundance and negatively correlated with pH and nosZ I and nosZ II gene abundance.  Conclusions  The addition of NH4+-N caused higher soil N2O emission than NO3-N in Moso bamboo forest. The simultaneous input of NH4+-N and NO3-N, like NH4NO3, promoted higher emission than their individual inputs, but less than that of the sum of KNO3 and NH4Cl.
Changes in aggregate distribution and molecular composition of organic matter of topsoil across soil landscapes within a small watershed in a rural area
LIU Chun, ZHAO Zheng, LIU Xiao-yu, LONG Guo-gang, CHEN Shuo-tong, LIN Qing-mei, CHEN Jing-long, BAO Xu-hua, BIAN Rong-jun, ZHENG Ju-feng, LI Lian-qing, PAN Gen-xing
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021503
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  Objectives  We explored the changes in distribution among aggregate fractions and in chemical composition of soil organic matter of topsoil across different soil landscapes within a small watershed in a rural hilly region. This provides a new perspective for the dynamics of soil organic carbon at different degradation levels in this region.  Methods  Undisturbed topsoil (0–15cm) cores were sampled in protected forest land (FL), orchard (OR), dry cropland (DL) and paddy field (PF) within a small rural watershed in Lishui District, Nanjing Municipality, Jiangsu Province, China. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content was measured for bulk sample, macroaggregates (250–2000 μm), microaggregates (250–53μm), silt-clay fraction (<53μm). Subsequently, bulk topsoil was subject to extraction sequentially by total solvent (TSE), base hydrolysis (BHY) and copper oxide oxidation (CUO) to obtain free lipids, bound lipids and lignin phenols, which were analyzed for biomarker molecules abundances with GC/MS detection and Shannon diversity index.   Results  Compared to FL, bulk topsoil SOC content in OR, DL and PF decreased by 70%, 57%, and 51%, respectively; macroaggregate SOC decreased by 85%, 71% and, 79.2%, respectively; microaggregate decreased SOC 81%, 74%, and 67%, respectively; silt-clay fraction SOC decreased by 48%,18%, and 3% , respectively. The range of molecular abundance of free lipids, bound lipids and lignin phenols were 2.2–6.7 mg/(g SOC), 3.5–6.2 mg/(g SOC) and 4.8–14.9 mg/(g SOC), respectively. Across the studied soil landscapes, the total abundance of biomarker molecules in these extractions was generally in an order: FL>PF>OR>DL. Although total abundance of biomarker molecules of lignin phenols was similar between FL and DF. Furthermore, relative to FL, the molecular abundance of fatty acids, alkanols, steroids and terpenoids reduced at OR, DL and PF, while those of alkanes, microbial lipids and alkanols significantly increased. Of the bound lipids, there was a higher abundance of hydroxy acids in FL and OR while abundance of alkanoic acids peaked in DL and PF. In addition, the Shannon index of molecular diversity of free and bound lipids were higher at FL and PF than at OR and DL while that of lignin phenols was highest at PF, followed by DL, lowest at OR and FL.   Conclusions  Topsoil SOC varied in a wide range not only in amount and aggregate fraction distribution but also in molecular composition assessed by biomarkers detection. Compared to protected forestland, we observed a significant reduction of total SOC, aggregates-associated SOC, molecular diversity of extracted biomarkers, while microbial derived OCs relatively increased. However, SOC and molecular diversity were higher in paddy fields than in dry croplands. Suitable soil management especially the input of organic materials is an important way to improve the soil health of cropland.
The optimum combination of controlled-release potassium chloride and irrigation for efficient greenhouse tomato production
HAO Miao, QU Zhao-ming, LI Bing, NIU Guo-liang, WANG Long-lin, LI Cheng-liang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021500
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  Objectives  Fertilizer and water are the two important inputs for efficient crop production. Excessive fertilization is the main cause of soil salinization under facility cultivation. Here, we studied the potential of reducing potassium input using controlled-release potassium chloride fertilizer (CR-KCl) and a matching irrigation level.  Methods  A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, using tomato cultivar ‘Luo la’ as test material. The two controls were no K application and conventional KCl (K2O 0.95 g/kg) application under 90%–100% field capacity irrigation (CK, CF). The nine fertilizer and water combination treatments comprised three CR-KCl dosages [100% (K100), 80% (K80), and 60% (K60) of CF)] and three irrigation levels [90%–100% (W100), 72%–80% (W80), and 54%–60% (W60) of the field capacity]. Leaf photosynthetic efficiency, soil pH, and EC were measured during the main growth stage of the tomato. Also, the tomato yield and quality were investigated.   Results  Under the same irrigation level, the tomato’s average fruit yield and water efficiency were K80>K10>K60. Compared with K100 and K60, K80 (P<0.05) increased tomato K uptake (plant and fruit) by 3.4%–7.8%, Vc by 3.4%–3.9%, soluble sugar by 2.2%–6.5%, soluble solid by 3.5%–7.4%, enhanced the net photosynthetic rate by 4.3%–10.9%, stomatal conductance by 6.5%–11.9%, and transpiration rate by 3.6%–9.5%. Under the same CR-K rate and compared with W100 and W60, W80 (P<0.05) increased tomato yield by 9.8%–16.0%, K utilization efficiency by 6.3%–7.1%, Vc by 6.8%–24.0%, soluble sugar by 5.6%–8.8%, soluble solid by 6.6%–9.2%, net photosynthetic rate by 4.1%–10.3%, transpiration rate by 8.4%–16.6%, SPAD value at flowering, fruit enlargement, and ripening by 4.8%–12.0%, 1.7%–9.4% and 4.6%–14.5%, soil pH value by 0.9%–2.1%, and EC value decreased by 4.9%–8.2%. Among the 9 CR-KCl and irrigation combinations, K80W80 achieved the highest yield and quality, and K and water use efficiencies were also high. Except for K60W100, tomato fruit yield and water use efficiency were (P<0.05) higher in other treatments than CK and CF.  Conclusions  Controlled-release KCl and irrigation affected tomato’s yield, quality, and photosynthetic efficiency. The optimum combination of controlled-release KCl and irrigation was 20% less K2O dosage in the one-time basal application and irrigation level of 72%–80% field water capacity (W80). This combination had the highest fruit yield and quality, improved soil pH, reduced EC value, and high fertilizer and water use efficiency.
Research advances on how soybean and maize influence nitrogen supply in subsequent crops
GENG Sai-nan, LI Lan-tao, TAN Jin-fang, WANG Yi-lun
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021498
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  Objective  s]We reviewed the effects of soybean and maize production on the soil’s physical properties and nitrogen supply capacity to subsequent crops from crop root morphology and residual nutrient availability. We aim to examine how soil texture could increase the rotational system’s productivity and sustain soil fertility.   Major advances   Soybean roots are reticular in shape with many branches and lateral roots. New roots rapidly replace the old roots during the whole growing period. This stabilizes the soil texture and shows a multistage complex form rich in internal aggregate pores, conducive to the root development of the subsequent crops. After soybean cultivation, the ensuing stable soil aggregate structure lays a good foundation for soil N cycling, such as increasing the total soil organic nitrogen mineralization and transformation and enhancing the potential of soil N supply to the subsequent crops. Maize requires a high N fertilizer application, leading to a corresponding high residual N in the soil. The residual N is mainly in the form of NO3-N and microbial nitrogen. NO3-N is unstable and easily lost in soils, reducing its availability for use by subsequent crops. Soybean straw has a low C/N ratio and is easily utilized by soil microorganisms after returning to the field, accelerating the soil N cycle and N use by subsequent crops. Soybean roots have many dead root nodules, sediments formed by roots during the growth process, high levels of root exudates such as glycine and serine, and a low C/N ratio of sediments. This further increases their mineralization and transformation into an important N source for later crops. Therefore, the N supply capacity of soils after soybean cultivation is better than maize.   Expectations   A beneficial crop rotation should consider the key factors capable of improving the efficient utilization of residual soybean nitrogen (N), N management for minimal loss after maize production, and the mechanism of root-soil microbial interaction during N transfer and transformation. Since straw decomposition can accelerate soil organic carbon decomposition, reducing greenhouse gas emissions such as annual CO2 and improving soil carbon sink are worthy of future research.
Adverse effects of superabsorbent polymers on crop growth and the underlying mechanisms
SITU Yan-jie, WEI You-ming, YANG Jun-ying, MAO Xiao-yun, LIAO Zong-wen, CHEN Xian
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021586
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Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) is an effective measure to improve drought resistance of crops. However, slightly excessive application rate will lead to adverse effects, such as decline of seed germination rate, yield decrease, poor root growth and so on. The indirect causes of the adverse effects could be the competition for soil moisture by crops and reduced soil aeration. The direct cause of the adverse effects is the inhibition of crop growth caused by the residual water-soluble components in SAPs, such as acrylic acid and sodium. Acrylic acid is toxic to animals and plants, but its quick degradation under normal moisture conditions lessens its danger. However, if SAPs absorb water and form gel in soil, the half-life of acrylic acid in the gel will be greatly elongated, and might damage the crops. Most studies on the possible direct damage of monomers in SAPs were conducted under normal soil moisture conditions. Therefore, the safe and effective application of SAPs still needs to be studied under drought conditions. The safe concentration and threshold for crop growth, the degradation kinetics of monomer components under drought conditions, and the toxicity of degraded monomers to soil, animals and plants under drought conditions need to be extensively studied. The degradation, dilution and diffusion characteristics of harmful components in SAPs under different soil conditions and the risk in different crop growing periods are also unclear. The limitations of the residual quantity of monomer should be considered in current industrial standard of SAPs, so as to provide guidance for the safe use of SAPs. In general, the safe and efficient application of polymers rely on the screening of SAPs with low biotoxicity of monomers, the optimized synthesis parameters to reduce the residue of monomers, and the specified application methods.
Impacts of exogenous potassium and sodium ions on soil aggregates and organic carbon mineralization in Loessial soil
NIU Jin-can, ZHANG Li-na, ZHANG Ya-mei, XU Jia-xing, ZHANG Shu-lan, YANG Xue-yun
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021501
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  Objectives  Evaluating the negative effects of monovalent cations on aggregate stability and soil organic carbon mineralization could improve the rational use of organic supplements in arable land.   Methods  We spiked a gradient of potassium (K+: 0, 120, 200, 280, 370, 540 mg/kg), sodium (Na+: 90, 180, 270 mg/kg), and sodium at a specific potassium level (based on adding 370 mg/kg K+, adding 0, 90 and 180 mg/kg Na+ ) to soil subjected to synthetic nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers for 30 years and incubated the soils at 25℃ for 105 days. We separated the soil aggregates at the end of the incubation, measured soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization dynamics, and modelled SOC mineralization with a double exponential model.  Results  The proportion of 0.25–2 mm and > 2 mm aggregates in all treatments was (P<0.05) higher than 0.053–0.25 mm aggregates and < 0.053 mm fraction, accounting for 42.0%–52.7% and 26.0%–38.8% of the total. K+, Na+ or both treatments tended to decrease the proportion of > 2 mm aggregates while increasing the proportion of 0.25–2 mm aggregates and < 0.053 mm fraction. Consequently, the mean weight diameter (MWD) and geological mean diameter (GMD) were reduced, especially for treatments spiked with a sodium gradient at a specific potassium level. The treatments with both K+ and Na+ addition had no significant (P>0.05) effect except that adding 120 mg/kg K+ and 180 mg/kg Na+ reduced the amount of organic carbon mineralization. For treatments spiked with K+ and Na+, the cumulative mineralization of organic carbon decreased with increasing Na+ concentration by 1.2% to 22.3%. The double exponential model predicts the mineralization dynamics of organic carbon. The simulation results showed that all treatments spiked with K+, Na+ or both increased the mineralization of activated carbon pool (Ca) and decreased stable carbon pool (Cs). It reduced the activated carbon pool's mineralization constant (Ka) rate and increased that of the stable carbon pool (Ks). Simultaneously, all treatments increased the proportion of Ca in total organic carbon mineralization (Ra) and decreased that of Cs (Rs). Redundancy analysis showed that the cumulative mineralization of organic carbon was (P<0.05) and positively correlated with GMD and negatively correlated with cation ratio of soil structural stability (CROSS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).  Conclusions  The addition of potassium and sodium ions affects soil aggregates and reduces the latter’s MWD and GMD values. Therefore, the mineralization of stable organic carbon was inhibited, and the mineralization of active organic carbon increased. This may be why soil organic matter increased due to potassium fertilizer application.
Study on the suitable nitrogen application rate on spring maize under the background of full straw mulching in black soil area of central Jilin Province
LI Xing-ji, WANG Ling, CHENG Song, LIU Jian-zhao, WANG Yi-lin, PANG Na, LIANG Yao, ZHANG Shui-mei, REN Jun, CAI Hong-guang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021499
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  Objectives  This study investigated the suitable N application rate, accumulation, and distribution characteristics of spring maize in the black soil region of central Jilin Province. Maize straw was returned to the field in full for many years.   Methods  This experiment was conducted in Gongzhuling City, Jilin Province, from 2017 to 2019. The main plot was nitrogen level at 0(N0), 60(N60), 120(N120), 180(N180), 240(N240), 300(N300), and 360 (N360) kg/hm2. The subplot was variety. The dry matter, nitrogen uptake and yield composition of maize organs at different growth stages were measured in Fumin 985 (FM985) and Xiangyu 211 (XY211).   Results  Increasing N fertilizer application (P<0.05) affected maize yield, with differences across the years, varieties, and their interactions. N0 treatment yield decreased across the years, and the yield in 2017 was 10.9% and 26.2% lower than in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The yield differences between N180 and N0 in 2017 was 23.2% and increased to 55.1% in 2019. XY211 yield was higher than FM985 from 2017 to 2019; the suitable N application rate for XY211 was slightly higher than FM985. The dry matter accumulation in spring maize increased at first and subsequently decreased with an increase in N level. The dry matter accumulation in stem and leaf and N accumulation in the treatments reached the maximum value from silking to filling stage. The dry matter accumulation in stem, leaf, and grain under N180 was the highest at the maturity stage. Under different N application levels, the distribution ratio of N accumulation from flowering to maturity stage increased first and then decreased. There were (P<0.05) differences in the total N content based on the straw theory. The amount of N returned by straws increased gradually across the years. In 2017, the quantity of N re-entry under N300 treatment was the highest (68.9 kg/hm2), surpassing N0 and N360 treatments by 155.0% and 15.2%, respectively. In 2019, N re-entry under N240 treatment was the highest (109.9 kg/hm2), exceeding N0 and N360 treatments by 156.7% and 33.4%, respectively. The fitted models for 2017 and 2019 showed that maize's optimal economic yield and N fertilizer dosage were 13028 kg/hm2 and 162 kg/hm2, respectively.   Conclusions  The practice of returning straw to the black soil in Jilin has been in existence for a long time. Although inter-annual conditions and varieties affect maize yield, nitrogen fertilizer remains important for high and stable maize yield. Using the appropriate quantity of N fertilizer was beneficial to increasing dry matter accumulation and distribution of maize from the silking to filling stage, thereby increasing maize yield. The optimal N application rate to maintain maize yield at 12–13 t/hm2 was 160–165 kg/hm2.
Maize yield stability, soil nitrogen distribution and accumulation under long-term fertilization in brown soil
LIU Yu-ying, DAI Jian, YANG Jin-feng, LUO Pei-yu, LI Na, REN Bin-bin, AN Ning, HAN Xiao-ri
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021470
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  Objectives  The effects of long-term fertilization on maize yield stability, soil mineral nitrogen (N) distribution and accumulation were studied.   Methods  This study was based on data collected from a 40-year (1979 to 2018) field experiment located at Shenyang Agricultural University. Treatments on the field included non-fertilization (CK), application of N fertilizer alone (N), application of N and phosphorus (P) fertilizers (NP), application of N, P, and potassium (K) fertilizers (NPK), application of manure alone at a low rate (M1) and with chemical fertilizers (M1N, M1NP, and M1NPK), application of manure alone at a high rate (M2) and with chemical fertilizers (M2N, M2NP, and M2NPK). Plant and soil samples were taken during maize harvesting in 2018 to illustrate crop N uptake, mineral N distribution and accumulation within 0-100 cm soil depth, and microbial biomass N (MBN) concentration within 0-40 cm soil layers.   Results  Maize yield fluctuated across the treatments over the period, but was more stable during the period of 1979-1997 compared with 1997-2018. The highest average maize yield which was found under M1NPK and M2NPK treatments were 10.3% and 11.7% higher than that found under NPK treatment in the early 20 years and 17.1% and 19.4% higher in the late 20 years. The stability of maize yield increased with the increase in experimental years. Sustainable yield index (SYI) of maize with manure application was higher than that with chemical fertilizer alone. The contribution rate of fertilizer was greater in treatments with manure than those with chemical fertilizer alone and was highest being 54% at M2NPK treatment. Combined application of chemical fertilizer and manure at a low rate decreased mineral N within 100 cm soil layer. Application of manure at a high rate increased mineral N residual in 0-100 cm soil layer by 324.5% and 172.9% compared with those in plots with chemical fertilizer alone and combined application of chemical fertilizer and manure at a low rate, respectively. Additionally, Both low and high manure application rates similarly enhanced MBN concentration in 0-40 cm soil.   Conclusions  Long-term fertilization influenced yield stability, changed N distribution and accumulation in soil, and thus impacted maize N uptake. Combined application of manure at 13.5 t/hm2 with N, P, and K fertilizers enhanced maize N uptake, reduced mineral N accumulation in 0-100 cm soil, which decreased N losses to the environment. The increased MBN concentration become potential N storage in soil to ensure a high and stable maize yield and friendly environment.
Biochar application increased the stability and renewal rate of organic matter in Mollisols
LONG Jie-qi, MIAO Shu-jie, LI Na, HAO Xiang-xiang, QIAO Yun-fa
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021290
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  Objectives  Biochar application has become one of the important agronomic strategies for increasing soil fertility. We studied the distribution of organic matter in various soil aggregates, and the variation of chemical structures of organic matter across density fractions, to understand the effect of biochar application on carbon sequestration potential of farmland soil.   Methods  The long-term experiment of biochar application was located in the Hailun Agricultural Ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which started from 2011. Soil samples were collected from the plots of applying biochar (+BC) and without biochar (−BC). Total concentration of soil organic carbon was analyzed with conventional method. Subsamples were divided into four aggregate classes as > 2 mm, 0.25–2 mm, 0.053–0.25 mm and < 0.053 mm and determined soil organic carbon in them. Moreover, subsamples were divided into free light fraction (LF), occluded light fraction (OF) and mineral-associated fraction (MF) according to their density. The concentration and characteristics of infrared spectrum of soil organic carbon in aggregates and density fraction were determined by Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy.   Results  Compared to -BC treatment, +BC treatment increased the concentrations of soil organic matter (SOM) in bulk soil, free light fraction (LF) and occluded light fraction (OF) by 19.72%, 73.50%, and 192.66%, respectively. +BC treatment increased the concentrations of SOM by 14.01% and 12.11% in >2 mm and 2-0.25 mm aggregates, respectively. Among the main functional groups in bulk soil, +BC treatment decreased the relative abundances of aromatic C=C and carbonyl C=O by 18.18% and 21.95%, respectively, while increased other groups. In >2 mm aggregate, +BC treatment increased the relative abundance of aliphatic −CH by 55.11%, but decreased the aromatic C=C by 17.06%, leading to the increase in −CH/C=C and −CH/C=O ratios. In <0.25 mm aggregate, +BC treatment increased the relative abundance of aromatic C=C by 27.63%−49.83%, but reduced the aliphatic −CH by 16.58%−20.80%, leading to the decrease in −CH/C=C and −CH/C=O ratios. Compared to −BC treatment, +BC treatment increased the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH and aromatic −C=C in the three density fractions, and the -CH/C=C ratio in OF by 74.19%.   Conclusions  Biochar application increased significantly soil organic matter content, which led to more aliphatic groups in macro-aggregates and improved stability of micro-aggregates. The increment of relative abundance of aliphatic -CH in occluded fraction was the highest across density fractions, which enhanced the turnover of soil organic matter.
The effect of combined nitrogen and potassium application on photosynthesis and nitrogen allocation in photosynthetic organs of winter rape (Brassica napus L.) silique wall
LI Jing, ZHOU Yang-guo, LU Zhi-feng, CONG Ri-huan, LI Xiao-kun, REN Tao, LU Jian-wei
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021479
Abstract(107) FullText HTML(40) Related Articles
  Objectives  As a typical non-leaf organ, silique wall photosynthesis is an important complement to photosynthesis in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and a crucial carbon source for building yield in the late growth stage. This study aims to clarify the effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and their interaction on silique morphology, photosynthetic characteristics, and N allocation in photosynthetic organs. We also investigated the mechanism of photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE) of the silique wall.  Methods  Four N application rates at 0 (N0), 90 (N90), 180 (N180), and 270 kg/hm2 (N270) and two K2O rates at 0 (K0) and 120 kg/hm2 (K120), were used in a two-factor field experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments: N0K0, N0K120, N90K0, N90K120, N180K0, N180K120, N270K0, N270K120, and each treatment was repeated three times. The photosynthetic and physiological parameters of silique were evaluated to calculate N allocation in the photosynthetic organs (carboxylation, electron transport, and light capture system). These include morphological parameters, net photosynthetic rate (An), N and K nutrient concentration, PNUE and maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax).  Results  Compared with N0K0, the number of siliques per plant improved by 1.7–3.0 times, while silique length and area increased by 12.1%–30.2% and 9.9%–43.8%, respectively, after the combined application of N and K fertilizers. Silique wall's N content was reduced by 19.5% after K fertilization at different N application rates. Under different levels of K application, the K content of the silique wall decreased by an average of 20.9% after N fertilization. Stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), Vcmax, and An increased by 11.1%, 158.8%, 88.2% and 115.0% after N and K supplementation, in contrast to N0K0. Compared with N0, the photosynthetic system's N pool of the silique wall increased by 51.1% after N application. However, the N allocation ratio in the carboxylation system (Ncb) and electron transfer system (Net) decreased by 8.4 and 2.5 percentage points, and PNUE reduced by 21.1%. On the contrary, the photosynthetic N pool and allocation ratio of the silique wall increased by 28.7% and 15.6 percentage points, Ncb and Net pool improved by 35.9% and 31.4%, and the PNUE was accelerated by 65.7% after K fertilization compared with the K0. Compared with N0K0, although there was a small effect on the improvement of the N allocation ratio of the photosynthetic system in the siliques wall after the combined application of N and K, the N pool capacity of the photosynthetic system increased by 90.7%, which was much higher than the amelioration of the photosynthetic N pool with a single application of N or K fertilizer. PNUE was (P<0.05) positively related to the K concentration of silique wall and the N allocation ratio of each component in the photosynthetic system. In contrast, N concentration and the N to K ratio of silique wall was negatively correlated with the PNUE.  Conclusions  The combined application of N and K increased the photosynthetic area of the siliques wall, coordinated the balance of N and K nutrients, reduced the resistance to CO2 transmission, and promoted the photosynthetic N pool of the siliques wall and improved the N allocation ratio in the photosynthetic system, thus improving the photosynthetic capacity and optimizing PNUE in the siliques wall. Therefore, in actual production, it is necessary to apply reasonable N and K fertilizers to maximize individual photosynthetic potential, so as to improve population productivity and achieve the purpose of increasing production and efficiency.
The balanced supply of Na+ and Cl- has beneficial effects on dry biomass accumulation and nutrient quality formation of Pakchoi
ZHANG Wei-xia, GAO Shuang, WANG Jun-ling, CHEN Qian-qian, XUE Zhan-jun, GAO Zhi-kui
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021456
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  Objective  The optimum concentration of Na+ or Cl is beneficial to plant growth. Yet, it is unclear which one plays a dominant role and how the balanced relationship between the elements presents better beneficial effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to provide a reference for applying a low concentration of sodium chloride in leafy vegetable production.  Methods  The seeds of Pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee) were planted in a pot filled with a soilless matrix. Foliar application of Na+ and Cl was consecutively carried out at the 3-true-leaves stage for 21 days. The treatments were composed of three groups and three levels of [Na+] and [Cl]. The different groups are [Na+]=[ Cl] (B), with [Na+] and [Cl] at 6 mmol/L (B1), 12 mmol/L (B2), and 18 mmol/L (B3). The second group had [Na+]<[ Cl] (A), [Na+]∶[ Cl] at 0∶6 mmol/L (A1), 6∶12 mmol/L (A2), and 12∶18 mmol/L (A3). The third group had [Na+]>[ Cl] (C), with [Na+]∶[ Cl] at 6∶0 (C1), 12∶ 6 mmol/L (C2), and 18∶12 mmol/L (C3) , respectively. We sprayed deionized water simultaneously as control (CK). The leafy tissue structure was observed. The fresh and dry biomass, leaf photosynthetic activity, and free amino acid content were measured immediately after spraying.  Results  Compared with CK, all the [Na+] and [Cl] treatments (P<0.05) increased the fresh and dry biomass and leaf photosynthetic activity of Pakchoi. The [Na+]=[ Cl] group also increased the free amino acid content and leaf area, especially the middle and upper leaves. The highest dry and fresh biomass and leaf area were recorded in B2, which increased by 35.1%, 43.7%, and 33.4%, respectively. Cl favored water accumulation in the absence of Na+, while Na+ favored dry biomass accumulation in the absence of Cl. Both elements (Na+ and Cl) favored water accumulation. Na+ was more conducive to the accumulation of free amino acids than Cl (i.e. [Na+]>[Cl] , 52.6% ), Cl was more conducive to the accumulation of dry biomass and photosynthetic rate (i.e. [Na+]<[Cl], 17.3%) and stomatal conductance (i.e. [Na+]<[Cl], 145.3%) than Na+. A 2-factor intersubjective effect test showed both Na+ and Cl (P<0.05) affect the dry biomass, fresh weight, nutrients content, leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf gas exchange of Pakchoi at the main and interaction levels.  Conclusion  Foliar spraying of Na+ and Cl could promote the growth, dry biomass accumulation, and leaf photosynthetic activity of Pakchoi. Supplying [Na+] and [Cl] in equal amounts had a higher effect than unequal supply, and the optimum spraying concentration was NaCl 12 mmol/L.
Optimized nitrogen fertilizer management for potato in northern China based on the Nutrient Expert System
SHEN Ruo-chuan, DING Wen-cheng, HE Ping, QIU Shao-jun
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021397
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  Objectives  The nitrogen (N) management for potato production was optimized and verified, based on the Nutrient Expert System (NE), to provide a scientific and simple method for potato N fertilizer recommendation.   Methods  Potato field positioning experiments were carried out simultaneously in Gansu, Heilongjiang provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous region from 2017 to 2020. Based on the NE N application rate (180–186, 180, and 178–240 kg/hm2, respectively), four N fertilizer treatments were set up in Gansu, six in Heilongjiang and five in Inner Mongolia. The potato tuber yield, N uptake, N use efficiency, soil mineral N content, urease activity were measured.   Results  The potato yield with the N rate was fitted well by univariate conic model. The NE treatment elicited the highest potato yield and N uptake in Gansu, Heilongjiang, and Inner Mongolia. When the N application rate exceeded the NE treatment, the yield decreased significantly. Soil mineral N content increased significantly with increasing N application rate, and urease activity increased at first and then decreased with increasing N application rate, and higher mineral N content and urease activity could be obtained by NE treatment at each experimental site. The cumulative recovery rate of N fertilizer and agronomic efficiency decreased significantly with increasing N application rate. The four-year cumulative N fertilizer recovery rates of NE treatment in Gansu, Heilongjiang, and Inner Mongolia were 39.2%, 55.1%, and 53.1%, respectively, and each accumulated agronomic efficiency was 57.9, 87.6, and 68.3 kg/kg, respectively. Compared with the treatments with higher, the N recovery rates and agronomic efficiencies were significantly increased by 12.5, 21.8, 21.3 percentage point and 25.1, 40.5, 33.8 kg/kg, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between N apparent balance and N application rate, and the accumulated N input and expenditure in the four years of NE treatment tended to be balanced. The regression analysis of univariate conic model showed that the best N application rates for optimum yield in Gansu, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia were 186, 199, and 231 kg/hm2, respectively, and the economic optimum N application rates were 171, 192, and 220 kg/hm2, respectively.  Conclusions  The nitrogen application rates recommended by Nutrient Expert system does not only lead to high yield of potato, but also culminate into higher nitrogen use efficiency and economic benefits, and reduce the risk of N loss by reducing soil N surplus. It is proved that fertilization recommended by Nutrient Expert system can achieve high yield and efficiency of potato production in the mono cropping area of northern China.
Effects of inoculating thermophilic agent on accelerating composting fermentation of cow manure
LI Zai-xing, MA Jun, WU Xiao-sha, HUANG Ya-li, QIN Xue, TENG Zhi-nan, ZHAO Kai, ZHANG Fan
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021465
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  Objectives  The aim was to study the effects of adding thermophilic agents on the fermentation efficiency, lignocellulose degradation and compost quality during the composting of cow manure.  Methods  The fermentation were conducted using cow manure and corn stalks as raw materials. Testing thermophilic agents (GLL) are mainly composed of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Ureibacillus terrenus and Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, and two commercially available agents A, B for organic fertilizer fermentation set as controls while setting a blank control (CK) without inoculating agent, and the fermentation test is 30 days. The samples were obtained on 0, 3, 7, 12, 16, 23, 30 days in composting, dry samples were used for determination of lignocellulose content in composting, and fresh samples were used to determine moisture content, pH, EC value, seed germination index (GI), and bacterial community structures.   Results  The GLL treatment quickly warmed up to the hyperthermophilic period (85.8℃) within the composting for 2 days, and this period lasted for 5 days; the CK, A, B treatments entered the thermophilic period (56.3℃, 59.2℃, 57.6℃) of composting on the composting for 3 days, and this period respectively lasted for 10, 11, 13 days. The inoculation of GLL significantly reduced the moisture content of the compost to 34.3% at the end of the composting, and the CK, A, B treatments dropped to 45.4%, 43.8%, 44.6%, which did not meet moisture standard of the product. The content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in the GLL treatment decreased by 81.6%, 65.2% and 53.7% respectively compared to the initial value after composting, and the degradation capacity of lignocellulose significantly exceeded that of CK, A, and B treatments. During thermophilic even hyperthermophilic periods of composting, the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the bacteria increased to 46.6% in GLL treatment. The indicators of the compost i.e., the mass fraction of organic matter, total nutrients and mechanical impurities, pH and GI values, all met the requirements of NY/T 525—2021 after the hyperthermophilic fermentation by inoculating GLL agent.   Conclusions  Inoculating thermophilic agents can significantly increase the temperature during the composting, extend the duration of the thermophilic period, achieve hyperthermophilic composting, reduce the moisture content, and improve the degradation effect of lignocellulose, and quickly obtain the compost that met the requirements of NY/T 525—2021.
Regulation effect of wheat and maize straw biochar on rhizosphere soil enzyme activity and nutrient availability in loam and clay fluvo-aquic soils
GAO Ya, RAO Wei, JIE Hong-bin, ZHANG Wen-jing, NIU Ya-ru, YUAN Yi-lin, XU Guo-lian, ZHANG Wen-wen, ZHANG Deng-xiao, WANG Dai-chang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021407
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  Objectives  The effect of biochar on enhancing crop productivity and soil fertility is limited by soil and biochar properties. In this study, we explored the suitable utilization mode of biochar according to different soil conditions.  Methods  A pot experiment was conducted in loam and clay fluvo-aquic soils. The soils were treated with wheat straw biochar (WBC) and maize straw biochar (MBC). The physicochemical characteristics and extracellular enzyme activity of rhizosphere soil and maize growth, resistance, and nutrient absorption were examined.  Results  1) WBC enhanced maize seeding growth and improved root architecture in loam fluvo-aquic soil (P<0.05). Shoot biomass increased by 43.7%, and total root length increased by 34.3% in WBC under loam fluvo-aquic soil (P<0.05), compared with the other treatments. In the clay fluvo-aquic soil, biochar treatment showed little effect on maize seedling biomass and root system architecture. Our results show that biochar amendment could promote maize seeding growth in loam fluvo-aquic soil, and WBC was better than MBC. 2) Biochar soil amendment could improve maize resistance at the seedling stage. The two biochars decreased MDA content in maize leaf by 32.7%−55.3% in a similar manner. MBC increased the SOD enzyme activity in clay fluvo-aquic soil (P<0.05), while WBC had no effect. In contrast, SOD enzyme activity did not differ among the treatments in loam fluvo-aquic soil. 3) Biochar can promote the nutrient absorption of maize at the seedling stage. The two bioachar treatmens did not affect maize N content but increased P and K content in loam fluvo-aquic soil. Specifically, WBC increased P and K content by 23.5% and 29.4%. In clay fluvo-aquic soil, biochar showed no effect on maize N and P content, while MBC increased K content. 4) Biochar amendment improved soil fertility and increased extracellular enzyme activity. Compared with CK, MBC increased available phosphorus by 25.4% in loam fluvo-aquic soil, 8.2%−18.1% in clay fluvo-aquic soil, and increased soil CEC (P<0.05). Biochar increased the activity of extracellular enzymes related to C, N, and P cycling. There was no difference in extracellular enzymes activity in clay fluvo-aquic soil (P>0.05). Conversely, WBC recorded higher extracellular enzymes activity than MBC in loam fluvo-aquic soil.  Conclusions  The application of biochar to fluvo-aquic soil could improve maize productivity at the seeding stage, increase maize root architecture, and regulate soil nutrient cycling in the rhizosphere. This effect was better in loam fluvo-aquic soil than clay fluvo-aquic soil, and WBC had a higher effect than MBC.
Study on suitable application level of phosphorus and accumulation characteristics under full maize straw return to the field
PANG Na, CHENG Song, LI Xing-ji, HOU Jian-xun, LIANG Yao, ZHANG Shui-mei, REN Jun, LIU Jian-zhao, LIANG Yun-jiang, CAI Hong-guang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021485
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  Objectives  The effects of phosphorus (P) accumulation characteristics and maize yield under long-term full straw return to the field were investigated. We aim to provide a theoretical basis for the appropriate quantity of P fertilizer application under the condition of full straw returning.  Methods  The experiment was conducted in Gongzhuling City and Chaoyangpo Town of Jilin Province from 2017 to 2019, using a two-factor design. The main factor was P level (P2O5) at 0 kg/hm2 (P0), 45 kg/hm2 (P45), 90 kg/hm2 (P90), 135 kg/hm2 (P135), and 180 kg/hm2 (P180), respectively. The secondary factor was variety Fumin 985 (FM985) and Xiangyu 211 (XY211). P absorption, yield and composition of different parts at flowering and maturity stages were determined.  Results  The main and interaction effects of location, year, and P application levels (P<0.05) affected maize yield, panicle number, panicle grain number, and 100-grain weight. Further, the interaction of location, year, and phosphorus application (P<0.01) affected maize yield, panicle number, panicle grain number, and 100-grain weight. P90 had the highest yield, panicle number and 100-grain weight, which increased by 14.4%, 6.15%, and 5.78% compared with P0. P accumulation ratio before anthesis increased at both sites from 2017 to 2019, compared with P0. P90 and Chaoyangpo recorded the highest P accumulation ratio. Under P90, P accumulation increased by 24.5% and 15.5% in 2018 and 2019 than P0. Maize's P absorption, especially the accumulation of straw, was relatively stable and less affected by P levels. However, P accumulation in maize grains increased at first and then decreased. Compared with P0, P absorption in grains at Gongzhuling under P90 and P135 (P<0.05) increased in 2017 by 22.3% and 14.6%, respectively. From 2017 to 2019, the P absorption of grains in P90 at Chaoyangpo (P<0.05) increased from 7.03% to 12.5%. When the P application level was 90 kg/hm2, translocation rate and quantity and contribution rate to grain reached the highest level. According to the quadratic equation of one variable, the maximum yield of Gongzhuling and Chaoyangpo were 12161 kg/hm2 and 12435 kg/hm2, respectively, and the optimal economic fertilizer application was 77.2 kg/hm2 and 71.9 kg/hm2, respectively. The two sites' optimal economic P application rate was 74.6 kg/hm2.  Conclusions  90 kg P2O5/hm2 positively affected the P accumulation ratio before anthesis, P grain absorption, translocation rate and quantity, and contribution rate to grain. Full straw return to the field could achieve a yield of 12 t/hm2 at P2O5 application rate of 71.9 to 77.2 kg/hm2.
Effects of different basal-top dressing ratios of polyphosphate fertilizers on the growth of potted cotton under drip irrigation in calcareous soil
MA Lin, XIA Xiao-yang, PU Zheng-xian, WANG Fang, WANG Xiang-bin, LIU Ye-dong, LV Hai-li, WANG Yu-xin, PU Qiao-ling, WEI Chang-zhou, ZHANG Xin-jiang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021405
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  Objectives  The effects of three kinds of polyphosphate fertilizer on the growth and phosphorus utilization efficiency of drip-irrigated cotton in calcareous soil was investigated in a pot experiment to expand the pool of knowledge on efficient nutrient management in cotton production.  Methods  Ammonium phosphate with degrees of polymerization of 2.3, 1.8 and potassium tripolyphosphate with degree of polymerization of 3.0 were individually mixed with conventional diammonium phosphate, respectively to obtain three kinds of mixed polyphosphate fertilizers, and expressed as APP1, APP2, KTPP. 3% of the P2O5 in mixed phosphate fertilizer was provided by polyphosphate fertilizers. The amount of P application was P2O5 0.2 g/kg, each mixed polyphosphate fertilizer was applied as three basal-top dressing ratios of 7∶3 (F7∶3), 1∶1 (F1∶1) and 3∶7 (F3∶7), and the control without phosphate fertilizer (CK). The plants of cotton were harvested 110 days after emergence, and the dry weight and total phosphorus contents of shoot and root parts of cotton were measured. The soil available phosphorus contents at 0-8 cm and 8-16 cm depth were measured respectively.   Results  The soil available P of F7∶3 treatment was significantly lower than those of F1∶1 and F3∶7 at 0-8 cm depth but at 8-16 cm, the soil available P obtained from F7∶3, F1∶1, and F3∶7 treatments were similar. Under F7∶3, the soil available P content of KTPP treatment was significantly higher than APP1 and APP2 treatment at 0-8 cm depth whereas it was higher under KTPP and APP1 than APP2 when treated with F1∶1 and F3∶7 at both soil depths. The shoot dry weight and root dry weight of cotton treated with F1∶1 were significantly higher than those from F7∶3 and F3∶7. The boll number of cotton in F1∶1 was the highest and that in F3∶7 was the lowest. Under F1∶1 treatment, numbers of cotton boll from KTPP and APP1 were significantly higher than that of APP2. The shoot P uptake and P utilization efficiency of F7∶3 and F1∶1 were significantly higher than that of F3∶7. Under the three kinds of phosphate basal-topdressing treatments, the shoot phosphorus uptake, root phosphorus uptake and phosphorus utilization efficiency of cotton were KTPP>APP1>APP2.  Conclusions  In calcareous soils, the best effect of polyphosphate fertilizer on cotton was obtained from KTPP, followed by APP1 then APP2. Compared with the application of heavy basal fertilizer and heavy topdressing, an equal ratio of polyphosphate fertilizer application can promote cotton biomass accumulation and improve phosphorus utilization efficiency of cotton.
Exogenous calcium restores phosphorus deficiency-induced photosynthetic inhibition in peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
SUN Zhi-yu, LIU Xin-yue, ZHANG Si-wei, MA Ming-zhu, BAI Rui, LIU Huan, YI Bo-tao, HAN Xiao-ri, LIU Yi-fei
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021514
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  Objectives  The P deficiency is one of the main factors limiting photosynthetic carbon fixation and high-quality yield in peanut production. Calcium can enhance peanut growth and yield in low to medium yielding farmlands. Therefore, we explored the effects of exogenous calcium on alleviating P deficiency-induced photosynthetic inhibition in peanuts.  Methods  Peanut cultivar ‘Liaoning Baisha’ was used in a pot experiment conducted in an artificial climate chamber. The P deficiency treatment was imposed by adjusting the P concentration in Hoagland nutrition solution to 0.5 mmol/L (–P) from the normal level of 1 P mmol/L. The treatments were normal P + spraying ddH2O (CK), –P + spraying ddH2O, –P + spraying CaCl2, and –P + spraying trifluoperazine (TFP, a calmodulin inhibitor). We measured the photosynthetic functions, plant growth and thylakoid membrane integrity 9 and 10 days after treatment imposition in peanuts.   Results  Compared with CK, P deficiency reduced the dry matter weight, total leaf area, relative chlorophyll concentration and limited the growth and development of peanuts. The P deficiency reduced the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of peanut leaves. It also reduced the efficiency of PSI and PSII of peanuts by 18% and 5.4%, respectively. Compared with –P treatment, exogenous Ca2+ enhanced the dry matter weight and total leaf area of peanuts under P deficiency by 26.7% and 31.9%, respectively. Exogenous Ca2+ alleviated P deficiency inhibition based on photosynthetic level and enhanced the net photosynthetic rate and the stomatal conductance of peanut leaves under P deficiency. Compared with –P treatment, exogenous Ca2+ enhanced the efficiency of PSI and PSII, alleviating the photoinhibition in peanut leaves under P deficiency. Exogenous Ca2+ enhanced the size of the PQ pool, the rate of cyclic electron flow, and the activity of ATP synthase. However, it reduced the ∆pH of thylakoid in peanut leaves under P deficiency. TFP increased the thylakoid membrane damage, reduced cyclic electron flow rate, and ATP synthase activity in P deficiency stressed peanuts compared with –P treatment.  Conclusion  P deficiency limited the growth and development of peanuts, reduced the activity of ATP synthase of thylakoid, Y(I), Y(II), and caused peanut photoinhibition. Exogenous Ca2+ alleviated inhibition of the dry matter weight, total leaf area, and relative chlorophyll concentration of peanuts. Exogenous Ca2+ restored the Y(I) and Y(II) inhibition. The peanut CaM (Ca2+-modulin) acceptor for exogenous calcium (Ca2+) played an important role in the nutritional signalling of Ca2+, alleviating photosynthetic inhibition under P deficiency.
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2022, 28(4).  
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Effects of potassium fertilizer reduction on crop grain yield and quality under rice–wheat rotation
ZHANG Xin-yao, WANG Xiao-xuan, CHEN Lei, ZHANG Min, HUI Xiao-li, CHAI Ru-shan, GAO Hong-jian, LUO Lai-chao
2022, 28(4): 575-588.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021476
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  Objectives  In the rice–wheat rotation area of Chaohu basin, more than 70% of farmers apply excessive potassium fertilizer with its attendant negative impactions on the soil while optimum yield is not guaranteed. We studied the effects of reduced potassium fertilizer application on grain yield and nutrient quality of rice and wheat.   Methods  Field experiments were conducted at the Comprehensive Experimental Station in Middle Anhui of Anhui Agricultural University from 2017 to 2019. The treatments in the experiment included no potassium application (CK), farmers’ practice (K2O 90 kg/hm2, K1), and 10% reduction (K2O 81 kg/hm2, K2), 20% reduction (K2O 72 kg/hm2, K3) and 30% reduction (K2O 63 kg/hm2, K4) based on the farmers’ practice. At maturity, grain yield, yield components, protein, micronutrients and their bioavailabilities in rice and wheat were determined.   Results  Compared with K1, both K3 and K4 treatment did not significantly influence rice and wheat yields; K3 did not affect protein content, but increased gliadin content by 37.5% and decreased glutenin by 32.3% in rice grain (P<0.05), and had no significant effect on gliadin and glutenin content in wheat grain; K4 decreased the protein content in rice and wheat grains by 5.4% and 17.5%, but increased rice gliadin content by 43.8% while decreasing its glutenin content by 32.3%, however, it decreased wheat gliadin by 16.3%. Compared to K1, the reduced K treatments increased the Fe, Cu and Zn contents of rice and wheat grains by 3.3% and 6.7%, 34.5% and 7.8%, 18.6% and 5.7%, respectively; reduced the P/Fe, P/Cu and P/Zn molar ratios by 7.1% and 18.3%, 34.1% and 23.1%, 19.1% and 17.9%, respectively and improved bioavailability of grain Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn.   Conclusions  For Chaohu basin rice-wheat rotation system, the 20% reduction of K fertilizer optimizes the protein content and components of the grains to some extent, increases the concentration of microelements and their bioavailability without reducing the grain yield of rice and wheat. Therefore, 20% reduction of K fertilizer (K2O 72 kg/hm2) is recommended for this region and other similar conditions.
Long-term straw returning increase the capacity and intensity of soil potassium supply in a rice and wheat rotation system
YANG Ya, XIA Xian-ge, FAN Xian-peng, XIA Ying, ZHANG Fu-lin, LIU Dong-bi, WU Mao-qian, ZHANG Zhi-yi
2022, 28(4): 589-597.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021464
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  Objectives  Crop straws are rich in potassium and mostly return to the field after harvest. In this paper, we studied the effect of straw K on replenishing soil K supply capacity and storage.  Methods  A long-term straw return experiment in a wheat-rice rotation field was conducted in Qianjiang City, Hubei Province. The experiment was 13 years old when soil samples were collected in 2018. The treatments included no straw return to the field and no fertilizer (CK), straw return to the field at the rate of 6000 kg/hm2 per season and no fertilizer (RS), fertilizer without straw return (NPK), fertilizer and straw return at the same rate in RS (NPKS). The plant K and soil K content in different fractions were extracted and analyzed by chemical methods, and the apparent K balance was calculated. The process of soil K release under normal and exhausting conditions was determined by continuous immersion method using sodium tetraphenyl boron and organic acid, respectively.  Results  Under the annual straw K input of 220 kg/hm2, the soil K apparent balance in RS and SNPK was abundant, but a deficit was recorded in CK and NPK. RS and NPKS increased non-exchangeable K contents by 85.6–157.6 mg/kg and exchangeable K by 12.3–18.5 mg/kg in soil. The increased non-exchangeable K was mainly distributed in interlays (site i), followed by the surface (site p) of the clay minerals. However, the ratio of K at p, e, and i sites did not change significantly (P>0.05). Extracted by sodium tetraphenyl boron and organic acid, soil K was released rapidly first and then slowly, according to the first-order kinetic model. The release rate of soil K in the rapid stage was in the order RS>NPKS>CK>NPK, and that in the slow stage was RS>CK>NPKS>NPK. The K released in RS and NPKS treatments was 166.6 and 81.1 mg/kg more than NPK treatment in the rapid stage and 71.4 and 27.9 mg/kg higher in the slow stage. Extracted with an organic acid, the release rate of soil K in both rapid and slow stages were in the order NPKS>RS>NPK>CK. Soil K in NPKS and RS was 16.3 and 14.5 mg/kg higher than NPK treatment in the rapid stage and 46.2 and 111.8 mg/kg higher than that in the slow stage.   Conclusions  Straw returning could supplement the soil K storage and change the balance from deficit to surplus state. Long-term straw returning could increase both the exchangeable and non-exchangeable K content. The increased K is mainly absorbed in the inter-layers of clay minerals, and small amounts on the mineral surface. The kinetics of K release proves that straw returning increases the supply intensity and capacity of soil K to crops in a rice-wheat rotational system.
Effects of nitrogen-reduction cultivation models on nitrogen accumulation and yield of hybrid indica rice
LI Min, LUO De-qiang, JIANG Ming-jin, JIANG Xue-hai, JI Guang-mei, LI Li-jiang, ZHOU Wei-jia
2022, 28(4): 598-610.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021664
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  Objectives  To assess the effects of the cultivation models on nitrogen (N) use efficiency and grain yield of hybrid indica rice under nitrogen-reduction.  Methods   The hybrid indica rice cultivar Chengyou 981 and Yixiangyou 2115 were selected as the planting materials. The conventional high-yielding nitrogen application rate (187.5 kg/hm2) with wet irrigation and 20.0×104/hm2 of plant density was set as the control cultivation model or treatment (T0). Other three cultivation models/treatments in the experiment were N-reduction cultivation models: 10% reduction of N application rate with wet irrigation and 20.0×104/hm2 plant density (mono-nitrogen reduction, T1), 10% reduction of N with wet irrigation and 24.0×104/hm2 of plant density (increased density under nitrogen-reduction, T2), and 10% reduction of N with alternate wetting and moderate drying irrigation, and 24.0×104/hm2 of plant density (controlled irrigation and increased density under nitrogen-reduction, T3). The root growth, N absorption and utilization, and grain yield of hybrid indica rice were investigated.   Results  1) Compared with the conventional high-yielding treatment (T0), the root dry weight, root α-NA oxidation and root bleeding intensity of rice in T1 were significantly reduced; the root α -NA oxidation and root bleeding intensity decreased significantly in T2; and the root growth indices in T3 were similar to T0 at jointing and heading stages, but significantly higher than T0 at maturity stage. 2) Compared with T0, the N accumulation of rice at jointing, heading and maturity stages in T1 significantly decreased, while the N accumulation at jointing and heading stages in T2 and T3 were slightly different from T0. The N accumulation during heading and maturity stages and N allocation in panicle at maturity stage were T3>T0>T2>T1. The recovery efficiency, agronomic efficiency and partial factor production of N fertilizer were T3>T2>T1, and the indices of T3 were also higher than T0. 3) The rice yield was in the order of T3>T0>T2>T1. T1 decreased yield by 6.37% compared with T0, owning to the significant decrease in effective panicle number and spikelets per panicle. T2 had a lower yield than T0, owing to the decreased effective spikelet number and 1000-grain weight; T3 had a higher yield than T0 by 1.78%, owning to the increased seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight.  Conclusions  Reduction of N fertilizer input would significantly inhibit root growth and activity, affect the N uptake and accumulation of rice, and result in significant yield reduction. Increasing densities under nitrogen-reduction could effectively increase the root biomass and N accumulation of rice, but could not offset the yield loss caused by decreased effective spikelet number and 1000-grain weight. Controlled irrigation combined with increased densities and reduced N input could significantly improve root physiological activity at the middle to late stage, N accumulation and translocation from vegetative organs to the panicle of rice, nitrogen use efficiency and yield.
The covariation and plasticity of root traits drive different rice genotypes to adapt to the nitrogen environment
GAO Jian-fei, HAN Fei, ZHANG Jia-yi, XIA Lei, JI Hui, LI Hong-bo, LIU Bi-tao
2022, 28(4): 611-621.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021469
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  Objectives  Plants usually adjust root traits as an adaptation to nitrogen-deficient environments. The study explored changes in the root traits of different rice genotypes under varying soil N environments, which will help the breeding of rice cultivars.  Methods  Six high N-sensitive genotypes (high-NS) and six low N-sensitive genotypes (low-NS) were planted under N 0 and 180 kg/hm2 (N0, N180) in a field experiment conducted in the Yellow River Irrigation Area of Ningxia. The responses of the plant genotypes (high-NS and low-NS) to N0 and N180 were observed by measuring the above-ground traits (aboveground biomass and aboveground N accumulation), root growth traits (root biomass, root-shoot ratio, root length, and root volume) and root morphological traits (root diameter, specific root length, and root tissue density).   Results  The aboveground N accumulation, aboveground biomass, root biomass, root length, and root volume of the high-NS under N180 were 3.8, 2.5, 2.4, 2.4, and 2.5 times of those under N0, respectively. The traits of low-NS showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between N180 and N0, except the aboveground N accumulation under N180, which was 1.6 times of that in N0. The low-NS had higher root growth traits (root biomass, root length, and root volume) and aboveground N accumulation and biomass than high-NS under N0. Aboveground N accumulation and biomass were lower in low-NS than high-NS under N180. The plasticity of the aboveground and root growth traits of high-NS to N supply was higher than low-NS. However, both genotypes’ root morphological traits were low, and there was no significant difference (P>0.05) under N0 and N180 conditions. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the root growth traits were more aggregative and independent of root morphological traits (root diameter and specific root length) under N180. In contrast, the root traits were more dispersed under N0. The correlation among the root traits of high-NS under N180 was higher than N0. For low-NS, high correlations were recorded among the root traits under N0 and N180 treatments.   Conclusions  Rice adaptation to the nitrogen environment is primarily driven by root growth traits regulation and less by morphological traits. The low nitrogen-sensitive genotypes show strong trait covariation, regardless of the nitrogen supply. The high nitrogen-sensitive genotypes show strong trait covariation only under normal N supply (N180) and had higher plasticity in plant growth traits than the low nitrogen-sensitive genotype. Therefore, the low nitrogen-sensitive genotype mainly integrates the covariation of plant traits as an adaptation strategy to the environment. On the other hand, the high nitrogen-sensitive genotype mainly improves the root’s plasticity to adapt to the environment.
Response of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of wheats with different gluten contents to topdressing rate of nitrogen fertilizer
MA Rui-qi, WANG De-mei, TAO Zhi-qiang, WANG Yan-jie, YANG Yu-shuang, ZHAO Guang-cai, WANG Zhen-lin, CHANG Xu-hong
2022, 28(4): 622-631.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2022003
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  Objectives  The response of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of wheats having various gluten contents to nitrogen topdressing was studied.   Methods  The experiment was carried out in Beijing Experimental Base, Institute of Crop Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences between 2016 and 2017. The tested cultivars were high gluten wheats Gaoyou 2018 and Shiluan 02-1, medium gluten cultivars Zhongmai 8 and Zhongmai 175, and low gluten cultivars Yangmai 22 and Yangmai 15. The three topdressing N rates were 75 kg/hm2, 105 kg/hm2 and 135 kg/hm2 at jointing stage, on the basis of basal application of N 105 kg/hm2 and P 135 kg/hm2. The dry matter and N accumulation before and after anthesis, and the translocation and contribution rate of stored N were investigated. The yield and yield components were also determined.  Results  With the increase in topdressing N rate, the dry matter accumulation of different gluten wheats at flowering stage was increased, but its proportion varied in the vegetative parts. The leaf dry matter in high gluten wheat increased and that in ear decreased; the stem dry matter in medium and low gluten wheats increased, while those in leaves decreased. At maturing stage, increased topdressing N rate significantly increased the dry matter proportion in glume and rachis. The accumulation of N in vegetative organs and grains, whereas the transfer of N from vegetative organs to grains of all types of wheat were increased at maturity. The pre-anthesis N transport rate and contribution rate of vegetative organs of medium gluten wheat were decreased significantly, while the contribution rate of pre-anthesis nitrogen in vegetative organs of high and low gluten wheats were increased gradually. The amount of nitrogen transport after anthesis in medium gluten wheat was increased significantly, while the contribution rate of nitrogen after anthesis of low gluten wheat was decreased significantly. The spike number per spike of low gluten wheat, grain number of high gluten wheat and 1000-grain weight of high and medium gluten wheats were significantly increased by increasing rate of N topdressing. Although the yield of wheat with different gluten types were increased, the difference was not significant.   Conclusions  Under the experimental conditions, N 105 kg/hm2 topdressing improved dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen accumulation and transportation of high gluten wheat, which attributed to higher grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight, and stabilize yield. N 135 kg/hm2 topdressing significantly improved dry matter and N accumulation and transportation, and yield in moderate gluten wheat. The application of N 135 kg/hm2 in low gluten wheat promoted dry matter accumulation, nitrogen accumulation and translocation before flowering, increased the contribution rate to grain nitrogen, and increased yield by increasing the number of spikes.
Effects of soil N application rate and foliar application of Zn and K on Zn concentration and its bioavailability in wheat grains
LI Meng, XIE Ping, HUANG Ying-ping, WANG Ya-lin, TIAN Xiao-hong
2022, 28(4): 632-642.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021314
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  Objectives  Wheat grains are generally low in Zinc (Zn) content which does not meet human needs. We studied the optimum nitrogen application rate and Zn fertilizer foliar application way that is effective in improving Zn content and its bioavailability in wheat grain and its milling fractions (especially in consumed flour).  Methods  Two field experiments were conducted in Yangling and Sanyuan City, Shannxi Province in 2013 and 2014. The soil type in two locations was potential Zn-deficient calcareous soil, with DTPA-Zn (soil available Zn) content of 0.67 and 0.90 mg/kg and wheat–maize rotation planting system. The N rates (i.e., main factor) were N 0 (control, CK), 120 (N1) and 240 (N2) kg/hm2 in Yangling, and 150 kg/hm2 (Nc), –15% N (NR1) and –30%N (NR2) in Sanyuan. The foliar application treatments (i.e., the subfactor) in the two sites were spraying of water (control, CK), 0.5% K2SO4 (K), 0.3% ZnSO4·7H2O (Zn) and both Zn and K (Zn+K) at the grain filling stage. The Zn fractions in whole grains and processed flour were determined.  Results  In Yangling, the N1 (120 kg/hm2) treatment significantly increased Zn contents in whole grain, flour and bran by 13.2%, 17.3% and 8.78% respectively, but N2 (240 kg/hm2) treatment did not increase Zn contents. N1 (120 kg/hm2) treatment also significantly reduced the phytate concentration in grain milling fractions. Compared with Zn treatment, Zn+K treatment significantly increased grain Zn content by 13.1% on average. Under N1 treatment, Zn+K treatment increased flour Zn content, especially the water-soluble Zn content, and decreased the ratio of phytate to Zn in whole grain and processed flour. N rate and foliar application showed significant interaction on Zn fractions and Zn bioavailability of whole grain and milling products. In Sanyuan, Nc treatment recorded the highest Zn contents in whole grains, flour and bran, while NR1 treatment did reduce the Zn contents significantly. Compared with Zn treatment, Zn concentrations in whole grains and its milling fractions were slightly affected by Zn+K treatment. N rate and foliar Zn and/or K aplplication had significant interactive effects on flour Zn concentration in both cropping year.  Conclusions  Both the two experiments showed significant increment in Zn content and bioavailability with N rate and Zn foliar application. Moreover, the results revealed that the optimum N rate was 120 kg/hm2, and the effective foliar application way was the combination of Zn and K in the potentially Zn-deficient calcareous soil.
Effect of phosphorus on ionic balance and expression of related regulatory genes of cotton under salt and alkali stresses
SUN Jia-lin, HOU Zhen-an
2022, 28(4): 643-653.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021324
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  Objectives  Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the growth of cotton in Xinjiang, and proper fertilization for efficient uptake of nutrient ions under salt stress is an important way to improve salt tolerance in crops. We studied effect of phosphorus on cotton salinity tolerance via the ionome response characteristics and the expression of Na+ transport-related genes.   Methods  A cotton pot experiment was conducted, and the stress treatments were prepared by adding NaCl and NaHCO3 + Na2CO3 as salt and base stress treatments, respectively. Under each stress condition, cotton plants were sprayed with 0 (P0), 0.5% (P0.5) and 0.75% (P0.75) of phosphorus fertilizer at three-leaf-stage while the cotton in normal soil was sprayed with water (control). Cotton growth (biomass, root length, root surface area) and physiological indicators of adversity (relative permeability of the plasma membrane, malondialdehyde) were measured to study the effects of phosphorus on salinity tolerance in cotton. The ion content of cotton organs (roots, stems and leaves) was analyzed to elucidate the response characteristics of the cotton ionome. The relative expression levels of GhSOS1 (Na+ transport regulation related gene), GhNHX1 (Na+ compartmental gene), GhAKT1 (K+ transport gene) and GhVP1 (H+-translocating pyrophosphatases gene) in leaves were determined.  Results  Compared with P0, P0.5 and P0.75 treatments increased relative biomass of cotton by 23.8% and 34.7% under salt stress, and by 17.3% and 21.1% under alkali stress. Compared with P0 treatment, P0.75 treatment increased cotton root length and root surface area by 74.6% and 49.4% under salt stress, respectively. However, spraying P had no significant effect on cotton root length under alkali stress. The relative permeability of plasma membrane and the content of malondialdehyde in cotton leaves were significantly reduced by spraying phosphorus, and the effect of alleviating salt stress was greater than that of alkaline stress. Under salt and alkali stress, however, the decrease of Na content and the increase of Cu and Si content under salt stress were greater than those under alkali stress. In cotton roots, only Na content was significantly reduced by spraying phosphorus under salt stress, while the content of Ca, Zn, P, and Fe significantly increased, and the content of other ions did not change under salt and alkali stress. K/Na in various organs of cotton increased significantly with the increase of phosphorus levels. This indicated that the ion group of cotton leaves changed in a similar trend under different saline stresses, but the promotion effect of salt stress on ion root uptake in cotton was greater than that of alkali stress. Under salt and alkali stresses, the application of phosphorus significantly increased the relative expression of GhSOS1, GhNHX1, GhAKT1 and GhVP1, which may promote Na+ efflux and compartmentalization in cotton leaves, and the synthesis of tonoplast H+-transport pyrophosphatase. Under alkaline stress, it may greatly poromote K+ transport, which was significantly greater than that under salt stress.  Conclusions  Phosphorus spray on leaves can promote the growth of cotton under salt stress, up-regulate the expression of genes related to Na+ transport regulation, reduce leaf Na content, promote nutrient ion uptake and transport, maintain ion homeostasis, and thus improve salt tolerance in cotton. However, it has less alleviating effect on alkali stress.
Effects of soil microorganisms on the utilization of citrate soluble and polymerized phosphorus fertilizers
YANG Zi-hang, ZHANG Lin, FENG Gu
2022, 28(4): 654-663.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021468
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  Objectives  Increasing the efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer utilization is a challenge that requires urgent attention in agricultural production. Here, we researched the role and mechanism of soil microorganisms in the morphological transformation of phosphorus fertilizer and utilization efficiency. We aimed to provide a basis for understanding the matching mechanism between crop-phosphate fertilizer types and soil microorganisms.   Methods  Cinnamon low-phosphorus soil (Olsen-Pi =4.53 mg/kg) was used for a pot experiment with maize (Zhengdan 958). The experimental soil was treated with high-temperature sterilization and non-sterilization. Further, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) fertilizers were applied to the soil at an equal nutrient supply of P 100 mg/kg. Also, a control (CK) without phosphorus fertilizer was set up. After maize harvest, soil pH, Olsen-Pi, alkaline phosphatase activity, dry shoot weight, phosphorus content were measured, and calculation of fertilizer rate was carried out. For each index, the difference between phosphorus fertilizer application and control was termed fertilizer effect, and the difference between unsterilized and sterilized was designated as the microorganism effect.   Results  The fertilizer use efficiency in sterilized conditions was MAP>APP>CMP, with a significant difference among the treatments. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the fertilizer use efficiency of MAP and APP under unsterilized conditions, and the two treatments recorded higher values than CMP. Plant phosphorus content and rhizosphere Olsen-Pi in CMP treated unsterilized soil increased by 116.3% and 128.0% , compared with the sterilized soil. Similarly, fertilizer utilization rate, aboveground dry weight, plant phosphorus content, and rhizosphere Olsen-Pi in APP treated unsterilized soil increased by 40.7%, 34.2%, 41.2% and 38.2%, compared with the sterilized soil. The rhizosphere ΔpH of unsterilized soil treated with CMP was significantly lower than in sterilized soil. In contrast, compared with CK, the increment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in unsterilized soil treated with APP was significantly higher than that in sterilized soil.  Conclusions  We find that the effects of soil microorganisms on different phosphorus fertilizers varies based on the application rate (100 mg/kg) adopted in this study. Soil microorganisms promote the mobilization of citric-acid soluble phosphate fertilizer (CMP) and polymerized phosphate fertilizer (APP). Water-soluble phosphate fertilizer (MAP) can meet plants phosphorus demand. Therefore, soil microorganisms do not play a key role in mobilizing MAP. An improved understanding of soil-phosphate fertilizer matching technology provides theoretical support to develop microbial regulation techniques for phosphate fertilizer application.
Use of rice husk biochar to improve phosphorus availability of compound fertilizer in soil
BAI Yu-chao, ZHU Jing, WANG Zong-kang, CUI Guo-xian, SHE Wei, WANG Hui
2022, 28(4): 664-674.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021335
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  Objectives  We studied the effects of rice husk biochar on the P availability of compound fertilizer in soil. We aimed to provide scientific support for developing high efficiency and environmentally friendly fertilizer.  Methods  Twelve composite fertilizer samples were prepared with monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), nitrophosphate (NP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as P fertilizer sources, plus urea, potassium chloride, stone powder, and other auxiliary components as raw materials, and rice husk biochar was added to the compound fertilizer at 0, 5%, and 10% levels. The 12 fertilizer samples were mixed with latosolic red soil and fluvo-aquic soil to carry out an indoor thermostatic incubation experiment. We measured the soil H2O-P, NaHCO3-P, NaOH-P and HCl-P content after 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of incubation. The soils mixed with the 12 fertilizer samples were loaded into 12 mm columns and stand for 7 and 30 days, then were leached with water, the contents of the five inorganic P forms were measured to determine the vertical diffusion of P from the compound fertilizers. The P recovery efficiency of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk) was measured by plot experiments to explore the effect of rice husk biochar on the P utilization rate.   Results  In the incubation experiment, the rice husk biochar (P<0.05) increased the H2O-P and NaHCO3-P contents, but did not increase the NaOH-P and HCl-P concents in both latosolic red soil and fluvo-aquic soil after 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of incubation, and adding 10% biochar showed better effect than adding 5%. In the latosolic red soil, the H2O-P concentration was increased by 23.26% (MAP, 14 d), 4.99% (DAP, 7 d), 34.46% (NP, 7 d), and 12.17% (APP, 7 d), and in fluvo-aquic soil were increased by 25.53% (MAP, 56 d), 10.52% (DAP, 28 d), 21.69% (NP, 7 d), and 17.30% (APP, 14 d) by adding 10% rice husk carbon. The NaHCO3-P concentration in the latosolic red soil increased by 15.01% (MAP, 28 d), 7.62% (DAP, 7 d), 25.15% (NP, 14 d), and 16.52% (APP, 7 d), and in the fluvo-aquic soil increased by 5.60% (MAP, 14 d), 3.30% (DAP, 7 d), 9.31% (NP, 7 d), and 5.95% (APP, 14 d) by adding 10% rice husk carbon. Rice husk biochar (10%) (P<0.05) influenced the diffusive movement of P, and the total P extracted from soil decreased by 13.88% (MAP), 16.86% (DAP), 9.37% (NP), and 14.82% (APP) in latosolic red soil after 30 d of incubation, but there was no significant effect on P diffusion in fluvo-aquic soil. The fresh matter yield and dry matter yield of water spinach applied with APP were increased by adding 5% rice husk carbon, and the utilization rate of p fertilizer was increased by 19.15%.  Conclusions  Adding rice husk biochar (5% and 10%) could improve water spinach’s P efficiency and recovery of compound fertilizer in latosolic red soil. However, the effect of rice husk biochar addition on phosphorus release in fluvo-aquic soil was less than that in latosolic red soil. In sum, the effect of adding 10% rice husk biochar was better than 5%.
Effects of partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer on Ponkan growth and yield and soil biological properties
WAN Lian-jie, HE Man, TIAN Yang, ZHENG Yong-qiang, LÜ Qiang, XIE Rang-jin, MA Yan-yan, DENG Lie, YI Shi-lai, LI Jian
2022, 28(4): 675-687.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021446
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  Objectives  We studied the effects of substituting chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer on growth, nutrient accumulation and yield of Ponkan, and soil microbial properties under equal nutrient supply. We determined the appropriate quantity of organic fertilizer that can be substituted for chemical fertilizer, providing the theoretical basis for reducing the latter and enhancing the efficiency of agricultural technology.   Methods  Using 15-year-old Taiwan Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) grafted on Poncirus trifoliata (L.) as test material, field experiments were conducted in 2019 and 2020 in Chongqing. The six treatments included no fertilizer application [i.e., control (CK)], pure chemical fertilizer application (FP), N, P and K substitution ratio of 10%, 25%, and 18% (T1), substitution ratio of 15%, 38%, and 27% (T2), substitution ratio of 20%, 51%, and 36% (T3), and substitution ratio of 30%, 76%, and 54% (T4). Except for CK, the treatments’ N, P and K nutrient input was consistent. The growth, nutrient accumulation, yield and fertilizer contribution to yield and soil microbial properties were analyzed.   Results  1) The root activity and growth of branches with organic fertilizer were higher than FP. Organic fertilizer application (P<0.05) increased the proportion of fine roots (0–0.5 mm). Compared with FP, SPAD, Pn, PIabs and PItotal were promoted to a certain extent, increasing with organic fertilizer application at first and subsequently decreasing. Moreover, T2 and T3 recorded higher Ponkan growth than other treatments. 2) In 2019 and 2020, branch accumulation and fruit N, P and K in the organic fertilizer substitution treatments was higher than FP. However, there were fluctuations in the recorded increase. Compared with FP, the yield in each organic fertilizer substitution treatment increased by 7.2%–26.4% and 2.0%–36.9%, respectively, compared with FP, and the fertilizer contribution rate increased by 5.2%–45.4% and 3.3%–54.9%. With increasing organic fertilizer application, fruit yield and fertilizer contribution rate fluctuate, with T2 and T3 recording higher values. 3) Sucrase and urease enzyme activity and the number of cultivatable bacteria and actinomycetes treated with organic fertilizer were higher than FP, reaching the highest in July and increasing with organic fertilizer application. The number of cultivatable soil fungi increased at first and subsequently decreased, with T3 and T4 having higher soil microorganisms.   Conclusions  Substituting chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer under equal nutrient supply can promote the growth and development of lateral roots, especially fine roots and spring and autumn shoots, enhance the photosynthesis of leaves, improve nutrient accumulation in leaves, twigs and fruits, especially yield of Ponkan and promote soil microbial characteristics. Overall, the optimum substitution ratio was 15% to 20% for N, 38% to 51% for P, and 27% to 36% for K.
Optimized nutrient management improves fruit yield and fertilizer use efficiency and reduces carbon emissions in pomelo production
LUO Zi-wei, TAO Jing-xia, HOU Kai-jie, ZHANG Li-jun, CHEN Xiao-hui, WANG Yu-wen, LIAO Wen-qiang, WU Liang-quan, LI Yan, GUO Jiu-xin
2022, 28(4): 688-700.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021442
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  Objectives  Excessive fertilization is common in cash crop production, especially in orchards. We used pomelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck cv. Guanximiyou] orchards in Pinghe County of Fujian Province to study the potential of optimized nutrient management in increasing fruit yield and quality and alleviating carbon emission from the production cycle.   Methods  A field experiment was carried out in Pinghe County of Fujian Province in 2019 and 2020; 10-year-old red pulp pomelo trees were used as test materials. Two fertilization models were designed, one was local farmer’s fertilization practice (N 1050 kg/hm2, P2O5 880 kg/hm2, K2O 870 kg/hm2, and 7500 kg/hm2 organic fertilizer, FFP), and the other was optimized nutrient management (OPTs). The OPT included three treatments, chemical fertilizer-reduced treatment (N 200 kg/hm2and K2O 200 kg/hm2, OPT1), soil acidity regulation based on OPT1 (N 200 kg/hm2, K2O 200 kg/hm2, and CaO 2010 kg/hm2, OPT2), and the substitution of chemical N fertilizer with 20% organic fertilizer based on OPT2 (N 160 kg/hm2, K2O 176 kg/hm2, CaO 2010 kg/hm2, and 2000 kg/hm2 organic fertilizer, OPT3). The pomelo yield and sources of agricultural cost were investigated, and the fruit quality and nutrient contents in tree organs (i.e., new leaves, branches, and fruits) were measured. The carbon emission during the whole life cycle of pomelo production was analyzed.   Results  Compared with FFP, OPTs reduced the total chemical fertilizer input by 86% but did not affect (P>0.05) pomelo yield in 2019. On the contrary, OPT3 (P<0.05) increased single pomelo weight and yield in 2020. The N and K2O fertilizers’ partial productivity of OPTs was average increased by 5.49 and 4.75 times on average compared with FFP across 2019 and 2020, respectively. OPT2 and OPT3 decreased fruit acidity and increased (P<0.05) the solid acid ratio and vitamin C contents. Compared with FFP, OPTs (P<0.05) reduced N content in new leaves, branches, and fruits but did not affect their P and K content. OPT2 and OPT3 increased Ca and K contents in new organs and leaves, respectively, resulting in a more balanced nutrient ratio in pomelo trees. OPTs increased economic benefit by 12.80%, decreased production cost by 35.66%, and reduced the annual net carbon emission and carbon footprint by 89.89% and 90.18%, respectively.  Conclusions  In optimized nutrient management, the type and quantity of NPK fertilizer are reduced in different ratios. The organic fertilizer was applied to replace 20% of chemical N input, achieving a total reduction of chemical fertilizer by 86%. Consequently, the fruit yield, quality, fertilizer use efficiency, and production efficiency were improved. The decrease in fertilizers reduced carbon emissions and carbon footprint during the life cycle of pomelo production. Thus, optimizing nutrient management according to local conditions effectively achieves stability, increases fruit yield, improves fruit quality and fertilizer use efficiency, and reduces carbon emissions in orchards.
Capability evaluation of 50 hairy vetch cultivars (lines) as autumn green manure in Qinghai Province, Northwest China
CHEN Zi-ying, CHANG Dan-na, HAN Mei, LI Zheng-peng, YAN Qing-biao, ZHOU Guo-peng, SUN Xiao-feng, CAO Wei-dong
2022, 28(4): 701-714.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021571
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  Objectives  Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) is one of China’s most important fertilizer and forage dual-purpose green manure crops. The nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) accumulation and aboveground biomass of different hairy vetch cultivars (lines) were investigated to select those suitable for green manure cultivation in the Qinghai area.  Methods  The N, P, and K accumulation and aboveground biomass of 50 cultivars (lines) and soil nutrients were analyzed under field conditions at the branching and initial flowering stages. Hairy vetch’s N, P, and K absorption capacity were evaluated using principal component and cluster analysis.  Results  The range of values recorded for fresh grass yield, N, P, and K accumulation was 18.35–46.94 t/hm2, 101.51–278.98 kg/hm2, 10.39–29.80 kg/hm2, and 59.33–157.54 kg/hm2, respectively, for hairy vetch cultivars at the initial flowering stage. Cultivar ‘Maojiayeshaozi ’ had the highest fresh yield and ‘78-14’ had the highest N, P, and K accumulation capacity. The yield and N, P, and K accumulation in ‘Maojiayeshaozi ’ exceed the main local ‘Qingshao 1’ by 61.47%, 92.81%, 67.51%, and 86.50%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the top five cultivars were ‘78-14’, ‘Shaotengxuan’, ‘Maojiayeshaozi’, ‘Shandongzaoshushao’, and ‘78-171 shaozi’. Moreover, ‘78-14’ had the highest score (4.85) while ‘Soviet Union shaozi’ had the lowest score (−5.06). Cluster analysis showed that the absorption capacity of N, P, and K clustered into four groups in each case. For N, the high, higher, medium, and general absorption capacities were recorded for 1 cultivar, 12 cultivars, 15 cultivars, and 22 cultivars. For P, the high, higher, medium, and general absorption capacities were observed for 4 cultivars, 24 cultivars, 6 cultivars, and 16 cultivars. For K, the high, higher, medium, and general absorption capacities were recorded for 4 cultivars, 12 cultivars, 19 cultivars, and 15 cultivars. The group with high N, P, and K absorption capacities recorded 278.98, 27.94, and 145.91 kg/hm2, respectively. Compared with pre-sowing, planting hairy vetch decreased inorganic N, available P and K contents at the branching and initial flowering stages, enhancing nutrient utilization in the fallow season.   Conclusions  The biomass and nutrient absorption capacity of different hairy vetch cultivars (lines) in Qinghai are different. Overall, ‘78-14’ showed higher N, P, and K absorption capacity, and ‘Shaotengxuan’ and ‘Maojiayeshaozi’ shows higher P and K absorption capacity. Therefore, these cultivars are proposed as potential candidate cultivars for further field evaluation in Qinghai.
Nutrient and heavy metal contents in edible fungus residues in Chongqing
LIANG Tao, HU Liu-jie, ZHANG Tao, WANG Shuai, ZHAO Jing-kun, HU Wei, LU Wen-cai, REN Peng-fei, WANG Xiao-zhong, LIAO Dun-xiu
2022, 28(4): 715-725.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021412
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  Objectives  The nutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the residual substrate of edible fungus production were investigated for their safety and efficient recycling as organic material resources.   Methods  The residual substrate samples were collected from 84 producers across nine districts of Chongqing City for the determination of the concentrations of organic carbon (C), total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn).   Results  1) The concentrations of C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg in the residual substrates were 354, 13.9, 3.48, 8.93, 35.0, and 7.07 g/kg, respectively. The C/N ratios of the residue substrates were generally high (22.9–42.2), and the K/Mg and Ca/Mg ratios were 1.36 and 5.70, respectively. The K/Mg ratio was markedly greater than 0.6 (except for black fungus and mushroom residues), whereas the Ca/Mg ratio was less than 7.0. 2) The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in the residual substrates were 0.69, 0.30, 1.54, 12.5, 0.07, 4.36, and 55.8 mg/kg, respectively, with high variations (CV 46.9%–179%). According to the NY 525—2021 standard for heavy metals limits in organic fertilizers in China, all the heavy metal concentrations were within the permissible limits.   Conclusions  In the residual substrate of edible fungus produced in Chongqing, the average content of heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb were only 1.03%–10.0% of the threshold value in the national standard for organic fertilizer, which indicated a high ecological security. Although not rich in N, P2O5, K2O, edible fungus residue has high organic matter content (61.0%) which makes it suitable as an auxiliary material for livestock manure co-composting.
Comment on special topic
Innovation in chemical fertilizer products driving industrial transformation and evolution
ZHAO Bing-qiang, YUAN Liang
2022, 28(4): 726-731.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021579
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Theoretically, there are mainly two processes for developing new fertilizer products, one is to develop fertilizers with available nutrents, and the other is to exploit fertilizers with high-nutrient use efficiency. Guided by the theory of plant mineral nutrition, the process of developing fertilizer products with available nutrents has achieved the establishment of contemporary chemical fertilizer industry, with synthetic ammonia and wet-process phosphoric acid as its typical technology, which has made great contribution to world agricultural development and food security. The process of developing fertilizer products with high-nutrient use efficiency employs strategies of interdisciplinary, multi-tech integration and multi-way synergy to achieve multi-functions, high efficiency of the products to attain optimum yield increase and environmental sustainability. The evolution of chemical fertilizer products has driven the transformation and upgrading of the chemical fertilizer industry from 1) the primary stage of chemical fertilizer (the 1.0 era of chemical fertilizer industry) into 2) the low concentration chemical fertilizer stage (the 2.0 era of chemical fertilizer industry) and into 3) the high concentration chemical fertilizer stage (the 3.0 era of chemical fertilizer industry), and then 4) the efficient and sustainable chemical fertilizer stage (the 4.0 era of chemical fertilizer industry) which will arrive in the future.
Advances on molecular mechanisms of plants in response to low sulfur stress
HUANG Li-ya, LI Fang-jian, ZHANG Ya-nan, MAI Cui-shan, WANG Jin-xiang
2022, 28(4): 732-742.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021417
Abstract(730) FullText HTML(341) PDF 890KB(28) Related Articles
  Objectives  Sulfur (S) is an essential elemental nutrient for plant growth and development. It is involved in the production of primary (e.g., cysteine and protein) and secondary metabolites (e.g., glucosinolate, plant defensins, phytochelatins, vitamins, and coenzyme A).   Main advances   Plants take up sulfate from soils via roots and convert it into sulfide in plant cells through adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase, and sulfite reductase. Sulfide reacts with O-acetylserine to form cysteine, catalyzed by OAS (thiol)-lyase. Studies have shown that plants’ uptake, transport, assimilation, and redistribution of sulfate is modified. Accordingly, plants cope with S starvation at the transcription, post-transcription, translation, post-translation, and epigenetic levels. Sulphur stress up-regulates or down-regulates transcription of some genes, or protein translation and degradation, which are involved in S uptake, transport, and assimilation. This alters S uptake and utilization in plants, maintains plant growth and development, and increases S uptake and use efficiency.   Outlook   At the transcription level, there is a need to study other transcription factors regulating plants’ responses to low S. Further, the post-transcription level research needed to include studying how novel miRNAs regulate the transcript level of S-responsive genes. More research is needed to understand how transporters are localized, modified, and degraded at the translation and epigenetic levels. How do DNA methylation, histone and RNA modification modulate the activities of S uptake- and assimilation-related genes and proteins? The molecular mechanisms underlying interactions between S and other nutrients are unclear, suggesting the need to study the aforementioned research questions.
Short communication
Using multispectral drone data to monitor maize’s response to various irrigation modes
MA Long-fei, HU Nai-yue, LI Wei, QIN Wei-long, HUANG Shou-bing, WANG Zhi-min, LI Fei, YU Kang
2022, 28(4): 743-753.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021392
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  Objectives  Monitoring crop moisture conditions in real-time is critical for adopting water-saving irrigation and reducing China’s present water scarcity. This study explores the feasibility of using drone multi-spectral image data for real-time monitoring of maize drought stress and compares the sensitivity of drone data and field-measured agronomic indicators to crop drought stress.   Methods  Two maize cultivars, ‘Fumin 985’ and ‘Zhengdan 958’, were used as test materials in the field experiment. Border irrigation, drip irrigation, and rainfed irrigation were employed as treatments. The pigment content and specific leaf area (SLA) of the most recently unfolded maize leaves were determined at 60, 70, 76, 84, 90, and 95 days after sowing. Similarly, a UAV equipped with multi-spectral cameras was used to collect near-ground remote sensing data to extract five vegetation indexes: the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), normalized difference red-edge index (NDRE), leaf chlorophyll index (LCI), and optimum soil adjust vegetation index (OSAVI).   Results  The changes in vegetation indexes were earlier than in the leaf pigment content and the leaf area index. At 70 days after sowing (tasseling period), there was a significant difference in the NDRE and LCI of the three treatments. NDVI, GNDVI, and OSAVI indexes differed between the irrigation and rain-fed modes. No difference was observed in the treatments' pigment content and specific leaf area index at the same stages. At 90 days following sowing, there was a considerable difference in pigment concentration among the treatments (filling period). Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between vegetation indexes and pigment content varied depending on the growth stage. The correlations between pigment content and two vegetation indices (NDRE and LCI) were higher for 80 days after sowing (flowering phase) than for NDVI, GNDVI, and OSAVI; for 90 days after sowing (filling period), the correlation between the five vegetation indices and pigment content was high.   Conclusions  According to this study, the utilization of UAV multi-spectral data to monitor maize drought proved better than some measured agronomic indicators. However, further research should be conducted on the best spectral indicators and periods for drought monitoring in various situations and environments.
Characteristics of mixed decay of wheat straw-hairy vetch on the Qinghai plateau
XIE Shuai, LIANG Xin-yu, SONG Ming-dan, HAN Mei, LI Zheng-peng
2022, 28(4): 754-762.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021613
Abstract(450) FullText HTML(191) PDF 759KB(24) Related Articles
  Objectives  Study the decomposition and nutrient release patterns of wheat straw and hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) seperately and both of them in farmland will provide theoretical and technical guidance for the management of organic materials returning to the field in Qinghai plateau.  Methods  The tested wheat straw and hairy vetch were naturally dried and cut into 2 cm long, single wheat straw (S), single hairy vetch (G), and wheat straw and hairy vetch together (G+S) were loaded into nylon mesh bags, and buried into 20 cm deep in soil for decomposition. At the 7, 14, 28, 42, 72, 117, and 162 days of burying, sample bags were dig out for measurement of required indexes.  Results  The dry matter decay rate and nutrient release rate in all the three treatments were fast in early stage and slow in later stage, and the cumulative decomposition rates were 81.93% for G treatment, 51.65% for S treatment, and 64.17% for G+S treatment. The cumulative nutrient release rate in G, S, and G+S treatments were 85.30%, 46.66% and 62.77% for C; 88.29%, 31.83% and 66.78% for N; 71.30%, 62.66% and 68.24% for P; 98.24%, 94.62% and 97.40% for K. The rapid decay period was less than 42 days, and the rapid release period for each nutrient varied from 0–7 days for C, 0–28 days for N, 0–14 days for P, and 0–42 days for K. Simulation by the bi-pool exponential decay model revealed that the proportions of easily decomposed fraction in total weight in G, S and G+S treatments were about 79.25%,53.62%, and 64.16%, respectively. The proportions of easily decomposed C, N, P were all the highest in hairy vetch treatment, and K is the highest in wheat straw treatment. The G+S treatment increased the proportion of dry matter mass, C, N, P, and K in the easily decomposable fraction compared to the predicted values in all cases, increasing dry matter mass by 1.47%, C by 6.02%, N by 22.77%, P by 5.41%, and K by 0.20%, increasing the average turnover days of C and N, and decreasing the average turnover days of P and K.  Conclusions  The cumulative decomposition rate of hairy vetch and straw were 81.93% and 51.65%, and it was 64.17% for their mixtures. Therefore, hairy vetch had higher release ratio than wheat straw in dry matter, C, N, P and K. In addition, the C, N, P and K had higher proportion in the easily decomposed part of hairy vetch than in wheat straws. The mixture of hairy vetch and wheat straw adjusted the nutrient proportion in the easily decomposed parts, and increased the average turnover days of C and N but decreased those of P and K, which was favorable to the use of subsequent crops.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(8062) PDF 2130KB(2107)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(7945) PDF 2629KB(15973)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(5325) PDF 929KB(1677)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(7772) PDF 1766KB(1178)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(6644) PDF 876KB(2297)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(5321) PDF 1228KB(1345)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(7978) PDF 906KB(2133)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(4404) PDF 1119KB(1198)
Effects of long-term straw return on soil fertility, nitrogen pool fractions and crop yields on a fluvo-aquic soil in North China
ZHAO Shi-cheng, CAO Cai-yun, LI Ke-jiang, QIU Shao-jun, ZHOU Wei, HE Ping
2014, 20(6): 1441-1449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0614
Abstract(5706) PDF 1271KB(1017)
Effects of  green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 19(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(6066) PDF 1193KB(744)