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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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2021, (3): 1-5.  
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Microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and enzyme activities within aggregates of calcareous soil under biochar application
ZHANG Shuai, CHENG Yu-yang, WU Hang, ZHENG Qin, WANG Xiu-bin, ZHANG Shui-qing
2021, 27(3): 369-379.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20500
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  Objectives  To provide a scientific basis for improving soil quality, we investigated the effects of biochar (BC) on microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen contents and extracellular enzyme activities within soil aggregates, and analyzed the main factors that drive changes in enzyme activities within aggregates.  Methods  A 2-year field experiment was conducted in Henan Modern Agricultural Research Base with four treatments: no fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizers (NPK), biochar (BC), biochar plus chemical fertilizers (BC+NPK). Biochar was prepared by pyrolyzing peanut shells and was applied only once at the beginning of the experiment. NPK fertilizers were applied in each season. Soil samples of the plough layer were collected for determination of nutrient contents, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and enzyme activities in soil aggregates.  Results  1) Compared with CK, NPK increased soil available phosphorus, available K, and NO3-N, BC increased SOC and total N contents, and BC+NPK increased all the aforementioned indicators. 2) Compared with CK, BC reduced MBN in size 2–0.25 mm aggregate and increased MBC/MBN ratio in 2–0.25 mm aggregate. Compared with CK, BC+NPK increased MBC in size >2 mm and 0.25–0.053 mm aggregates by 59.57% and 34.68%, respectively, and increased MBN in the plough layer soil, size >2 mm and 2–0.25 mm aggregates by 17.33%, 42.24% and 19.28%, respectively. Compared with CK, NPK, BC, and BC+NPK treatments increased MBC/SOC in size >2 mm aggregate, but BC and BC+NPK reduced MBC/SOC in plough layer soil, size 2–0.25 mm and 0.25–0.053 mm aggregates. 3) Compared with CK, NPK, BC+NPK increased β-glucosidase, β-cellobiosidase, α-glucosidase, and β-xylosidase activities in size 2–0.25 mm and 0.25–0.053 mm aggregates, whereas only BC+NPK increased the activities of aforementioned four enzymes in size >2 mm aggregate. Compared with CK, NPK and BC+NPK increased urease activity in size >2 mm aggregate and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities in size 0.25–0.053 mm aggregates. Only BC+NPK treatment increased L-leucine aminopeptidase activities in size >2 mm and 0.25–0.053 mm aggregates. Enzyme activities in soil aggregates significantly related to MBC, MBN and MBC/MBN ratio. Enzyme activities in size >2 mm aggregate significantly correlated with MBC/SOC, TN and MBC contents, while enzyme activities in size 2–0.25 mm and 0.25–0.053 mm aggregates significantly correlated with MBC/MBN ratio and MBC content, respectively.  Conclusions  Combined application of biochar and chemical fertilizers is suitable for soil carbon sequestration, and soil micro-environment and soil quality improvment, and application of biochar has a longer effect on calcareous soil.
Effects of multi-cropping systems on cinnamon soil aggregate stability, carbon and nitrogen distribution in western Henan Province
QIAO Xin-xin, WANG Yan-fang, LI Qian-yun, BAO Quan-fa, YIN Fei, JIAO Nian-yuan, FU Guo-zhan, LIU Ling
2021, 27(3): 380-391.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20323
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  Objectives  To address deterioration of soil structure and fertility caused by single long-term multi-cropping system of winter wheat-summer maize, alternative multi-cropping systems were tested for soil aggregate stability and nutrient availability in cinnamon soil of western Henan Province.  Methods  A field experiment was carried out from 2014 to 2019. The tested annual rotation systems were winter wheat-summer maize (T1), winter wheat-summer peanut (T2), winter wheat-summer maize and peanut intercropping (2 rows of maize intercropping with 4 rows of peanut, T3). Soil samples at the 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm depths were collected after the harvest of summer crop in 2019, when there were total of 11 cropping. The composition and stability of soil aggregates, as well as the contents and distribution rates of organic carbon and total nitrogen in each particle size aggregate were analyzed by wet and dry sieving methods.  Results  In the 0–20 cm soil layer, compared to T1 treatment, T2 and T3 treatments increased the > 0.25 mm mechanical aggregate (DR0.25) by 5.9% and 9.9%, increased the > 0.25 mm water stable aggregate (WR0.25) by 50.3% and 57.9%, decreased unstable soil aggregate index (ELT) by 33.2% and 50.6%, decreased the percentage of aggregate destruction (PAD) of soil by 49.3% and 51.4%, increased the mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates by 36.4% and 47.0% and increased the geometric mean diameter (GMD) by 100.0% and 120.0% respectively. In the 20–40 cm soil layer, T2 and T3 treatments decreased the unstable soil aggregate index (ELT) by 13.2% and 18.0%, decreased the percentage of aggregate destruction (PAD) of soil by 21.4% and 28.8%, increased the MWD of soil aggregates by 4.8% and 6.0% and increased the GMD by 11.5% and 7.7%, respectively, compared to T1 treatment. The contents of organic C and total N in 2–0.25 mm soil layer were the highest, and the contents of organic C and total N in 0–20 cm soil layer were higher than those in 20–40 cm soil layer. In the 0–20 cm soil layer, compared to T1 treatment, T3 treatment significantly increased the contribution rates of total N at all particle size aggregates and the contribution rate of organic carbon at >0.25 mm aggregate, profoundly decreased the contribution rate of organic C at <0.25 mm aggregate; T2 treatment also significantly increased the contribution rates of total N at 2–0.053 mm aggregates, and remarkably enhanced the contribution rate of organic C at >0.25 mm aggregate, but significantly decreased the contribution rate of organic C at 0.25–0.053 mm aggregate. Compared to T1 treatment, T2 and T3 treatments increased the contents of total organic C, total N, available P and readily available K, but the bulk density and pH had no significant difference among the three treatments in both 0–20 and 20–40 cm soil layers.  Conclusions  Compare to traditional winter wheat-summer maize cropping system, the winter wheat-summer peanut, winter wheat-summer maize and peanut intercropping have immense advantages in terms of increasing the content of soil macro-aggregates, enhancing the mechanical stability and water stability of soil aggregates, improving the accumulation of organic C and total N in soil aggregates (especially >0.25 mm aggregates), and increasing the content of available P and readily available K in soil, which are beneficial to maintain the soil fertility and the long-term health of the cinnamon soil in western Henan Province. And the effect of winter wheat-summer peanut cropping system is better than that of winter wheat-summer maize and peanut intercropping system.
Response of wheat yield and soil microbial activity to phosphorus fertilizer reduction in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River
CHEN Lu, WANG Xiu-bin, ZHU Rui-li, MAO Lin-lin, SUN Jing-wen
2021, 27(3): 392-402.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20506
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  Objectives   To provide scientific basis for phosphorus fertilizer reduction in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin, we studied the effect of phosphorus fertilizer reduction on wheat yield and soil quality.   Methods   The field experiments were conducted in Hubei and Zhejiang Provinces. The treatments included: non-phosphorus application control (CK), farmers’ conventional phosphorus application (FP), 80% of farmers’ conventional phosphorus application (P80), 60% of farmers’ conventional phosphorus application (P60), and P60+phosphate-solubilizing bacteria application (PB60). Wheat yield data were collected from 2019 through 2020. Following wheat harvest in 2020, we assessed the physical and chemical properties, microbial biomass phosphorus content, enzyme activity and phospholipid fatty acid content within 0—20 cm horizon of the cultivated soils.   Results   In Hubei wheat region, the wheat yields under FP, P80 and P60 treatments were similar in the first year of phosphorus fertilizer reduction. However, wheat yields under P80 and P60 treatments were less than that under FP in the second year of phosphorus fertilizer reduction. In Zhejiang province, the wheat yields under P80 and FP treatments were similar in two years, while PB60 increased the wheat yield compared with P60 in 2020. In Hubei Province, available P contents under CK, P80 and P60 treatments were less than that under FP, whereas P80 and P60 treatments produced higher soil microbial biomass P (MBP) content than FP. In Zhejiang Province, P80 and FP treatments had similar soil available P content, while under P60 and CK treatments soil available P content was significantly lower than that under FP treatment. Compared with FP treatment, P80 and P60 treatments decreased soil phosphorus activation coefficient and ratio of bacteria to fungi, but they increased soil NH4+-N content, NO3-N content, soil N-cycling enzyme activities and relative fungi abundance in the two provinces. FP, P80 and P60 treatments had similar soil pH value, organic carbon content, total N content, readily available K content, soil phosphatase activity, relative abundance of bacteria and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the two provinces. Compared to P60, PB60 treatment elevated soil available P content, soil phosphorus activation coefficient, and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Redundancy analysis indicated that soil microbial biomass P and soil NH4+-N were the dominant factors affecting soil microbial community structure change in Hubei and Zhejiang provinces, respectively.   Conclusions   We found that soil available P, microbial biomass P, and wheat yield had different responses to phosphorus fertilizer reduction in the two wheat fields. Continuous reduction of phosphate fertilizer could result in decrease in wheat yield in Hubei Province due to low soil available P content; thus, it is not recommended to reduce phosphorus fertilizer rate in Hubei. However, in Zhejiang Province where soil available P content is high and P reduction doesn’t decrease the wheat yield and soil quality, 80% of farmers’ conventional phosphorus application is recommended. In addition, phosphate fertilizer reduction does not significantly affect soil phosphatase activity, but significantly affects soil microbial community structure, increases the relative abundance of soil fungi and decreases the bacterial/fungal ratio. The application effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in Zhejiang wheat area is better than that in Hubei wheat area.
Soil microbial community characteristics in greenhouse vegetable production under different fertilization patterns based on metagenomic analysis
MA Long, GAO Wei, LUAN Hao-an, TANG Ji-wei, LI Ming-yue, HUANG Shao-wen
2021, 27(3): 403-416.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20486
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  Objectives  Using metagenomic sequencing technology, we investigated the influence of fertilization patterns on community structure and composition of bacteria, fungi and archaea for sustainable soil health and greenhouse vegetable production.  Methods  We conducted a long-term fertilization experiment in a vegetable greenhouse in Tianjin City. The cropping system in this study was spring tomato and autumn-winter celery rotation. The six treatments in the study included: one complete chemical fertilizer (4/4CN) treatment and five organic substitution treatments (3/4CN+1/4MN, 2/4CN+2/4MN, 1/4CN+3/4MN, 2/4CN+1/4MN+1/4SN, 2/4CN+2/4SN), MN and SN represented the nitrogen from pig manure and maize straws. All treatments had same amounts of N, P2O5, and K2O. At the 20th vegetable season, surface soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected for the determination of microbial community composition.  Results  Compared with 4/4CN treatment, organic substitution treatments significantly increased soil microbial biomass C (MBC), N (MBN) and abundances of bacteria and fungi, but decreased the abundance of archaea. The abundances of bacteria and fungi in high C-amended treatments (1/4CN+3/4MN, 2/4CN+1/4MN+1/4SN, and 2/4CN+2/4SN) were higher than those in low C-amended treatments (3/4CN+1/4MN and 2/4CN+2/4MN), whereas the abundance of archaea was on the opposite. Organic-amendments increased the Shannon indices of archaea by 9.0%, while those of bacteria and fungi did not significantly change in 3/4CN+1/4MN and 2/4CN+2/4MN. At the phylum level of bacteria, organic-amended treatments had higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, and lower relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi than 4/4CN treatment. Among the main dominant fungal taxa, organic-amended treatments induced higher relative abundance of Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota, and lower relative abundance of Basidiomycota. Among the main dominant archaea taxa, organic-amended treatments resulted in higher relative abundance of Euryarchaeota and Candidatus Bathyarchaeota, and lower relative abundance of Thaum archaeota. Principal component analysis showed that the archaea community composition was more sensitive to fertilization than bacterial and fungal community composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that organic carbon explained 22.3%, 10.4%, and 36.0% of the variation in community structure of bacteria, fungi and archaea, respectively. RDA also showed that nitrate nitrogen explained 16.1%, 8.9% and 34.7% of the variation in community structures of bacteria, fungi, and archaea, respectively.  Conclusions  Under the equal NPK input conditions, partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic amendments increases the abundances of bacteria and fungi, decreases archaea abundance, influences soil dominant flora composition and increases soil microbial diversity. Nitrate nitrogen and organic carbon are the two main soil factors that influence the variation of soil bacteria, fungi and archaea community structures. The archaea community composition is more sensitive to fertilization than bacterial and fungal ones. Overall, the fertilization mode of 2/4CN+1/4MN+1/4SN leads to most diverse and abundant microbial community structure which is good for maintaining soil health and high-yield of vegetables.
Effects of cover crops on gene abundance and community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganism in a kiwifruit orchard
ZHANG Ling-ling, LI Qing-mei, JIA Meng-yuan, ZHANG Yan-jun, ZHAO Jian-ning, YANG Dian-lin, WANG Hua-ling, WANG Hui
2021, 27(3): 417-428.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20361
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  Objectives  Planting of cover crops between fruit tree rows can improve soil physicochemical properties, and change the structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganism community in the process of the nitrogen cycle. Here, we analyzed the effects of different cover crop treatments on soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in a kiwifruit orchard, and examined its relationship with soil nitrification.  Methods  Soil samples were collected from a five-year kiwifruit orchard where cover crops experiment was set up including four kinds of cover crops [white clover (Trifolium repens L, W), hairy vetch (Vicia Villosa Roth, V), ryegrass (Lolium perenne L, R) and tall fescue (Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev, F)]. The treatments included single cover crop (W), two cover crops (WR), three cover crops (WRV), four cover crops (WRVF) and cleaning tillage (CK). Q-PCR, T-RFLP and cloning and sequencing were employed to analyze the changes in gene abundance, community diversity and structure of AOA and AOB of the different cover crop treatments.  Results  There was no significant difference in the above-ground biomass of the four cover crop treatments. However, soil water content, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen (P < 0.05) increased while soil pH decreased in the WR treatment. Similarly, there was no significant difference in soil physicochemical properties among the other three cover crop treatments. Compared with CK, the abundance of the AOA-amoA gene in W (P < 0.05) was increased by 2.85%, and the abundance of the AOB-amoA gene in W and WR was significantly increased by 4.95% and 6.42%, respectively. The proportion of T-RFs representing AOA varied among the treatmenta but did not cause significant changes in AOA community structure. AOB represented by T-RFs changed, and the AOB community structure might change. AOA diversity index significantly decreased in WR, AOA evenness index decreased in WR and WRVF, while AOB diversity index increased in WRV and WRVF. Under the four treatments, the dominant soil bacteria of the AOA group were Nitrososphaera (44.2%) and Nitrosotalea (45.8%), and those of AOB group were Nitrosospira (96.98%) and Nitrosomonas (3.02%). Pearson correlation analysis and redundancy analysis showed that soil pH, water content, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were the main factors affecting soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganism abundance and community structure.  Conclusions  Soil pH, soil water, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen content are the main environmental factors affecting the community structure and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. White clover and ryegrass mixed cropping system significantly increases soil moisture content, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen content but decreases soil pH. However, the differences in soil properties lead to increased diversity of microorganism, but not sufficient enough to cause a variation in the microbial structure.
Mechanisms of earthworm fermentation products reducing apple replant disease
PAN Feng-bing, JIANG Wei-tao, CHEN Ran, XU Ming-na, CHEN Xue-sen, SHEN Xiang, YIN Cheng-miao, MAO Zhi-quan
2021, 27(3): 429-439.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20415
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  Objectives  We studied the effect of earthworm homogenate prepared by wet grinding fermentation on microbial composition and hazardous compounds related to continuous cropping of apple (Malus hupehensis) and apple replant disease (ARD).  Methods  We grew apple seedlings (Malus hupehensis) in pots filled with soil collected from a 27-year old apple orchard. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) homogenate prepared by wet grinding and fermented with addition of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger was applied into soil. After the apple seedlings were grown for 4 months, the growth status of seedlings, total microbial population, hazardous compounds content and the pathogenic bacteria population were assessed.   Results  The earthworm fermentation products significantly increased the number of bacteria and actinomycetes, and reduced the number of fungi. The four harmful fungi (F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. solani and F. moniliforme) closely related to continuous cropping of apple decreased by 65.6%, 13.9%, 84.2% and 24.1%, respectively. The earthworm fermentation products significantly reduced the contents of phloroside, phloretin and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the soil by 74.2%, 48.9% and 67.0%, respectively. Earthworm fermentation products also significantly promoted root growth, root respiration rate and antioxidant enzyme activity. The root respiration rate, SOD, POD, and CAT activities were increased by 69.4%, 81.2%, 81.1% and 161.5%, respectively. Compared to control, the biomass of apple seedlings increased significantly, the plant dry weight was 2.58 times of that in CK, the photosynthetic efficiency increased by 46.5%, the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were 1.38 times and 1.65 times of those in CK, respectively.  Conclusions  The application of earthworm fermentation products could effectively increase the population of bacteria and actinomycetes, and decrease that of fungi and hazardous substance contents in soil. Thus, it is effective in promoting the growth of young apple trees as well as reducing the harm caused by the apple replant disease.
The composition of organic phosphorus and bioavailability of different organic materials
LIU Na, MA Xu-dong, MU Jun, FAN Ting, WANG Xu-dong
2021, 27(3): 440-449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20302
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  Objectives  This study investigated the organic P composition of different organic materials and their P supply capacity as P sources, providing theoretical and data reference for the organic substitutions of P fertilizer.  Methods  A wheat pot experiment was carried out, the used organic materials included manures (pig manure, sheep manure), legumes (pea, alfalfa, mung bean), straws (wheat straw, maize straw, rape straw). The total and organic P contents and the C/P ratio in the eight materials were analyzed, and the organic P was fractioned into labile organic P (LOP), medium-labile organic P (MLOP), medium-stable organic P (MROP) and high-stable organic P (HROP) via the Bowman and Cole methods. The wheat P uptake, soil available P content were determined.  Results  The total P content in manures, legumes and straws were 5.49–5.52 g/kg, 1.19–2.59 g/kg and 0.57–1.07 g/kg respectively, the proportion of organic P was in range of 31.3%–55.2%. Except mung bean stalks, the organic P contents in all the tested organic materials were lower than inorganic P contents. In the total organic P, the average proportions of LOP, MLOP, MROP, HROP were 8.5%, 45.2%, 41.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The LOP content was in the order of manures (175.5 mg/kg) > legumes (67.03 mg/kg) > straws (25.8 mg/kg). The MLOP contents were relatively high in pig manure and mung bean straw. The MROP content was significantly different and in order of sheep manure > pig manure > alfalfa > mung bean > pea > maize straw > rape straw > wheat straw; The HROP content in manures was significantly higher than that in the other organic materials. The application of legumes and manures significantly increased the P uptake and biological yield of wheat, but application of straws significantly reduced them. The P uptake of wheat was positively correlated with soil available P content, negatively correlated with the C/P ratio of organic materials, and positively correlated with the LOP, MLOP and MROP of organic materials, not correlated with HROP contents. The content of soil available P was negatively correlated with the C/P of organic materials.  Conclusions  In all the tested organic materials in this experiment, the total P content is in order of manures > legumes > straws, and the organic P content is lower than inorganic P, except mung bean stalks. Medium liable and medium stable P (MLOP and MROP) are the two main fractions in the organic P. Legumes and manures have relatively high P content and relatively low C/P ratio, their application could increase soil available P, so can be used to replace a certain ratio of chemical P fertilizer. While straws have low P content and high C/P ratio, so the bioavailability of P is low, not suitable for use as part of P fertilizer.
Effects of long-term fertilization on phosphorus adsorption and desorption characters in yellow soil
LIU Yan-ling, LI Yu, ZHANG Meng, ZHANG Ya-rong, HUANG Xing-cheng, JIANG Tai-ming, ZHANG Wen-an
2021, 27(3): 450-459.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20321
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  Objectives  The adsorption and desorption process influences the behavior of P in soil. The effect of long-term fertilization on the adsorption and desorption of soil P was studied, to provide theoretical basis of rational fertilizer application and improve the P availability of yellow soil.  Methods  Conducted between 1995 and 2016 on a yellow soil in Guiyang City, the long-term fertilization experiment consisted of five treatments: blank control (CK), no P fertilizer input (NK), NPK chemical fertilizer (NPK), manure alone (M) and NPK plus manure (MNPK). The soil physico-chemical properties were determined. Isothermal adsorption and desorption experiment was conducted to determine the maximum P adsorption capacity (Qm), P adsorption constant (K), P adsorption free energy (|ΔG|), buffering capacity of soil P (MBC), P saturation degree (DPS), P immobilization amount (PI), P desorption rate (DR).  Results  Long-term fertilization treatments significantly affected soil physical and chemical properties. M and MNPK treatments significantly reduced soil clay content, increased soil organic matter content and pH, and increased soil total P, Olsen-P and microbial biomass P content. NK and NPK treatments had no significant effect on soil clay content, but decreased soil organic matter and pH. NK treatment reduced soil P content and availability. Langmuir equation was proved well to predict the absorption and desorption of P in soil ( R 2=0.953–0.995; P<0.01). Compared with CK, Qm of NK and NPK treatments increased by 39.2% and 40.9%, respectively, while that of M treatment decreased by 20.0%, and there was no significant difference in MNPK treatment, which indicated that chemical fertilizer application could increase the adsorption sites of soil for P, while manures application could reduce the adsorption sites, and the adsorption sites changed little when combined application of manures and chemical fertilizers; K, |ΔG|, MBC and PI were such that MNPK≤ M< CK < NPK < NK, while DPS followed this order–MNPK >M > NPK > CK > NK, average of DR followed this order–MNPK>M>CK>NPK>NK. When the concentration of addition P was less than 10 mg/L, the distribution proportion of P in solid phase and solution phase in NK and NPK treatments was 85.8–100.3, CK treatment was 4.2–28.8, M and MNPK treatments was 2.5–7.7, which indicated that when the added P concentration was low, most of the P in the treatments of long-term application of chemical fertilizer was absorbed by the soil, which was difficult to be used by crops. However, most of the P in the treatments of long-term application of manures remained in the soil solution, which was conducive to the absorption and utilization by crops. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of Qm, K, |ΔG|, MBC and PI with soil clay content, pH and organic matter were greater than those with soil P nutrient, which showed that the influence of clay content, pH and organic matter on the characteristic parameters of soil P adsorption and desorption was greater than that of soil P nutrient.  Conclusions  In conclusion, under the long-term fertilization conditions, the effect of fertilization structure on P adsorption and desorption characteristics of yellow soil is greater than that of P application rate. Long-term application of manures could reduce the adsorption of soil P, promote its desorption, and improve its availability in the soil, while long-term application of chemical fertilizer is on the contrary. Long-term combination of NPK fertilizers with manures appear to be a better fertilization mode in yellow soil, because it can integrate the advantages of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer. When the P concentration is low, it can decrease the soil adsorption capacity and increase desorption capacity, and improve P availability in soil. When the P concentration is high, it can reduce the desorption rate of soil P and reduce the risk of P loss. However, in this study, the risk of P loss in MNPK treatment is high, because of long-term excess P fertilizer application resulted in the P accumulation.
Driving factors of organic sulfur mineralization in brown soil under long-term fertilization
HAN Meng, YANG Jin-feng, XIE Fang, LI Na, DAI Jian, WANG Yue, LU Yu, HAN Xiao-ri
2021, 27(3): 460-469.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20406
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  Objectives  We assessed the effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic sulfur mineralization, enzyme activities and the main driving factors of organic sulfur mineralization in maize-soybean rotation system in a brown soil.  Methods  The experiment with 15 treatments in brown soil was established by Shenyang Agricultural University in 1979, the cropping system was maize-maize-soybean rotation. The seven treatments used in this study were CK (no fertilization), N1 (low-level chemical N fertilizer), N2 (high-level chemical N fertilizer), N1P (low-chemical N+P fertilizer), N1PK (low-chemical N+PK fertilizer), M1 (low-level pig manure) and M1N1PK (low-level pig manure+low-chemical N+PK fertilizer). Soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected in 2014 and 2015 to determine soil basic physical and chemical property (pH, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen), organic S mineralization rate, soil neutral protease and soil aryl sulfatase activities. A chamber culture experiment was also conducted to assess the mineralization characteristics of organic S at different temperatures.  Results  Long-term fertilization increased the mineralization of soil organic sulfur and the overall change trend was M1N1PK > M1 > N1PK, N1, N2 > N1P > CK. The mineralization of organic sulfur did not change with the increase of chemical nitrogen fertilizer application rate. Compared with no fertilization, application of pig manure or combined application of pig manure and chemical fertilizer significantly increased soil organic sulfur mineralization. According to the first-order kinetic equation fitting, the long-term fertilization increased the organic sulfur mineralization potential. Environmental temperature and crop species significantly affected the mineralization amount and mineralization potential of organic sulfur. The mineralization amount and potential of organic S increased significantly with the increase of environmental temperature. The mineralization amount and mineralization potential of organic sulfur in maize planting year were higher than those in soybean planting year. Compared with the application of chemical fertilizer alone, M1N1PK treatment increased the activities of neutral protease and aryl sulfatase by 96%–220% and 264%–986%, respectively. Total mineralization of organic sulfur was positively correlated with soil organic carbon (r = 0.7693) and total nitrogen (r = 0.7554) in maize planting year.  Conclusions  Organic sulfur mineralization in brown soil was affected by fertilizer, temperature and crop species. The activities of soil aryl sulfatase and neutral protease as well as the mineralization potential and mineralization amount of organic sulfur were improved by combining application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. The organic carbon and total nitrogen in the soil were the main driving forces of organic sulfur mineralization in the maize season. Maize planting could promote the mineralization of organic S as the relatively large biomass.
Effects of fertilization on ammonia volatilization and garlic yield in Erhai Lake Basin of Yunnan Province
SHEN Shi-zhou, YANG Yan, WANG Rui-qi, WU Fan, HU Yu-kang, WANG Feng, ZHANG Ke-qiang
2021, 27(3): 470-479.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20362
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  Objectives  We assessed the effects of fertilizer types and nitrogen application rates on ammonia volatilization and garlic yield.  Methods  In November 2018, we established a garlic field experiment with different fertilization strategies in Erhai Lake Basin, Dali, Yunnan Province. The eight fertilization treatments in the study included: no fertilization (CK), conventional fertilizer rate (N–P2O5–K2O 675–180–150 kg/hm2, CF), 20% reduction of conventional fertilizer rate (N–P2O5–K2O 540–144–120 kg/hm2, T1), replacement of N in T1 with same amount of organic fertilizer (T2), replacement of P in T1 with same amount of organic fertilizer (T3), replacement of N in T1 with organic fertilizer based on 25% mineralization rate (T4), replacement of P in T1 with organic fertilizer based on 25% mineralization rate (T5), and controlled release fertilizer substitution with the same amount of N in T1 (T6). The garlic field was fertilized four times in the whole growth period. Ammonia volatilization were monitored using the method of closed chamber intermittent ventilation after each fertilization, and garlic yield was measured during harvest period.   Results  The garlic yield of CF was significantly higher than those of other treatments. Ammonia volatilization mainly occurred within 7 days after each fertilization, with the peak value ranging from 2.21 to 9.83 kg/(hm2·d). The cumulative ammonia volatilization varied among the treatments at each fertilization period. The cumulative ammonia volatilization under CF, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 treatments were 71.76, 52.3, 30.56, 53.65, 44.67, 59.95 and 40.22 kg/hm2, respectively. The loss of ammonia volatilization accounted for 10.63%, 9.48%, 5.50%, 9.72%, 2.02%, 4.80% and 7.30% of the total amount of nitrogen in CF, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively. The amount of ammonia volatilization and the loss rate of CF were significantly higher than other treatments, indicating that ammonia volatilization increased with increase in nitrogen application. The order of ammonia volatilization among different treatments was: T2<T4≈T6<T1≈T3<T5.   Conclusions  In Erhai Lake Basin, the ammonia volatilization of conventional fertilizer application was significantly higher than other fertilization treatments. There was no significant difference in garlic yields of the fertilizer replacement treatments, but ammonia volatilization and nitrogen loss rate significantly differ. The greater the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, the higher the ammonia volatilization and nitrogen loss rate. Increase in the quantity of organic fertilizer replacement for urea resulted in the increase of ammonia volatilization and nitrogen loss rate. Considering the agronomic and environmental benefits, the single application of organic fertilizer with 20% reduction of the conventional chemical fertilizer rate could enhance garlic yield, reduce ammonia volatilization and replace conventional fertilization practice in Erhai Lake Basin.
Effects of Nutrient Expert system on yield and economic benefits of winter wheat in the dryland of Northwest China
YUAN Ai-jing, YU Jie, JIANG Long-gang, QIU Wei-hong, WANG Zhao-hui
2021, 27(3): 480-490.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20348
Abstract(206) FullText HTML(146) PDF 703KB(20) Related Articles
  Objectives   The effect of recommended fertilizer application for wheat production based on Nutrient Expert (NE) system was studied in the Weibei dryland area of Shaanxi Province. The study aim was to test the applicability of the recommended fertilization method in the dryland wheat production area.   Methods   We conducted fifteen winter wheat field trials over two years. Soil samples (0–100 cm depth) were collected to determined nitrate N content before planting. The treatments included farmers’ practice (FP, fertilization according to the local farmers as the control) and fertilization regime according to NE. Wheat yield, fertilizer input and economic benefits of winter wheat production in the study area were investigated. Also, we determined the content of N, P, and K in the wheat plants.   Results   The average nutrient input of the NE treatment was N 158 kg/hm2, P2O5 62 kg/hm2, and K2O 40 kg/hm2. The corresponding values recorded in the FP treatment were N 192 kg/hm2, P2O5 134 kg/hm2 and K2O 28 kg/hm2. The N and P2O5 inputs of NE were 18% and 54% less than those in FP, while the K2O input was 43% higher in the former than the latter. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the average grain yield and nitrate N residue between NE and FP. However, the economic benefit was significantly increased by 7.8%, PFP of N fertilizer increased by 25.1%, and PFP of P fertilizer increased by 139.8%.   Conclusions   Compared with fertilization according to the local farmers, the recommending fertilization based on the NE system is suitable for reducing nitrogen and phosphorus application rates by 18% and 54% and increasing potassium application rates by 43% , keeps stable wheat yield, and effectively improves the efficiency of fertilization and economic benefits. This result suggests that the NE system is applicable for fertilization of winter wheat in dryland areas.
Replacing 20% of chemical nitrogen with manures to increase soil nutrient availability and maize yield in a chernozem soil
JI Jia-peng, ZHAO Xin-yu, WU Jing-gui, MENG Qing-long, GUAN Hua-jian, NIU An-qiu
2021, 27(3): 491-499.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20357
Abstract(178) FullText HTML(117) PDF 675KB(22) Related Articles
  Objectives  Combining application of chemical and organic fertilizers has been found an effective way to reduce fertilizer losses and improve fertilizer utilization in crop production. The effects of reducing chemical fertilizer rate and compensation nutrient amount with organic fertilizers on soil nutrient availability and maize yield were studied in this paper under straw returning to field in strips.  Methods  Field experiments were carried out consecutively in 2018 and 2019 in a chernozem soil where maize is mono-cropped all the time. The treatment plots were separated by returning maize straw to field in strips, and there are a total of four fertilization treatments in the experiment: NPK compound fertilizer in conventional application rate (T1) and in 20% less application rate (T2), and compensate the reduced 20% N rate with chicken manure (T3) or cow manure (T4). The soil organic carbon and available nutrient contents were measured at the jointing and harvest periods of the maize each year, as well as the corn yield.  Results  Compared with T1 treatment, reducing 20% of fertilizer input (T2 treatment) did not reduce the maize yields for two consecutive years, but decreased the soil available nutrient contents, especially in the second experimental year; Compensating the reduced nutrient input with chicken or cattle manure (T3 and T4 treatments) significantly increased the contents of soil organic carbon and available nutrients, and the maize yields. The T3 treatment had the most profound influence on the soil nutrients for the two consecutive years. In the first year, the contents of organic C, alkaline N, available P, and available K in T3 treatment were increased by 15.2%, 12.2%, 16.7%, and 7.75%, respectively and 13%, 18.5%, 34.2%, and 18.5% respectively for the second year. The maize yield in T3 treatment increased by 3.75% and 15.4% in the first and second year respectively. T4 treatment had the most striking effect, increasing the maize yield by 5.6% and 20.8% in the first and second year respectively, compared to T1. Correlation analysis revealed that the soil organic C and available N, P and K were all significantly correlated with maize yield.  Conclusions  Under condition of returning maize straws to the field in strips, replacing 20% of conventional NPK inputs with manures shows sounded effect in increasing soil fertility and obtaining higher yield. Chicken manure is more effective than cattle manure in chernozem soil.
Root morphology and partitioning of Fe accumulation in maize cultivars under low iron stress condition at seedling stage
REN Yun, LIU Jing, LI Zhe-xin, LI Hui-he, LI Qiang
2021, 27(3): 500-510.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20396
Abstract(153) FullText HTML(98) PDF 654KB(14) Related Articles
  Objectives  The high pH and bicarbonate content in calcareous soil seriously affect the availability of Fe to crops, resulting in Fe deficiency, chlorosis, and reduction of yield. Fe-efficient maize cultivars are thus used as an effective way against Fe deficiency in calcareous soil. The root morphology of different Fe-efficient maize cultivars to adapt to low Fe stress were assessed in this study.  Methods  A hydroponic experiment was carried out using four maize cultivars, two Fe-efficient cultivars (ZH2 and ZD619) and two Fe-inefficient cultivars (XY508 and CD418). Fe levels of very low (No Fe added, Fe0), low (Fe 10 μmol/L, Fe10, ) and normal (Fe 100 μmol/L, Fe100) were setup in nutrient solution. Root morphological characteristics, dry matter accumulation and Fe absorption and utilization by maize were measured at seedling stage.  Results  Under low-Fe stress, the dry weight of root and plant, the Fe accumulation and relative absorption efficiency of maize seedlings were drastically reduced, while the root to shoot ratio and the Fe physiological efficiency increased significantly. The total root length, root surface area and root volume of Fe-inefficient cultivars were reduced whereas the root diameter was significantly increased under low Fe stress. Even though, the total root length and surface area of the Fe-efficient cultivars were comparable, the root volume increased significantly but the root diameter decreased significantly under the extremely low iron (Fe0) treatment as it was under the low (Fe10) treatment. The reduction in total root length, root surface area, root volume, root dry weight, dry matter per plant, iron accumulation, and Fe absorption efficiency of roots and the increase in root to shoot ratio of Fe-efficient cultivars were notably lower than those of Fe-inefficient cultivars. Correlation analysis results revealed that the Fe accumulation of maize seedlings was positively and significantly correlated with total root length, root surface area, root volume and root dry weight, but negatively correlated with root-shoot ratio. Among them, the correlation with total root length (R2 = 0.8546) and root surface area (R2 = 0.8983) was the strongest.  Conclusions  Compared to the Fe-inefficient cultivars, Fe-efficient maize cultivars have larger total root length and root surface area at seedling stage, and higher root Fe absorption efficiency and physiological efficiency to adapt to low Fe stress, which could enhance absorption and utilization of Fe, thereby improve the adaptability to low-Fe environment.
Effects of exogenous glutathione on glutathione metabolism in pakchoi under sulfur deficiency
WANG Dan, WANG Kuan-hong, YANG Jing, ZHU Zhu-jun, ZHU Biao
2021, 27(3): 511-519.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20355
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  Objectives  Sulfur is essential for plant growth and development. Sulfur deficiency causes severe growth retardation of plants which in turn leads to poor crop production. Thus, there is need for studies on how to reduce the adverse effects of sulfur deficiency. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous glutathione (GSH) on GSH metabolism of pakchoi under sulfur deficiency.  Methods  Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.ssp. Chinensis var. communis. cv. Hangzhou You Dong Er) seedlings were grown in hydroponic medium for 17days under normal or sulfur deficiency. Then the seedlings under sulfur deficiency were subjected to three foliar spraying treatments: distilled water (H2O), 25 mg/L of glutathione (GSH) and 25 mg/L of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the pakchoi seedlings grown in normal sulfur medium were sprayed with distilled water and used as control (CK).The leaf samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h after treatment to assess the expression of BcGSH1, and the leaf samples collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h to measure the activity of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECs), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione sulfur transferase (GST) and the content of GSH and GSSG.  Results  Compared with CK, sulfur deficiency significantly reduced the expression of BcGSH1, GSH content, γ-ECs, GR, and GST activities, and increased the activity of GPx. Exogenous GSH significantly increased the GSH content, γ-ECs, GR, GPx and GST activities of pakchoi under sulfur deficiency. Spraying of GSSG increased GSH content, GSSG content, γ-ECs activity, GR and GST activities, but decreased GPx activity.  Conclusions  Sprayed GSH and GSSG could be absorbed by pakchoi under sulfur deficiency. GSSG-induced increase in activities of GR, GST and decrease in that of GPx could alleviate the negative effects of sulfur deficiency on pakchoi.
Mechanistic study on the synergistic promotion of γ-Fe2O3 nanomaterials and Bacillus methylotrophicus to the growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max)
ZHANG Chen-chi, MA Yang-yang, CAO Xue-song, WANG Zhen-yu
2021, 27(3): 520-530.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20493
Abstract(125) FullText HTML(89) PDF 1458KB(6) Related Articles
  Objectives  This study aimed to investigate the performance and mechanism of the synergistic effect of applying iron oxide nanomaterials (γ-Fe2O3 NMs) and Bacillus methylotrophicus (BM) by foliar method on the growth, yield, and seed quality of soybean. Further, the study provides new insight and basic theoretical support for the application of γ-Fe2O3 NMs in agricultural ecosystems.  Methods  The experimental crop was soybean. For the NMs-treatment group, 0, 1, 10, 30, and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NMs were applied to soybean using the foliar method. BM and a series γ-Fe2O3 NMs concentrations were co-applied to the leaf of soybean in the co-application treatment group. Photosynthesis parameters of soybean were measured at 40 days of growth, while plant biomass, total sugar content, and yield were measured at the maturity stage. Luria-Bertani medium in vitro experiment and OD600 of BM solution were performed to investigate the effect of γ-Fe2O3 NMs on BM's growth. A single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to explore the effect of BM on the γ-Fe2O3 NMs bioavailability.  Results  Results indicate that the application of γ-Fe2O3 NMs to soybean by foliar method improved its photosynthesis and biomass. Foliar spray of γ-Fe2O3 NMs in 30 and 50 mg/L significantly increased soybean yield and carbohydrate content in seed. The co-application of BM and γ-Fe2O3 NMs enhanced soybean yield by 31.5% and 13.4% compared with the single application of 30 and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NMs. BM treatment significantly increased the number of soybean root tips compared to the control group, while γ-Fe2O3 NMs treatment did not affect the number of soybean root tips. However, the number of soybean root tips with the co-application of BM and γ-Fe2O3 NMs were (P < 0.05) higher than those treated with BM alone. The aggregation of γ-Fe2O3 NMs (P < 0.05) reduced in the fermentation broth of BM. 10, 30, and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NMs promoted the growth of BM, with the attendant increase in indole acetic acid content in the bacterial fermentation broth from 3.8 mg/L to 7.6–8.8 mg/L in the presence of 10, 30, and 50 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NMs. The co-application of γ-Fe2O3 NMs and BM enhanced the nutrient uptake of soybean and the elemental nutrient content (e.g., Fe, Mn, S, Mg) in seed.  Conclusions  γ-Fe2O3 NMs enhance the photosynthesis of soybean—the main mechanism for improving soybean growth and yield. The co-application of γ-Fe2O3 NMs and BM exhibites a synergistic effect on the growth, yield, and seed quality of soybean. The mechanisms identified are that: 1) the metabolites of BM effectively decrease the aggregation of γ-Fe2O3 NMs, thereby promoting its bioavailability; 2) γ-Fe2O3 NMs promote the growth of BM and the content of indole-3-acetic acid in the metabolites of BM.
Comment on special topic
Root-soil interaction under soil compaction
ZHANG Fang-bo, HOU Yu-xue, AO Yuan-yuan, SHEN Jian-bo, JIN Ke-mo
2021, 27(3): 531-543.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20318
Abstract(319) FullText HTML(393) PDF 694KB(47) Related Articles
  Objectives  Globally, soil compaction causes major changes in soil physical and chemical processes, restricts growth of crop roots, and reduces crop productivity. The root system determines how plants explore soil resources and adapt to stress conditions. In this review, we discuss root-soil interaction of crops under soil compaction. We specifically focus on domestic and international research progress on how to improve the adaptability of root systems to compaction stress through morphological and physiological change, and other root biological potentials.  Advances  Soil compaction inhibits root penetration and limits root access to soil moisture and nutrients. Plant roots change a series of anatomical and morphological traits to fully utilize soil pores for expanding growth space and improving adaptability to soil compaction. In addition, the roots also physiologically respond to soil compaction by releasing large amounts of exudates which in turn affect the soil microstructure, changes the micro-environment of root-soil interface, and reduce the mechanical resistance to root growth.  Prospects  Soil compaction has long been ignored as a yield-limiting factor. Improving the adaptability of plant root to compacted soil by stimulating the biological potentials of root is critical for optimal plant growth. Hence, future research should focus on revealing the mechanisms and processes underlying soil compaction and root-soil-microbe interaction. These advances will provide scientific basis for developing biological potential of roots, strengthening key root or rhizosphere traits, shaping healthy soil structure, and improving crop productivity under soil compaction stress.
Short communication
Differences in organic carbon accumulation between reddish paddy and upland soils under long-term fertilization
LI Wen-jun, HUANG Qing-hai, LI Da-ming, LIU Kai-lou, YE Hui-cai, XIAO Guo-bin, ZHANG Wen-ju, XU Ming-gang
2021, 27(3): 544-552.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20313
Abstract(297) FullText HTML(221) PDF 734KB(28) Related Articles
  Objectives  Increasing soil organic carbon level is of great significance for improving farmland productivity. The accumulation characteristics of organic carbon were studied under long-term different fertilization modes in a reddish paddy soil and an upland red soil that both developed from the same parent material, which would provide scientific basis for further understanding the underlying mechanism of organic carbon sequestration and stabilization in fertilized red soils.  Methods  The study included two long-term fertilization experiments, one was in paddy field and started in 1981, and the other was in adjacent upland field and started in 1986. Surface soil samples (0‒20 cm) were collected after harvest of late rice and maize in November 2017 in the three treatments of CK (no fertilizer), NPK (chemical N, P, K fertilizers) and NPKM (chemical NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) of both the experiments. The contents and storages of TOC and H2SO4-hydrolyzed labile and recalcitrant organic carbon in soils were measured. In addition, soil TOC sequestration potential was computed by fitting the dynamics of TOC content using Jenny model.  Results  Fertilization increased the contents of all organic carbon fractions in soils, and NPKM treatment increased more than NPK did. The content increase range of all the organic carbon fractions in the upland soil was significantly higher than that in the paddy soil. Under NPK treatment, the increase ranges of labile organic carbon fraction Ⅰ (LOCF-Ⅰ), labile organic carbon fraction Ⅱ (LOCF-Ⅱ) and recalcitrant organic carbon (ROC) in upland soil were 2.7 times, 2.7 times and 5.8 times of those in paddy soil, respectively, while under NPKM treatment, the increase ranges of LOCF-Ⅰ, LOCF-Ⅱ and ROC in upland soil were 2.0 times, 1.4 times and 2.5 times of those in paddy soil, respectively. No matter fertilization or not, the TOC sequestration amount and potential in paddy soils were significantly higher than those in upland soils. NPKM treatment presented better effect for promoting TOC sequestration as compared with NPK treatment. The soil TOC sequestration amount and potential under NPKM treatment were 1.7 times and 1.4 times of those under NPK treatment in paddy field, and were 25.5 times and 5.8 times in upland field. Long-term fertilization significantly increased exogenous carbon input in both paddy and upland fields, and the increase of labile organic carbon storage contributed 64.7% of TOC storage in paddy soil and 44.6% in upland soil, respectively. The contents of LOCF-Ⅰ, LOCF-Ⅱ and ROC in the paddy soil were all significantly higher than those in the upland soil, regardless of fertilization regimes. The difference in total labile organic carbon (summing LOCF-Ⅰ and LOCF-Ⅱ) content between the paddy and the upland soil could explain 52.9%‒60.0% of the difference in TOC content.  Conclusions  Manure amendments combined with chemical NPK fertilizers significantly promote organic carbon sequestration in red soils as compared with chemical NPK fertilizers application alone, which is more pronounced in upland system. Compared with paddy soil, the change of content of each organic carbon fraction in upland soil was more sensitive to fertilizations, which is more obvious under the condition of chemical NPK fertilizers application. The main contributors of TOC accumulation in paddy and upland red soil are soil labile and recalcitrant organic carbon, respectively. Though reddish paddy soil is beneficial for TOC sequestration as compared with upland red soil, the proportions of labile fractions in its TOC is relatively higher, and thus is vulnerable to loss due to improper agricultural management.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(5926) PDF 2130KB(2041)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(5826) PDF 2629KB(15639)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(3882) PDF 929KB(1660)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(6059) PDF 1767KB(1139)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(5192) PDF 876KB(2264)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(3132) PDF 1119KB(1185)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(6691) PDF 906KB(2101)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(4474) PDF 1163KB(1610)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(4056) PDF 1228KB(1330)
Effects of long-term straw return on soil fertility, nitrogen pool fractions and crop yields on a fluvo-aquic soil in North China
ZHAO Shi-cheng, CAO Cai-yun, LI Ke-jiang, QIU Shao-jun, ZHOU Wei, HE Ping
2014, 20(6): 1441-1449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0614
Abstract(4303) PDF 1272KB(1004)