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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Construction and verification of a critical N dilution curve for flue-cured tobacco under tobacco-rice rotation systems in southeast China
HE Zhong-qiu, WANG Xiao-lin, ZHANG Qi-ming, YUAN Ju-min, ZHANG Yang, ZHANG Shuang, SUN Zhi-wei, YAN Hui-feng
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021157
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  Objectives  This study aims to construct a critical N dilution curve for flue-cured tobacco and use the same to rapidly diagnose and evaluate the N nutrition status of flue-cured tobacco.  Methods  Three field experiments were conducted in two locations for two years. Six N application rates (0, 45, 90, 135, 180, and 300 kg/hm2) were setup in each experiment. The shoot and leaf dry matter accumulation recorded on different days after transplanting were analyzed. The critical N dilution curve equation and dry matter accumulation equation of shoot and leaves were established using N concentration and dry matter accumulation in plants at different growth stages. Combined with the non-destructive determination of N concentration based on the visible spectrum platform of UAV, the N nutrition index (NNI) was calculated and used to determine the N nutrition status of flue-cured tobacco plants.  Results  N application (P < 0.05) increased shoot and leaf dry matter accumulation of flue-cured tobacco, with variation among the N treatments. The N concentration in shoot and leaves decreased across the growth stages of flue-cured tobacco. The power equation described the relationship between the critical N concentration and dry matter accumulation in the shoot and leaves: Nc=3.1941×DMleaves-0.411. Independent validation of the model showed that observations for the N deficient group were below the critical N dilution curve, while those of the sufficient N group were near the curve. The RMSEs of the simulated and actual critical N concentrations for the shoots and leaves were 0.55 and 0.44, and the corresponding n-RMSEs were 25% and 17%, showing the high stability of the model. The leaf NNI of flue-cured tobacco gradually increased with an increasing N application rate. The leaf NNI was higher than 1 when N application rate reached surplus level (135 kg/hm2).  Conclusions  The constructed leaf critical N dilution curve for flue-cured tobacco under tobacco-rice rotation system was Nc = 3.1941 × DMleaves–0.411, which is accurate with low n-RMSEs. This was verified by leaf NNIs that coincide with the N application levels, suggesting the curve could be used to rapidly diagnose the N status of flue-cured tobacco in the study area.
Rice yield, quality, and soil fertility in response to straw incorporation and rotation pattern
WU Yu-hong, WANG Lü, CUI Yue-zheng, HAO Xing-shun, WANG Bao-jun, TIAN Xiao-hong, LI Xiao-gang, QIN Yu-hang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021150
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  Objectives  We compared the change in rice yield, quality, and soil fertility under three conventional rice-rotation patterns to set up a green cultivation mode in the study area.   Methods  Field experiments were conducted for two years consecutively in the Han Tang experimental base of Hanzhong Institute of Agricultural Science from 2018 to 2020. Indica Hybrid rice cultivar 'Quanxiangyou 1521' was used as test material in 2019 and conventional indica rice cultivar 'Huanghuazhan' in 2020. There were six crop rotation patterns and straw incorporation treatments: rape-rice rotation (R-R) with or without straw incorporation, Astragalus sinicus-rice rotation (G-R) with the incorporation of A. sinicus straw only, with the incorporation of A. sinicus and rice straws, winter fallow-rice rotation (F-R) with or without rice straw incorporation. After rice harvest, soil samples in 0-20 cm soil layer were collected to determine the soil nutrient contents, rice yield, yield components, and rice quality.   Results  Compared with the no straw incorporation treatment, returning straw to the soil (P < 0.05) increased active organic carbon by 4.09%-18.89%, organic carbon by 6.84%-24.06%, available N by 9.63%-17.43%, available P by 9.10%-41.05%, and available K by 3.72%-17.36%. Rotation patterns improved soil fertility in the order R-R > G-R > W-R. Rotation mode had a (P < 0.05) effect on grain number per spike, seed setting rate, and 1000-grain weight. Returning straw to the soil (P < 0.05) affected grain number per spike and the effective panicle of rice. Compared to G-R and W-R, R-R treatment (P < 0.05) increased the rice yield of 'Quanxiangyou 1521' and 'Huanghuazhan' by 1.71%, 8.95% and 5.51%, 6.41%, respectively. Rotation patterns did not affect rice processing quality and appearance. However, it affected rice taste, protein, and amylose content. G-R treatment (P < 0.05) increased the protein content and gel consistency by 11.01% and 4.69% and decreased amylose content by 2.56%, compared to R-R and W-R. Returning straw to the soil increased rice heading rate by 0.48%-3.12% and taste value by 0.45%-4.79%.   Conclusions  Returning straw to the soil annually under all the three rotation patterns can improve soil fertility, grain number per panicle, effective panicle, rice yield and appearance, processing quality, nutritional quality, and steaming quality of rice. Returning rice straw and Astragalus sinicus to the soil can improve indica rice yield and quality, a green cultivation mode suitable for high-quality agricultural development in this region.
Effects of copper stress on plant growth and advances in the mechanisms of plant tolerance research
WANG Zi-cheng, CHEN Meng-xia, YANG Yu-xian, FANG Xiang, LIU Zhong-jie, WANG Ling-yu, GE Meng-qing, ZHANG Chuan, FANG Jing-gui, SHANGGUAN Ling-fei
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021164
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Copper (Cu), an important trace element for the growth and health of plants It plays a vital role in various physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, antioxidant system, and hormone signaling transduction. However, insufficient or excessive Cu content in plant body both seriously affect the normal physiological metabolism in plants. In recent years, the widespread use of copper-containing fungicides and the emission of industrial copper pollutants lead to soil Cu pollution, the resultant Cu stress to plants has attracted wide concern. Hence, exploring the adverse impact of supra-optimal level of Cu to plant growth, and the molecular mechanisms of plants in response to Cu stress is of great significance for the reclamation of copper-contaminated soils. This work reviewed the studies related to copper stress in plants domestically and overseas, and systematically summarized the physiological process of Cu absorption, transportation and accumulation, and the tolerance mechanism of plants in response to copper stress. Further required researches on molecular regulation mechanism of copper stress and phytoremediation were as well proposed .
Effects of fertigation on yield, water and nitrogen utilization and economic productivity of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)
LIU Peng-zhao, LI Meng-hao, SONG Yang-chao, YANG Dong, GAO Xiao-dong, REN Xiao-long, CHEN Xiao-li
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021166
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  Objectives  This study analyzed the effects of different water and nitrogen conditions on water and nitrogen utilization efficiency, yield and economic benefits of Lycium barbarum, so as to provide a theoretical basis for local Lycium barbarum cultivation to save water and increase yield and improve efficiency in Qaidam basin.   Methods  The experiment was conducted in the Qaidam Basin at Huaiten Tula irrigation area, Qinghai Province from 2018 to 2019. The tested wolfberry cultivar was Ningqi 7, which was two years old. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with two factors, each having three levels. The three irrigation levels were W1 (198 m3/hm2), W2 (158 m3/hm2), and W3 (119 m3/hm2), and the three N levels were N1 (345 kg/hm2), N2 (276 kg/hm2), and N3 (207 kg/hm2). The water storage in 0–100 cm soil profile, the water consumption, water use efficiency (WUE), yield and economic benefit of wolfberry were analyzed.   Results  Water and N interaction had a significant effect on soil water storage. The highest soil water storage was recorded in W2N2 treatment in the two trial years. The water use efficiency in water treatments was in order of W2>W3>W1, and that in W1 were 79.4% and 59.3% higher than in W2 and W3. The highest WUE was recorded in W2N3 [17.26 kg/(hm2·mm))]. The average N partial productivity (NPP) for the two years was in order W2>W3>W1. Under the same irrigation level, the NPP decreased with the increase of N levels, and the highest NPP (15.71 kg/kg) was recorded in W2N3. The yield and economic benefit of wolfberry were increased by irrigation and N application. The overall yield and productivity among irrigation treatments were W2>W3>W1. The wolfberry yield and the net income of W2 and W3 were 49.4% and 29.1% higher; and 3.36 times and 2.88 times respectively higher than that of W1. Compared with W2N1, the wolfberry yield of W2N2 and W2N3 treatments increased by 10.6% and 16.7% respectively, while the net income increased by 29.1% and 41.6%, respectively.  Conclusions  Only proper irrigation could significantly increase the water storage in 0–100 cm soil profile and decrease water consumption. Irrigation at 150–160 m3/hm2 and N rate of 200–220 kg/hm2 (W2N3) is the optimum combination for Lycium barbarum in Qaidam Basin.
Effects of carbon on microbe-root interaction mediating P acquisition by vegetable crops
LI Hong-liang, ZHU Hai-tao, XU Si-xin, CAI Shu-mei, FU Zi-shi, ZHANG De-shan
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021147
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  Objectives  Carbon (C) underpins microbial metabolism. Thus, it is critical to understand the microbe-root interaction associated with high P use efficiency. This study investigated the influence of C on microbial mediated P availability and its role in modifying root morphological and exudation traits.  Methods  A pot experiment with glucose addition was conducted to investigate the effects of microbial mediated P availability (microbial biomass P and Olsen-P) on root morphological (root biomass, root/shoot ratio, root length, diameter, specific length and tissue density) and exudation traits (acid phosphatase, citrate, and malate) governing P acquisition by Brassica chinensis at day 7 and 21.  Results  At 7 days after addition, glucose increased microbial biomass P while decreasing soil Olsen-P. When roots in glucose and no-glucose soils were compared, root biomass and root/shoot ratio increased, while total root length decreased by 33%. Furthermore, root diameter increased by 37%, while specific root length decreased by 46%. When glucose amended soil was compared to no-glucose soil, the rhizosphere citrate content increased by 106%. Microbial biomass P decreased from the 7th to the 21st day after glucose addition, and soil Olsen-P increased, eliciting higher Olsen-P in glucose soil than no-glucose soil on the 21st day after addition. In parallel with the variation in microbial biomass P and Olsen-P, Brassica chinensis proliferated rapidly, increased root length by 33%, but decreased rhizosphere exudation of acid phosphatase and citrate in the former compared to the no-glucose soil. On days 7 and 21, there was no difference in the shoot P content of Brassica chinensis in the glucose and no-glucose treatments.  Conclusions  Glucose addition increased microbial biomass P but decreased soil Olsen-P content, resulting in strong citrate exudation to meet crop P demand on day 7. However, at day 21, microbial biomass decreased, increasing soil P availability and stimulating rapid root elongation. To summarize, microbial biomass P turnover and efficient root P-acquisition strategies determine crop P use efficiency.
Effects of warming on the decomposition rates of the straw of different crops in soils and modelling
DING Si-cheng, CHEN Shu-tao, WANG Jin, ZHANG Miao-miao, HU Zheng-hua
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021142
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  Objectives  This study aimed to investigate the effects of warming on the decomposition rates of different crop straws in soils.   Methods  A field embedding experiment was performed during the two growing seasons from December 2019 to October 2020. The decomposition percentages of the straw of maize, sweet potato and soybean during the summer crops growing season and the straw of winter wheat, garlic and rapeseed during the autumn crops growing season were measured. The coefficients of decomposition rates were simulated with a function including the initial C, N, lignin content and C/N ratio of different crop straws. The modelled decomposition coefficient k value was further used to predict the residual straw mass of different crops after the different embedding days. The predicted and observed residual straw mass was analyzed using a linear regression to evaluate the modelling efficiency.   Results  Warming significantly (P < 0.05) increased the decomposition percentage of the straw of maize, sweet potato and soybean during the early decomposition period, but had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on the decomposition percentage during other decomposition periods. Warming induced a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the decomposition percentage of the straw of rapeseed during the whole growing season. Warming had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on the decomposition percentage of the straw of garlic during the whole growing season. Warming had no significant (P > 0.05) effects on the coefficients of decomposition rates of the straw of each of the six crops. However, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences in the coefficients of decomposition rates of the straw among the six crops. The decomposition coefficient was highest for the garlic straw and lowest for the soybean straw under both control and warming treatments. The decomposition coefficient of the garlic straw was twice times higher than that of soybean straw. Multiple regression (k=−1.073C+7.315N+0.223C/N−0.004L+33.900) including the variables of the carbon content (C), nitrogen content (N), the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) and lignin content (L) could be used to model the variations in the coefficients of decomposition rates of the straw of the six crops under the different treatments. The model simulated 92.1% (R2 = 0.921, P < 0.001) of the variation in the decomposition rates of the straw. The slope for the linear regression function fitting the relationship between the modelled and the observed decomposition rates of the straw was very close the 1:1 line. The validation analysis based on the residual straw mass after the different embedding days and the modelled decomposition coefficients of straw showed that the modelled and observed values of residual straw mass of different crops fitted well (R2 = 0.922, P < 0.001), indicating that this model effectively simulated the straw decomposition dynamics.  Conclusions  Warming significantly increased the decomposition rates of the straw of maize, sweet potato and winter wheat compared with the control but did not impact the decomposition rates of the straw of soybean, garlic and rapeseed. The coefficients of decomposition rates of crop straws could be modelled by the C, N, lignin content and C/N of crop straws. This model could also well explain the remained straw mass of different crops after different embedding days.
Dominant microbial community in rhizosphere affecting active components of Cinnamomum migao at different ripening stages and their response to soil properties
CHEN Jing-zhong, HUANG Xiao-long, LIU Ji-ming, SUN Qing-wen
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021095
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  Objectives  Microbial diversity affects the main fruit ingredients that determine the fruit medical quality of Cinnamomum migao. We compared the microbial communities in the rhizosphere of C. migao at different ripening stages, and their relationship with soil chemical and biological properties.  Methods  This study was conducted at three typical sites [Luodian (LD), Bapeng (BP) and Xiangle (XL)] known for growing of C. migao in Guizhou Province, China. At young, nearly maturing and maturing stages, we collected C. migao fruit samples for determination of main medical ingredients, and rhizosphere soil samples for measurement of microorganisms and chemical and biological properties.   Results  A total of 870008 effective fungal sequences (belonging to 3026 OTUs) and 568739 effective bacterial sequences (belonging to 4971 OTUs) were obtained from the three sites. The dominant rhizosphere bacteria genus at young fruit stage were Saitozyma and Mortierella, at close to mature period were Ganoderma and Clitocybula, and at mature period were Mortierella and Saitozym. The rhizosphere fungi were Sphingomonas and Arthrobacter at young fruit periods, Arthrobacter and Bacillus were higher in close to mature periods, and Arthrobacter and Acidibacter were higher in mature period. The results showed that the fruit has high contents of sugar and crude fat and moderate volatile oil content. In general, the fruit quality of LD was the best. RDA analysis showed that the dominant microbe in C. migao fruits were Saitozyma, Mortierella and Arthrobacter, and that α-Terpineol, sabinene, soluble polysaccharide and crude polysaccharide could promote their accumulation. S-UE had the greatest effect on the composition of rhizosphere microbial community, followed by available P (AP) and S-CAT.   Conclusions  The diversity of rhizosphere microbial community varied among different fruiting stages significantly. Ascomycota an unidentified genus, Saitozyma, Mortierella, and Arthrobacter significantly promoted the accumulation of C. migao fruit chemical components in different fruit periods. In Luodian, C. migao fruit was mostly affected by Ascomycota (an unidentified genus), while the C. migao fruit in BP and XL were most affected by Mortierella. The rhizosphere fungi Agaricus, Fusarium and Phialophora had no obvious effect on the accumulation of terpineol and sabinene in C. migao fruit. Soil urease activity, available P content and CAT activity were the top three items that affected the variation of microbial community.
Effects of long-term incorporation of milk vetch combined with reduction of chemical fertilizer on yield, quality and soil fertility of early rice in Jiangxi
WANG Yun, XU Chang-xu, ZHOU Guo-peng, CHANG Dan-na, GAO Song-Juan, CAO Wei-dong
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021358
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  Objectives  This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of incorporating different amounts of milk vetch combined with reduced chemical fertilizer on early rice yield and rice quality in a double rice cropping system in South China, in order to provide a theoretical basis for chemical fertilizer reduction and high-quality rice production in the region.  Methods  The 12-years long-term experiment located at Yujiang District of Yingtan City, Jiangxi Province was established in 2008. The seven treatments included winter fallow with no fertilization (CK), winter planting of milk vetch with no fertilization (MV), winter fallow with 100% chemical fertilization (F100, conventional fertilization), 15000 kg/hm2 milk vetch + 80% chemical fertilizer (G1F80), 22500 kg/hm2 milk vetch + 80% chemical fertilizer (G1.5F80), 30000 kg/hm2 milk vetch + 80% chemical fertilizer (G2F80), 37500 kg/hm2 milk vetch + 80% chemical fertilizer (G2.5F80). The effects of milk vetch rate on rice yield, yield components, appearance quality, starch content, protein content, fat content and amino acid composition were analyzed.  Results  Under the condition of 20% reduction of chemical fertilizer, different incorporation rate of milk vetch increased rice yield and the effective panicle. Compared with conventional fertilization treatment, the average yield in G2F80 and G2.5F80 treatments increased by 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively. The yield of G2.5F80 treatment reached 7.17 t/hm2, and the effective panicle was significantly increased by 7.4%, compared with F100. Rate of milk vetch incorporation influenced the physico-chemical properties of soil. G2F80 significantly increased the soil organic matter by 13.1% and total nitrogen by 12.8% while maintaining soil available nutrient content, compared with F100 treatment. Low incorporation rate of milk vetch under reduced fertilizer conditions equally reduced the appearance, palatability of rice. However, there was no significant difference between the appearance quality and cooking and eating quality of rice treated with G2.5F80 and F100 treatments. Compared with F100 treatment, the protein content and total amino acid content in G2.5F80 treatment increased by 19.1% and 59.4%, respectively, and the essential amino acid content in MV treatment increased by 49.8%. The lysine and isoleucine contents of G1.5F80 treatment were the highest, with 147.6% and 145.7% increases compared to F100 treatment.  Conclusion  Incorporation of milk vetch under reduced chemical fertilizer application effectively improved soil fertility, thereby improving rice yield and nutritional quality. However, low incorporation rate would decrease the appearance and palatability quality of rice to some extent. Incorporation of 37500 kg/hm2 milk vetch combined with 80% chemical fertilizer elicited superior agronomic performance and nutritional quality.
Adjusting sowing date enhance the efficiency of climate and nutrient resources for spring maize
ZHAN Wen-jie, ZHANG Ji-wang, YUAN Jing-chao, LIANG Yao, CHENG Song, ZHANG Shui-mei, REN Jun, LIU Jian-zhao, CAI Hong-guang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021100
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  Objectives  Temperature, light, and precipitation are the key meteorological factors affecting the growth and development of maize. This study was designed to understand the relationship between key meteorological factors, N absorption, and crop yield to maximize the efficiency of climate and N resources of spring maize.  Methods  The spring maize cultivars, Xianyu 335(XY335) and Zhengdan 958 (ZD958), were used as test materials in a two-year field experiment in Jilin province. The treatments were three sowing dates: April 24th, May 4th, and May 14th, representing early, mid, and late sowing dates. The dry matter and N accumulation, N translocation rate, and grain formation before and after anthesis were investigated. We combined the Hybrid-Maize model with local meteorological data to comprehensively simulate and evaluate the yield difference between the treatments. Further, light and temperature resources were matched at different sowing dates.   Results  For cultivar XY335, the dry matter accumulation in the early, middle, and late sowing dates were 21233, 21249, 20311 kg/hm2; the N accumulation was 184.2, 192.5, and 171.1 kg/hm2; N transfer rates were 35.1%, 45.7%, and 35.8%; and the rate of N contribution to grain were 19.4%, 29.6%, and 23.9%. For cultivar ZD958, the dry matter accumulation in the early, middle, and late sowing dates were 21031, 20637, and 20405 kg/hm2; N accumulation was 173.7, 163.4, and 154.9 kg/hm2; N transfer rate were 39.2%, 36.4%, and 25.6%; and the contribution rate of N transfer to grain were 32.7%, 25.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. XY335 had the highest yield under the middle sowing date, 9.7% and 17.4% higher than early and late sowing dates. ZD958 had a higher yield under early sowing date, 8.6% higher than the late sowing date. The yield of XY335 was mainlyaffected by the daily average temperature during the reproductive growth stage. In contrast, the yield of ZD958 was closely related to the total solar radiation of the whole growing period and the days of the vegetative growth period. The yield difference was mainly related to the dry matter and N accumulation across the VT-R6 period. XY335 had improved N transport efficiency after flowering, requiring a high average daily temperature in the reproductive growth stage. ZD958 needs longer days for high yield accumulation throughoutthe growth period.   Conclusions  Yield differences are caused by sowing dates and cultivars due to high dry matter and N accumulation after anthesis. This situation increases N transfer to grains and consequently improves yield. XY335 recorded an efficient N accumulation and transfer rate after anthesis. Our results suggest that the middle sowing date is suitable(May 4th) for the XY335 cultivar. However, the yield accumulation of ZD958 requires a long-term for high cumulative radiation, implying that early sowing (Apr 24th) is suitable for this cultivar.
Effects of combining green manure with chemical fertilizer on the bacterial community structure in karst paddy soil
ZHONG Ju-xin, TANG Hong-qin, LI Zhong-yi, DONG Wen-bin, WEI -Caihui, LI Qiang, HE Tie-guang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021246
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  Objectives  The aim of this study was to provide a theoretical basis and data support for replacing chemical fertilizer with green manure in karst areas. We studied the effects of applying green manure on soil nutrient status and soil bacterial community.  Methods  A green manure- rice rotation field experiment was conducted for three years in karst paddy field with Chinese milk vetch. There were three treatments: chemical fertilizer(CK), Chinese milk vetch green manure (MV), and the combination of Chinese milk vetch and chemical fertilizer (MF). The soil bacterial community diversity, characteristics and co-occurrence network of soil (0–20 cm) were analyzed using Illumina Novaseq PE250 high-throughput sequencing technology.  Results  Compared with CK, MV and MF increased soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and available nitrogen (AN), but significantly decreased soil pH, available potassium (AK), and C/N ratio. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in soil bacterial diversity index between the fertilization treatments. The dominant bacteria flora of karst paddy soil were Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria, regardless of the treatment. However, at the genus level, Geobacter, Anaerolinea, and RBG-16-58-14 were identified as the key genera of karst calcareous paddy soil. Novosphingobium, Syntrophorhabdus, and Phenylobacterium were (P<0.05) higher in MF than CK. Desulfatiglans was higher in CK than MF. The co-occurrence network analysis indicated that CK and MV had similar co-occurrence networks, while MF increased the complexity of the soil bacteria network and the relative abundance of eutrophic bacteria such as Proteobacteriaand Bacteroidetes. Meanwhile, the RDA analysis results revealed that soil exchangeable available potassium, calcium ions, and total N were the key environmental factors affecting the composition of soil bacterial communities.  Conclusions  The combined use of Chinese milk vetch and chemical fertilizer could improve soil nutrient content and the relative abundance of eutrophic bacteria than a single use of chemical fertilizer and Chinese milk vetch. Our findings are important for maintaining the sustainable development of the karst paddy ecosystem.
Effects of grass planting in apple orchard on soil microbial diversity, enzyme activities and carbon components
LIU Ye-ping, MAO Yun-fei, HU Yan-li, ZHANG Lu-lu, YIN Yi-jun, PANG Hui-ling, SU Xia-fei, YANG Lu, SHEN Xiang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021140
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  Objectives  Planting grasses in orchard improve soil fertility and structure. Hence, we studied soil biological properties and microbial structures as affected by grass species in orchard.  Methods  The field experiment was conducted at the Mazhuang experimental base in Tai'an City, Shandong Province, China. The test grass species were White clover (Trifolium pratense), Pith grass (Bouteloua gracilis), Brucella (Eragrostis trichodes), Curving thrush (Eragrostis curvula) and Canadian Elymus (Elymus canadensis). The five grass species were seeded in 2017 between the apple rows while no grass planting was taking as control. The microbial community and enzyme activities in the soil were determined in three consecutive years.  Results  1) A total of 31459 bacterial operating taxa (or 1019 OTUs) and 5021 fungal operating taxa (or 108 OTUs) were obtained from all the soil samples. The average Shannon, Simpson and Chao1 indices of bacteria diversity in the grass planting soils were 4.61%, 7.01% and 27.44% respectively higher than that of control. At the phylum classification level, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes and Chloroflexi were the dominant bacteria, accounting for more than 95% of the total abundance. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota and Zygomycota were the dominant fungi, with their relative abundance accounting for over 80% of the total. Curving thrush increased soil bacteria abundance and diversity, but Brucella decreased the relative abundance of germ cell phylum, Phytophthora phylum and Curvulariaviridis. All the five grasses increased the relative abundance of Basidiomycota; Pith grass decreased the relative abundance of Ascomycota. Pith grass, Curving thrush and Canadian elymus increased the relative abundance of glomus. 2) The soil microbial population showed increasing trend with increase in years of the planted grasses, and the microbial population in three-year-old thrush soil was significantly higher than that in CK. 3) The activities of soil urease, phosphatase and catalase in the three years were all significantly higher than those of CK. Thrush, Canadian elymus and Curving thrush increased the soil organic carbon and soluble organic carbon contents. 4) The results of correlation analysis showed that the soil total organic carbon and enzyme activities were positively (p<0.05) correlated with the number of microorganisms.  Conclusions  Curving thrush and Canadian elymus planting significantly increased the soil total and soluble carbon contents, soil enzyme activities, microbial populations, and changed the community of bacteria and fungi composition to different extents as the grass growing year increases. The other three grasses did not show such good effect. So, Curving thrush and Canadian elymus have great promotion value.
Construction of critical nitrogen concentration model based on canopy coverage and the accuracy in yield prediction of maize
FU Jiang-peng, JIA Biao, WEI Xue, LAN Yu
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20621
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  Objective  The critical nitrogen concentration dilution curve of irrigated maize based on canopy coverage was constructed. Then, the nitrogen in the maize was assessed by nitrogen nutrient index and nitrogen accumulation deficit model for predicting the maize yield.  Methods  Field trials with four nitrogen fertilizer gradient (0, 120, 240 and 360 kg/hm2) were conducted in Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Area of China from 2019 to 2020. Water and fertilizer integration technology of drip irrigation was adopted. Nitrogen top-dressing was divided into eight times with irrigation according to the proportion of 10% at seedling stage, 45% at jointing to flare opening stage, 20% at tasseling to spinning stage, and 25% at grain-filling stage. Aboveground biomass, plant nitrogen concentration and yield were measured during the critical growth stages of maize, and the empirical model of maize critical nitrogen concentration based on canopy coverage was established and verified.   Results  The R2 values of maize critical N concentration, maximum N concentration and minimum N concentration based on canopy coverage were 0.917, 0.843 and 0.873, respectively. RMSE and n-RMSE of critical nitrogen concentration model were 0.242 and 11.753%, respectively. Based on N nutrient index and N accumulation deficit, the optimal N application treatment for maize was 240 kg/hm2. The relationships between N nutrient index, N accumulation deficit and relative yield were strongly significant at different growth stages, with R2 not less than 0.922, and the R2 values were the highest at trumpet and tasseling stages. The independent test results show that the model performance is stable at the flaring stage and tasseling stage, with R2 value greater than 0.944 and n-RMSE less than 10%. At the trumpet stage and tasseling stage, the N nutrient index and N accumulation deficit significantly correlated with the relative yield, which could accurately explain the change of relative yield under the growth conditions of nitrogen restriction and no nitrogen restriction.  Conclusion  The critical nitrogen concentration dilution curve constructed based on the canopy coverage can accurately judge and evaluate the N nutrition status from the jointing stage to the silking stage of maize. The relationship model constructed based on the N nutrition index, N accumulation deficit and relative yield can more accurately predict the yield at the large bell-opening and tasseling stages. This study provides a simple new method for precise management of nitrogen fertilizer and yield prediction during crop growth.
Effectsofpartial substitution of chemical fertilizer with manure and/or strawontheabundance of functional genes related to soil N-cycling
MA Long, GAO Wei, LUAN Hao-an, TANG Ji-wei, LI Ming-yue, HUANG Shao-wen
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021136
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  Objective  This study analyzed theabundanceof functional genes related to soil N cycling, potential nitrification rate (PNR) and N2O emission fluxes under different fertilization patterns to provide a scientific basis for the efficient use of organic materials in greenhouse vegetable production.  Methods  We conducteda greenhouse vegetable fertilization experiment on a fixed-site located in Xiqing District, Tianjin City. There were six treatments with equal NPK rate but different chemical fertilizer (CF) ratio, pig manure(M), and maize straw(S) in the local field experiment. The treatments were 4/4CF, 3/4CF+1/4M, 2/4CF+2/4M, 1/4CF+3/4M, 2/4CF+1/4M+1/4S, and 2/4CF+2/4S. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 cm depth at the full-fruit stage of spring tomato (the 20th vegetable season) to analyse indices related to soil N cycling.  Results  1) Except for 4/4CF, the other treatments increased soil PNR by an average of 72.9%; the M-amended treatments increased it by 107.0%. The S-amended treatments (P<0.05) decreased soil PNR compared to 2/4CF+2/4M and 1/4CF+3/4M. 2) Compared with 4/4CF, functional genes abundance in organic-amended soils increased by 19.9%, 20.4%, 19.1%, and 2.3% for NapAB, NirS, NorB, and NosZ (denitrification genes), and by 25.9% for NirB (dissimilatory nitrate reduction gene). The abundance of AmoA, AmoB, AmoC, Hao (nitrification genes), and NrfH (dissimilatory nitrate reduction genes)decreased by 37.9%, 46.3%, 33.8%, 65.5%, and 8.8%, respectively. 3) N2O cumulative emission fluxes at 28 d increased by 59.6% compared with 4/4CF treatment. 4) The correlation ecoefficiency (r-value) of PNR was 0.37 for soil organic C, 0.47 for ammonium N, 0.56 for N2O cumulative emission fluxes, 0.78 for NapAB, 0.21 for NirK, 0.53 for NorB, and –0.40 for pH. Moreover, the correlation ecoefficiency (r-value) of soil N2O cumulative emission fluxes was 0.90 for soil organic C, 0.83 for total N and nitrate N, 0.64 for ammonium N, 0.67 for NapAB, 0.46 for NirK, 0.36 for NirS, 0.88 for NorB, –0.52 for pH, –0.62 for AmoA, –0.64 for AmoB, –0.71 for AmoC, and –0.77 for Hao. The redundancy analysis revealed that soil nitrate-N (P = 0.01), ammonium-N (P = 0.03), and organic C (P = 0.05) had strong effects on soil N cycling functional microorganisms, explaining 34.0%, 13.2%, and 11.3% of the variation in the community structure, respectively.  Conclusion  Partial substitution of chemical fertilizer with organic materials, especially replacing 2/4 chemical fertilizer with 1/4 pig manure and 1/4 maize straw, could significantlydecrease the abundance of nitrification genes and simultaneously increase denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction genes. This potentially improves tomato N absorption and reduces the amount of N that may be leached downward.
Effects of foliage removal on tuber yield and NPK accumulation and distribution in different cassava types and cultivars
LIN Hong-xin, YUAN Zhan-qi, ZHANG Zhi-hua, XIAO Yun-ping, WANG Rui-qing, LÜ Feng-juan
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021130
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  Objective  Leaf number is closely related to dry matter production, nutrient absorption and yield formation. We studied the effect of foliage removal on the nutrient accumulation and yield of cassava, to achieve high-yield and efficient use of N, P, K nutrition.   Methods  A split-split plot experiment was conducted in Jiangxi province. The main plots were two cassava types (compact and umbrella), subplots were two cassava cultivars for each plant type (SC205 and GR4 for compact type and SC12、SC15 for umbrella type), and the sub-sub plots were the remaining leaf number (9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99 and 108 piece of leaves). The dry matter and N, P, K accumulation in plucked leaves and plants at the matured stage of the crop were analyzed.   Results  With the increase of the remaining leaves, the N, P, K accumulation in them decreased, while the fresh tuber yield increased significantly, and the total N, P, K accumulation at the matured stage and those throughout whole growth period increased significantly, showing a “single peak” or "double peak". The nutrient accumulation varied among cassava cultivars. N accumulation in ‘compact’ cultivars was 4.56% lower than that of umbrella type cultivars, while the P and K accumulation of compact cultivars were 10.2% and 10.0% higher than those of umbrella type cultivars. The N, P, K accumulation in mature plant of compact type cultivars were 31.0%, 42.5% and 50.9% higher than those of umbrella type cultivars, respectively. At the matured stage, the cassava with the more leaves had higher N, P, K distribution in tuber and leaves, but lower in stems, while the N, P, K harvest index had a “single peak” pattern. The harvest indexes of N, P, K of compact cultivars were higher than those of umbrella type cultivars with 0.48, 0.63, 0.58 and 0.42, 0.60, 0.55, respectively. In the entire growth period, with the increase in remaining leaf number, more N, P, K were remained in mature plants. The residual N, P and K percentage points in the mature plant of compact cultivars were 7.33, 7.45 and 4.36 higher than those in umbrella type cultivars, respectively.   Conclusion  The more leaves of cassava remained and the later the leaf picking period, the less the plucked leaf number and the lower of dry matter in them. A high leaf number on cassava plant increased the tuber yield and the NPK accumulation at maturity as well as nutrients distribution rate in tuber and leaf. The suitable remaining leaf number was 81–90 pieces at tuberous root expansion stage, which proved beneficial for a high yield, nutrient accumulation and utilization in cassava.
Threshhold of soil available P and the response of wheat yield and grain N, P, and K concentrations to test-integrated P application in the northern wheat production region of China
MA Yue, TIAN Yi, YU Jie, WANG Hao-lin, LI Yong-hua, LI Chao, DANG Hai-yan, MU Wen-yan, HUANG Ning, QIU Wei-hong, SHI Mei, WANG Zhao-hui, HE Gang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021109
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  Objective  We studied the changes in wheat grain yield and NPK concentration due to test-integrated P application at different soil available P levels. The study aims to provide information on the efficient and green production of wheat.  Methods  Wheat field experiments were conducted in 49 locations in China’s northern wheat production region from 2018 to 2020. The treatments were farmers’ fertilizer application rate (FF), recommended P fertilizer application rate (RF), and using test-integrated fertilizer application, and no P application (RF-P). The P2O5 rate in RF was reduced by 60 kg/hm2, corresponding to 46% less than the rate in FF. The grain yield, yield components, grain N, P, and K concentration, and P uptake and utilization by wheat were analyzed under different soil available N, P, and K levels.   Results  The minimum grain yield (5155 kg/hm2) was recorded when soil available P was less than 15 mg/kg, and the maximum (7217 kg/hm2) was observed at 25–30 mg/kg P in the soil. Higher soil available P did not increase grain yield sustainability. The observed reduction in grain yield was due to a significant decline in spike number and 1000-grain weight. Across the soil available P levels: <15, 15–20, 20–25, 25–30, and >30 mg/kg, the wheat yield in RF was similar to FF. However, P fertilizer uptake efficiency (1.03 kg/kg) and P partial factor productivity (104.7 kg/kg) significantly increased by 119.6% and 112.2% in RF compared to FF. Grain N, P, and K concentrations were similar in FF and RF. When the soil available P was <15 mg/kg, 15–20 mg/kg, and >30 mg/kg, available K was 156, 171, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Wheat yield significantly decreased without P application. However, no yield reduction was observed when soil available P was 20–25 and 25-30 mg/kg with 147 and 158 mg/kg soil available K. An increase in the soil available P leads to a corresponding increase in grain P concentration and a decrease in grain N concentration. The grain K concentration reached the highest value when available P was 20–25 mg/kg.   Conclusion  In northern China, high soil available P may deteriorate the N nutrition of wheat. Reducing P fertilizer rate could promote wheat yield and increase fertilizer P efficiency. 20–30 mg/kg soil available P is suitable for enhancing high wheat yield under reduced or no P application. Wheat yield may decline without P fertilization when soil available K is higher than 170 kg/hm2. Therefore, the P fertilizer application rate should be recommended based on the target wheat yield, grain nutrient concentration, and soil available P and K. This could help rationalize fertilizer application, stabilize yield, improve quality, efficiency and green agricultural production of wheat in northern China.
Impact of physical and melting mixing of zinc and urea on corn yield and fertilizer N and Zn use
ZHAO Li-fang, YUAN Liang, ZHANG Shui-qin, ZHAO Bing-qiang, LIN Zhi-an, LI Yan-ting
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021117
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  Objective  This study examined the effects of combining zinc and urea in different ways on dry matter and grain yield, quality, and utilization of N and Zn by maize. The results will provide a scientific basis for the best combination of zinc and urea to develop new zinc-containing urea fertilizer.  Methods  0.5 and 5 parts of Zn sulfate heptahydrate were mixed into 99.5 and 95 parts of 15N-label urea (w/w) by physical (U+Zn) and fusion methods (UZn) to prepare four Zn-containing urea products: U+Zn0.5, U+Zn5, UZn0.5, and UZn5. Amaize pot experiment was carried out with the four products, with pure urea, Zn, and blank as control. At maturity, maize shoots were harvested and divided into five parts (leaf, stem, bract, cob, and grain) to determine dry biomass, N contents,15N abundance, and Zn content. Soil samples in 0−30, 30−60, and 60−90 cm depth were collected for the determination of N, available Zn content, and 15N abundance.  Results  Compared with the pure urea and U+Zn treatments, UZn0.5 and UZn5 (P<0.05) increased maize ear number and cob dry weight. There was no significant difference ear number and cob dry weight between UZn0.5 and UZn5. Further, UZn0.5 and UZn5 treatments increased total N and fertilizer N absorption of maize, increased Zn accumulation in the grains, with UZn0.5 increasing by 62.08% over the common urea. Compared with the physical mixture and common urea treatments, the mixture of Zn and urea by fusion (P<0.05) increasedthe fertilizer N residues in 0−90 cm soil depth, while UZn0.5 (P<0.05) increased that in 0−30 cm soil depth than all the other treatments. In contrast, the physically mixed fertilizer did not significantly affect fertilizer residue other than in CK. Both physical and fusion mixtures of Zn and urea significantly decreased fertilizer N loss; however, the fusion mixture's effect was significantly higher than physical mixtures.  Conclusion  Mixing Zn and urea by fusion showed a much better effect than physical mixture in increasing maize growth, grain yield, the absorption of fertilizer N and Zn, and Zn accumulation in grains. The fusion of 0.5% Zn into urea decreased fertilizer N loss and increased fertilizer N residue in the soil, especially in the 0−30 cm soil layer.
Response of light use efficiency and grain yield of maize to planting density and nitrogen application rate
TANG Xin-long, LIU Ying, QIN Xi-tong, ZHANG Yu-han, Wang Teng, LI Bo, XUE Rui-feng, LI Ji, LI Hao, SHI Wu-liang, LI Bin, LI Qiu-zhu, WANG Hong-yu, CUI Jin-hu, JIANG Wen-zhu, CAO Ning, ZHANG Yu-bin
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021112
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  Objective  A rational planting density and judicious use of chemical fertilizer input are effective ways to improve crop yields and fertilizer use efficiency in the rainfed region. We studied the effect of planting densities, N fertilizer application rate, and their interaction on light use efficiency (LUE) and yield, to provide data support for a more efficient use of the light resources.  Methods  Split plot experiments were conducted over three consecutive years (2017−2019) with a maize hybrid cultivar, Zhengdan 958 (ZD958). The main plot were assigned to four planting densities (M4.5, 45000 plants/hm2; M6.0, 60000 plants/hm2; M7.5, 75000 plants/hm2; M9.0, 90000 plants/hm2), and the subplots were occupied by three N application rate (120, 180 and 240 kg/hm2). The maize leaf area index (LAI), Pn, LUE, above ground biomass, and grain yield were determined.  Results  The maize grain yield, biomass, LAI, Pn, and LUE were significantly influenced over the three years. The average LUE in 2017, 2018, and 2019 was 1.58%, 1.99%, and 2.20%, respectively. The grain yield, biomass, LAI, Pn, and LUE were significantly affected by planting density. The highest average LUE (2.07%) and grain yield (12219 kg/hm2) were obtained under the planting density of 75000 plants/hm2. N application rate also affected biomass and LAI significantly. The highest LUE was 1.87% at the N rate of 180 kg/hm2. There were similar interaction effect of planting density and N rate on grain yield, biomass, LAI, and Pn. However, the highest LUE of 2.16% was recorded under M7.5+N240, and the effect of planting density on LUE was greater than that of N rate, which was 9.93% and 6.01%, respectively.   Conclusion  Insemi-humid rainfed agricultural regions, both plant density and the interaction of density and N rate, significantly improved the light use efficiency of maize, and the effect of plant density is greater than N application rate. Therefore, a relatively high planting density (75 000 plants/hm2) and N application rate (180 to 240 kg/hm2) is recommended for efficient use of light and optimum maize grain yield.
Effects of black soldier fly frass on rice growth and soil physical and chemical properties
WANG Xiao-bo, WU Xiang, GUO Xue-qi, CHEN Yi-bo, WANG Jin-long, XU Xiao-yan
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021126
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  Objective  Black soldier fly frass was obtained by biotransformation of black soldier fly larvae into animal dung. It had high content of organic matter and nutrients. We studied the effects of black soldier fly frass as organic fertilizer on crop growth and soil fertility improvement.  Methods  Pot experiments were conducted using rice as tested crop. The insect frass were applied in ratio of 0 (CK), 2% (T1), 4% (T2), 6% (T3), and 8% (T4) of the pot soil weight. Rice was planted for two consecutive years after one fertilization. The plant height and yield of rice, the rice leaf enzyme activity, N, P, K content, soil nutrient index and soil enzyme activity were analyzed.  Results  In first year of fertilization (2018), the plant height and yield of T2 treatment were the highest, and was 5.8% and 43.7% higher than those of CK, while T4 treatment had the lowest plant height and yield, which were 8.0% and 20.0% lower than those of CK. In the second year (2019), the plant height and yield of rice increased with the increase of insect frass application rate, and compared with CK, the plant height and yield of fertilization treatment increased by 11.5%−33.5% and 33.9%−195.5%, respectively. The insect frass increased the activities of SOD, POD and CAT in rice leaves and the contents of N, P and K in rice in two years. The insect frass also increased the soil pH value from 6.46 and 6.51 to 7.13 and 7.14, respectively in two years, increased organic matter content by 7.1%−32.5%, EC value by 13.6%−99.9%, ammonium N by 25.2%−195.4%, available P by 45.7%−312.0%, and available K by 1.7−20.1 times. The activities of urease, phosphatase and sucrose in soil were increased by 13.1%−109.5%, 14.5%−45.4% and 25.2%−286.5% respectively.  Conclusion  The application of black soldier fly frass is proved of effective in improving soil fertility. Reasonable application amount promoted the growth and yield of rice in current and following seasons. Therefore, black soldier fly frassis promising to be used as an organic fertilizer in crop production and soil fertility maintenance.
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2021, 27(9): 1-5.  
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Detection rate and concentration of tetracycline antibiotics in organic fertilizers raw materials and commercial products in China
YANG Wei, DI Cai-xia, LI Ji, TIAN You-guo, SHI Kai-li, ZHAO Di, WANG Jia-chen, TAN Qi-ling
2021, 27(9): 1487-1495.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021061
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  Objectives  Livestock manures from intensive farming often contain a certain amount of antibiotics, which could get into farmland when applied as fertilizers. To provide a basis for their safe recycling, we investigated the concentration of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in the raw materials and commercial products of organic fertilizers in China.  Methods  180 samples of organic fertilizer raw materials (including auxiliary materials) and 244 samples of commercial organic fertilizer products were collected nationwide for the analysis of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and doxycycline (DXC). The commercial organic fertilizer products only included those made from livestock manure.  Results  The total detection rate of the four TCs in all the samples was 24.29%, and 35.00% in raw materials and 16.39% in the commercial products, with the rate being lower in the latter than in raw materials. Detection rate of one or two types of antibiotics in total samples was 80.58%, 92.50% in the commercial products and 73.02% in raw materials. The detected concentration of the 4 TCs was in the order of CTC (22.11 mg/kg) > OTC (2.49 mg/kg) > TTC (1.74 mg/kg) > DXC (0.71 mg/kg), and the detection rate was in the order of OTC (14.39%) > DXC (11.08%) > CTC (8.96%) > TTC (6.13%). The detection rate of the four TCs in raw materials was pig manure (83.33%) > chicken dung (66.67%) > cow dung (30.77%) > sheep dung (24.42%). Residues, including oil residues (dry cakes), yeast residues and bone meal were also detected, indicating that TCs were not only widely used in animal husbandry but also had been extended to mushroom cultivation and leftovers from the animal-derived food industry. The contents of CTC, TTC and OTC in sheep dung were higher, and those of CTC and OTC in pig manure were higher. The removal rates of TCs in commercial products were in the order OTC (77.81%) > CTC (75.02%) > TTC (72.84%) > DXC (62.80%). Inner Mongolia and Gansu were the regions with the highest detection rate and concentration of the 4 TCs investigated.  Conclusions  The composting process of organic fertilizer generally removes 62.80%−77.81% of the four kinds of TCs in organic fertilizer raw materials, and the order of removal rate is OTC>CTC>TTC>DXC. At present, the detection rate of the four TCs in all the raw-materials and commercial organic fertilizer products is 24.29%, and that in commercial organic fertilizer products (16.39%) is lower than in raw materials (35.00%).
Effects of new fertilizers on the yield and soil biological activity of three major food crops: A global meta-analysis
HAO Sheng-lei, CAI Ting-yao, FENG Xiao-jie, YOU Lun-cheng, YANG Xue, HUANG Cheng-dong, CHEN Yong-liang, CUI Zhen-ling
2021, 27(9): 1496-1505.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021062
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  Objectives  In recent years, with the transformation of agricultural development mode from resource consumption to green ecology, the development of new fertilizers has become a hot topic. Recent available studies mostly focused on the effects of new fertilizers on the crop yield, nitrogen (N) uptake and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), but our understanding about their effect on soil biological activity was relatively limited. This study aims to analyze the effects of new fertilizer on the yield of three major food crops (wheat, maize and rice) and soil biological activity, and also to provide a scientific basis for the wide production and application of new fertilizers.   Methods  In this study, we obtained the data from “CNKI” and “Web of Science” databases. A total of 29 relevant papers conducted in field trials were obtained with “wheat”, “maize”, “rice”, “yield”, “microbial biomass”, “enzyme activity” and “new fertilizer” as the keywords, producing a total of 545 data groups coming from 32 independent trials. Using conventional fertilizers as the control and new fertilizers as the experimental group, Meta-analysis was used to integrate the effects of new fertilizers application on crop yield, enzyme activity and soil microbial biomass.   Results  The yield, aboveground N uptake and NUE of three crops were significantly increased by new fertilizers application, with an increment rate of 8.4%, 9.9% and 36.8%, respectively, compared with those of conventional fertilizers application. Similarly, the application of new fertilizers significantly increased soil microbial biomass nitrogen (14.6%), but had no significant effect on soil microbial biomass carbon. Soil phosphate metabolism-related enzymes activities (8.6%) and oxide-related enzymes activities (5.7%) were significantly increased by applying new fertilizers, but no significant difference was found for soil carbon and nitrogen cycling enzyme activities between these two treatments.  Conclusions  The application of new fertilizers increased the yield, aboveground N uptake and NUE of three major crops, and also increased soil microbial biomass N, soil phosphate metabolism-related enzymes activity and oxide-related enzymes activity, and further improved the soil biological activity of agricultural ecosystem.
Mechanism of silicon application to improve constitutive and inducible resistance to aphid during physiological metabolism of maize
QI Xiu-xiu, LIU Yi-ning, WEI Chang, WANG Yi, JIANG Ying, HAN Yan-lai
2021, 27(9): 1506-1522.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021086
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  Objectives  Rhopalosiphum padi is one of the main pests in maize production, its growth and reproduction severely affect the yield and quality of maize. Silicon (Si) application is capable of inducing aphids resistance by maize. In this study, we explored the beneficial effects of Si on the antioxidant system, secondary metabolism and signal transduction pathway of maize.  Methods  A maize hydroponic experiment was carried out, and the tested aphid was Rhopalosiphum padi. The four treatments were no Si application without aphid infestation (–Si–A), no Si application with aphid infestation (–Si+A), Si application without aphid infestation (+Si–A), and Si application with aphid infestation (+Si+A). At 48, 60, 72, 96 and 120 h after aphid infestation on maize plant, the density of aphids was surveyed. The CAT, SOD, H2O2, and MDA contents in the antioxidant system, the PAL, PPO, LOX, and lignin contents in the secondary metabolism and signal transduction substances (JA and SA) were analyzed. The content or enzyme activity of the tested indices in maize without aphid infestation was defined as the constitutive resistance. The difference between the indices before and after aphid infestation was defined as inducible resistance, and Si's effect on these resistances was discussed.  Results  Aphids density increased with infection time. The density of aphids at 60−120 h after aphid infestation without Si application was 12.50%−40.18% higher, and that with Si application was 12.36%−49.44% higher than that at 48 h after aphid infestation. At the same infestation time, the aphid density with Si application was 15.29%–20.64% lower than without Si application. During the whole incubation period, Si application improved the activity of the constitutive CAT and SOD, reduced the constitutive H2O2 and MDA by 4.41%−15.35% and 5.35%−17.95% (P < 0.05), increased the activity of inducible CAT across the infestation time except at 72 h after aphid infestation, reduced (P < 0.05) inducible SOD activity, and inducible H2O2 increased first and subsequently declined. The activities of constitutive PAL, LOX, PPO, and constitutive lignin (P < 0.05) increased, while inducible PPO activity and lignin content decreased. The activity of inducible PAL increased first and then decreased, inducible LOX activity fluctuated, the content of constitutive JA and SA (P < 0.05) increased, the content of inducible SA increased by 43.77%−117.48%, and the content of inducible JA decreased. Similarly, irrespective of Si application, the activity of constitutive CAT, SOD, PAL, LOX, and PPO, the content of H2O2, MDA, lignin, JA and SA were (P < 0.05) higher than those of the inducible type. The PCA and correlation analysis results showed that constitutive and inducible CAT activity, SOD activity, inducible H2O2 content, and SA content were better indicators reflecting maize’s constitutive and inducible resistance to aphids.   Conclusions  Silicon application improved the aphid resistance of maize by affecting the constitutive and inducible resistance of each substance in the antioxidant system, secondary metabolism and signal transduction pathways of maize, which provided a theoretical and scientific basis for the ecological regulation of aphids in maize fields.
Mechanism of improving water and nitrogen use efficiency and reducing soil nitrate leaching by suitable irrigation during the anthesis stage of wheat
TANG Xing-wang, SHI Yu, YU Zhen-wen, ZHANG Yong-li
2021, 27(9): 1523-1533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021042
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  Objectives  This study investigated the effects of soil water content during the flowering period of wheat on N accumulation and transfer and soil NO3-N leaching to provide a theoretical basis for water conservation to promote high wheat yield and efficient N use.   Methods  Field experiments were conducted during 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 wheat-growing seasons using Jimai 22 as the test cultivar. Three water treatments were set up during the anthesis stage: no watering (W0), watering 0–40 cm soil depth to a relative moisture content of 70% (W1) and 85% (W2). The wheat N accumulation and translocation at anthesis and maturing stage were determined; wheat yield and N fertilizer efficiency were investigated at the maturing stage, and soil nitrate-nitrogen content in 0–200 cm soil depth was analyzed.   Results  After anthesis, the average N transfer in the vegetative organ of W1 at maturity was 11.6% and 7.3% higher than W0 and W2, and the N transfer rate in W1 was 9.5% and 6.1% higher than W0 and W2. At the maturity stage, the grain N distribution in W1 was 22.5% and 12.9% higher than W0 and W2, but the N distribution in the leaf and spike axis and glume in W1 was (P < 0.05) lower than in W0 and W2, thus increasing N harvest index. Compared with W0 and W2, W1 treatment reduced NO3-N content in 60–120 cm soil depth, increased wheat N uptake by 11.4% and 6.5%. The apparent excess soil N in W1 treatment was 51.0% and 40.9% lower than W0 and W2, reducing the risk of NO3-N leaching into the deeper soil layer. W1 reduced the residual inorganic N in 0–200 cm soil layer and the apparent excess soil N, which benefited absorption and utilization by wheat roots. Compared with W0 and W2, a thousand-grain weight of W1 treatment was 11.0% and 5.4% higher, grain yield was 25.9% and 11.8% higher, and the water use efficiency was 17.0% and 12.7% higher in the two growing seasons. Similarly, N use efficiency was 13.0% and 4.9% higher in W1 than W0 and W2, and the N uptake efficiency was 11.4% and 6.5% higher on average.  Conclusions  Irrigating 0–40 cm soil layer to a moisture content of 70% during the flowering period benefits N transfer from vegetative organs to grains in the middle and late grain filling stages and at maturity, thereby promoting grain N accumulation, yield, N harvest index, and water use efficiency. Irrigating to 70% of the soil water capacity at the flowering stage reduces the NO3-N content in 60–120 cm soil depth, thereby decreasing the risk of NO3-N leaching, which improves wheat N use efficiency and uptake for production. Excessive irrigation leads to excessive downward movement of NO3-N, which affects root absorption. Insufficient water, on the other hand, decreases the transport of N to the grains.
Response of nitrogen and dry matter accumulation in middle and high yield wheat cultivars to water and nitrogen supply
LÜ Guang-de, QI Xiao-lei, ZHANG Ji-bo, MU Qiu-huan, WU Ke, QIAN Zhao-guo
2021, 27(9): 1534-1547.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021043
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  Objectives  For a good wheat production with a high yield, water and nitrogen (N) fertilizer are two critical elements. Here, we studied the response of middle and high yield wheat cultivars to water and N supply rates, with yield as the target.  Methods  Field experiments with a randomized complete block design, two factors and three levels were carried out from 2016 to 2018, with Taikemai 33 (middle yield cultivar) and Jimai 22 (high yield cultivar). The three irrigation rates were 300, 450, and 600 m3/hm2, and the three N application rates were 135, 180, and 225 kg/hm2. The dry matter (DM) and N accumulation before and after the flowering stage were analyzed, and the quantity of N accumulated in grain was calculated. The relationship among yield, yield components and the N and DM accumulation were examined.  Results  Water, N application rate and their interaction (P < 0.05) influenced panicle number, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, and partial N productivity of the two wheat cultivars. The response of the middle yield wheat to water was W2 > W3 > W1 and N2 > N3 > N1 for N application rate. The response of the high yield wheat cultivar to water was W3 > W2 > W1 and N2 > N3 > N1 for N application rate. Wheat yield was positively correlated with the transfer of post-anthesis DM accumulation in grain but negatively correlated with it before anthesis. Our result indicated that DM accumulation and its transfer to the grain before anthesis was important for yield formation. The wheat yield had a positive linear correlation with the transfer of N accumulated before anthesis and was negatively correlated with that after anthesis. Thus, N accumulation before anthesis was more critical than after anthesis for grain N accumulation. There were positive correlations among pre-anthesis N accumulation, total N accumulation, pre-anthesis N transfer, post-anthesis N transfer, the contribution of pre-anthesis N transfer to grain, and N harvest index (P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation among spike number, grain number per spike, and grain yield (P < 0.05).  Conclusions  The transfer of DM accumulated after anthesis and N accumulated before anthe‘sis has a significant effect on yield formation and N accumulation in grain, respectively. Suitable water and N supply influences the contribution of DM and N transfer before and after anthesis. The high and middle yield wheat cultivars have a similar response to N 180 kg/hm2. However, the high yield cultivar prefers higher irrigation water rate (600 m3/hm2), while the middle yield type prefers lower irrigation water rate (450 m3/hm2).
Critical phosphorus dilution curve and phosphorus nutrition diagnosis of summer maize in Guanzhong Plain
LIU Miao, LIU Peng-zhao, SHI Zu-jiao, WANG Xiao-li, WANG Rui, LI Jun
2021, 27(9): 1548-1559.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021065
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  Objectives  This study analyzes the relationship between aboveground biomass and maize phosphorus (P) content under different P application rates to construct a critical P dilution curve for fast diagnosis of maize P nutrition.  Methods  Field experiments were conducted in Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi Province in 2019 and 2020, using the maize cultivars Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Yuyu 22 (YY22) as test materials. The four treatments of P2O5 application rates were 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/hm2. The aboveground parts of maize plants were sampled at jointing, tasseling, filling, and maturity stages to determine dry matter accumulation, P concentration, and yield. The data obtained in 2019 were used to construct the critical P dilution curve model and the corresponding P nutrition index (PNI). The data obtained in 2020 were used to verify the models' accuracy.   Results   Increased P application rate (P<0.05) increased yield, aboveground biomass, and P concentration of summer maize, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the two varieties. With increasing P application rate, the yield of summer maize increased at first and later decreased, with P120 treatment recording the highest. The yield effect equation showed that the average theoretical maximum yield of the two varieties of summer maize in the years under study corresponds to a P application rate of 110.2 kg/hm2. P application had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the number of ears per hectare but increased the kernel number per ear and 100-grain weight. However, the effect of the application on kernel number per ear was greater than that on 100-grain weight. The aboveground biomass was in the order P0<P60<P180<P120, with no significant difference (P>0.05) between P180 and P120 treatments. Maize P concentration increased with increasing P application rate; however, it decreased with the advancement of growth and the accumulation of aboveground dry matter by weight. Based on the aboveground dry matter weight and P concentration of maize plants in 2019, the critical P dilution curve model for summer maize was established as: Pc=8.11DM−0.22 (R2=0.886). The RMSE and n-RMSE between the calculated and the measured plant P concentrations in 2020 were 1.146 and 18.23%, showing high accuracy. The PNI values calculated with the critical P concentration curves increased and decreased across the growth stages, and this was augmented by increased P application at each growth stage. PNI was also positively correlated with relative P uptake (RPupt), relative aboveground biomass (RDW), and relative yield (RY).  Conclusions  The constructed critical P dilution curve model and P nutrition index model (PNI) could help predict P nutrition conditions of summer maize at different growth periods. Therefore, it is useful for instant P nutrition diagnosis and optimal P fertilization in summer maize.
Yield and economic benefit of corn/needle leaf pea intercropping system under different nitrogen fertilizer reduction rates
LU Bing-lin, CHE Zong-xian, BAO Xing-guo, ZHANG Jiu-dong, CAO Wei-dong, WU Ke-sheng, YANG Rui-ju, CUI Heng
2021, 27(9): 1560-1570.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021075
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  Objectives  The potential of nitrogen (N) fertilizer reduction in the corn/needle leaf pea intercropping system was studied in the Hexi oasis irrigation area to provide a theoretical basis for the efficient use of N resources.  Methods  The long-term field experiment of corn/needle leaf pea intercropping was located in the Wuwei oasis irrigation area since 2011. The experimental treatments were no fertilizer application (i.e., control) and conventional N fertilizer application (N100) under the mono-maize system, and corn/needle leaf pea intercropping system with the conventional N fertilizer was applied at 95%, 90%, 85%, 80% and 0% of the conventional rate. The maize and needle leaf pea yield, maize yield components, and the economic benefits of the intercropping system were investigated from 2014 to 2019. The partial productivity of N (PPN), agronomic efficiency of N (AEN), and the N fertilizer contribution rate (FCRN) were calculated.  Results  The corn/needle leaf pea intercropping had obvious yield advantages, and the merit increased with the elongation of experimental years. Compared with N100, the intercropped corn grain yield under 85% N application rate did not change significantly (P > 0.05), although the plant height and stem diameter of corn was inhibited. Spike height to plant height rate decreased; spike number per area, grain number per spike and 100-grain weight had no obvious change. The harvested needle leaf pea hay and grain were 1419 kg/hm2 and 1637 kg/hm2, corresponding to an increased economic benefit of 3813 yuan/hm2. The PPN and AEN (P < 0.05), and the FCRN (P < 0.05) decreased in 2019, but the decrease in other years were not significant. When the N application rate was 80% of the conventional rate, the intercropped corn grain yield (P < 0.05) decreased by 8.77%. However, the harvest of 1438 kg/hm2 needle leaf pea hay and 1569 kg/hm2 needle leaf pea grain in the intercropping system increased the economic benefit of the system by 2098 yuan/hm2. The PPN significantly increased by 14.04%, and the AEN had no obvious change. However, spike number per area, grain number per spike, 100-grain weight, plant height, stem diameter, spike height, spike length, spike diameter, and the FCRN of corn significantly decreased.  Conclusions  Under long-term corn/needle leaf pea intercropping, the highest N reducing potential is 15%, with no decrease in corn yield and the additional harvest of needle leaf pea hay and grain increases the economic benefits. The highest N reducing potential in corn is 20% under intercropping of corn and neddle leaf pea, in which the decreased corn yield and FCRN could be compensated by the harvest of needle leaf pea hay and grain, and the economic benefits of the intercropping system and PPN are significantly increased in the Hexi oasis irrigation area.
Effects of smooth vetch (Vicia villosa Roth var. glabrescens) incorporation on nitrogen fertilizer replacement and soil fertility improvement in a maize-green manure rotation system
CHEN Jian-feng, LIANG Hai, WANG Wei, CHEN Hua, YIN Mei, WANG Zhi-yuan, LIU Jun, CHEN Jun, GAO Song-juan, CAO Wei-dong, FU Li-bo
2021, 27(9): 1571-1580.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021068
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  Objectives  The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of smooth vetch (Vicia villosa Roth var. glabrescens) turnover amount on maize growth and soil properties in a maize-green manure rotation system. The aim was to provide theoretical support for the chemical fertilizer reduction potential of smooth vetch.  Methods  The field trials were conducted in Songming County, Yunnan Province in 2018 and 2019, with the maize (Heinuo No.1) as test material. The experiment included five treatments: winter fallow (CK), incorporation of smooth vetch at 15000 kg/hm2 (G1), 30000 kg/hm2 (G2), 45000 kg/hm2 (G3), and winter fallow with chemical fertilizer application N 270 kg/hm2 (FN). The smooth vetch was planted during winter season and returned to field before maize cultivation. NPK content and accumulation in the aboveground part of maize, yield and yield components were examined at harvest, including soil total and available N, P, and K and organic matter content. The soil pH was measured as well.  Results  The maize yields of treatments G1, G2, and G3 were equivalent to 78.14%, 88.88%, and 92.86% of treatment FN in 2018, and 98.92%, 104.22%, and 113.91% of treatment FN in 2019. However, the plant height, ear height, bald ear length, and single ear weight were not significantly different (P>0.05) among all the treatments. The grain N content of the FN treatment was (P<0.05) higher than other treatments, and the N content of its straw was significantly higher than that of CK and G1 treatments. In 2019, the N accumulation in the shoots of G3 treatment was (P<0.05) higher than those of FN and G1 treatments, which were 42.03% and 33.91%, respectively. In 2018, corn P accumulation in the FN treatment was significantly higher than those of CK and G1 treatments, with no difference in K accumulation among the treatments. Except for CK, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in P accumulation among the four treatments in 2019. The three green manure treatments accumulated more K than the FN treatment. There was no difference in soil nutrients among the treatments in 2018. In 2019. soil available N, available K, total N, and organic matter content increased significantly, enhancing soil fertility as the green manure application increased. The aggregated boosted tree (ABT) analysis indicated that soil total N and single ear weight contributed the most to maize yield, both accounting for 20.89%.  Conclusions  The incorporation of smooth vetch at a high rate in the first year (45000 kg/hm2) and moderate rate (30000 kg/hm2) in the second year relegates the need for N fertilizer in maize production. Smooth vetch incorporation at the above rates could provide similar or even higher N nutrition for maize to produce higher yields. After two years of incorporating smooth vetch, the soil total and available N and K and organic matter contents increased.
Combining N-inhibitor and chicken manure with reduced N fertilizer to improve the conversion and utilization of fertilizer N in a paddy soil
YU Chun-xiao, ZHANG Li-li, YANG Li-jie, WU Kai-kuo, LI Wen-tao, SONG Yu-chao, LI Dong-po, WU Zhi-jie
2021, 27(9): 1581-1591.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021005
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  Objectives  The nitrogen supply and utilization of soil and fertilizer-derived N were studied under the condition of reduced urea N input and combined with N-inhibitors and chicken manure, to provide a theoretical basis for rice cultivation in Northeast of China, in terms of improving the nitrogen use and fertilizer efficiencies.   Methods  15N isotope tracer technology was adopted in a rice pot experiment. The five treatments included: no nitrogen fertilizer control (CK), conventional rate of urea (urea-15N), 80% urea N + 20% chicken manure N (NM), 80% urea N+ inhibitor (NI), 80% urea N + inhibitor + 20% chicken manure N (NIM). The contents of ammonia nitrogen and microbial biomass N in soil and urea-derived nitrogen, and nitrogen content of rice plant at different growth stages were analyzed, investigated the rice yield was investigated.  Results  1) NI treatments had considerable soil ammonium N and fertilizer derived N supply ability compared with N treatment, inhibitors had a compensatory effect on nitrogen reduction. NM treatment had markedly higher N supply ability at the tillering and filling stages, compared to N treatment. Compared with N treatment, soil NH4+-N in NIM treatment increased by 19.2%, 66.3%, and 36.5%; NO3-N content increased by 13.9%, 12.7%, and 17.3% at returning green, tillering and filling stage, respectively, 15NH4+-N content increased by 14.59 mg/kg at tillering stage. 2) N and NI treatments had no significant effect on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content, however, NM and NIM treatments significantly improved soil microbial biomass N (MBN) content at the returning green and filling stage (P < 0.05). Compared with N treatment, the MBC content in NIM treatment increased by 32.61%, 29.23%, 53.46% and 2.85%, and the MBN content increased by 147.98%, 22.97%, 133.33% and 24.63% at the returning green, tillering, filling and mature stages, respectively, while 15N-MBN increased by 22.56 mg/kg at the tillering stage. 3) N-inhibitor with chicken manure addition increased the rice yield and biomass. Compared with N treatment, NIM increased the biomass, yield and nitrogen uptake of rice by 83.59%, 124.18% and 46.66%. It also significantly increased fertilizer N residue in the soil by 56.48% and reduced the fertilizer N loss by 78.7%. Compared with N treatment, NIM treatment had a significant effect on N absorption and utilization of fertilizer, and its N absorption, N utilization rate and N agronomic efficiency were significantly higher than other treatments.  Conclusions  For brown paddy soil of northern China, the addition of inhibitor (1% PPD+1% NBPT+2% DMPP) and chicken manure could replenish soil N supply. Based on 20% reduction in urea, augments with the application of inhibitors and chicken manure increased the fertilizer utilization rate and increased the rice yield. From the perspectives of fertilizer N release and utilization in rice, NI and NIM treatments shows superior agronomic performances.
Biocrusts increase soil nutrient levels by increasing the nutrient retention ability of surface soil on the Loess Plateau
WANG Fang-fang, XIAO Bo, LI Sheng-long, SUN Fu-hai
2021, 27(9): 1592-1602.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021055
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  Objectives  Biocrusts affect the nutrient content in the topsoil, playing a crucial role in the nutrient accumulation and cycling. Here, we studied these effects through a leaching experiment.  Methods  In the Loess Plateau of China, aeolian and loess soils with and without biocrusts on the surface were sampled at every 2 cm layer in a 0−10 cm soil depth profile. The soil organic matter content, total C, N, and P were measured to determine biocrust effects. Soil leaching experiments were conducted in the four soil samples using Cl, K+, and Ca2+ as tracers. On completion of the leaching experiments, the ion content in each soil layer was measured to explore the effects of biocrust on surface soil’s nutrient retention and adsorption abilities of surface soil.  Results  1) The nutrient contents in biocrusts layer were 0.43−10.51 times as compared with the uncrusted soil. And the nutrient contents at a soil depth of 0−10 cm under biocrusts were higher than those without biocrusts, the organic matter, total C, N, and P in soils with biocrusts increased by 1.4%−184.9% compared with the same layer of the uncrusted soil. 2) The nutrient contents in the biocrusts layer were 38.2%−557.1% higher than that in the underlying soil, while the nutrient contents in the surface layer of uncrusted soil were only 13.4%−213.9% higher than that in the underlying soil. These results indicated nutrient accumulation in the surface soil caused by biocrusts. 3) The nutrients in the soils with biocrusts recorded lower leaching than those in uncrusted soil under the same conditions. Cl was completely leached out of the soils with and without biocrusts in our experiments, while the K+ and Ca2+ were only partly leached out, with 21.9%−47.4% lower in the biocrusts covered soil than the uncrusted soil. Moreover, Cl, K+, and Ca2+ contents in the biocrust layer were (P<0.05) higher by 8.8%−340.4% than those in the uncrusted soil, and by 14.5%−62.7% in the soil under the biocrusts layer after the leaching experiments. 4) Biocrusts significantly increased the adsorption or retention ability of surface soil for Cl, K+, and Ca2+ by 27.8%−118.1% compared to the uncrusted soil; the adsorption ability of the biocrusts layer for the tested ions was in the order Ca2+>K+>Cl.  Conclusions  Our findings show that biocrusts can enrich soil nutrients in the surface soil while also increasing the surface soil's nutrient retention ability, which is favourable for nutrient accumulation in degraded soil.
Effects of phosphorus fertilizer application rates on physicochemical properties and yield of potato starch
2021, 27(9): 1603-1613.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021110
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  Objectives  This study investigated the effects of P application rates on the physicochemical properties and yield of potato starch used for different purposes.   Methods  Field experiment was conducted in Heilongjiang Province in 2019 and 2020, using ‘Youjin’ and ‘Kexin 13’ potato cultivars as test materials. The treatments were low (P2O5 45 kg/hm2, LP), medium (P2O5 90 kg/hm2, MP), and high (P2O5 135 kg/hm2, HP) P application rate, with no P application designated as the control (CK). The physicochemical properties and yield of potato starch were determined.  Results  P application reduced the amylose content of potato starch by 3.19%−5.14% for ‘Youjin’ and 2.97%−9.05% for ‘Kexin 13’ compared to CK; the decrease in cultivar ‘Youjin’ in 2019 under HP was more pronounced than other treatments. The addition of P to potato starch increased its transparency and swelling capacity while decreasing its solubility. Compared with CK, HP (P<0.05) increased starch transparency by 15.00% (Youjin) and 25.74% (Kexin 13), increased swelling power by 3.94% (Youjin) and 7.90% (Kexin 13), and decreased solubility by 12.23% (Youjin) and 21.84% (Kexin 13). The median diameter (D50) of ‘Youjin’ was the highest under MP treatment (11.58% higher than CK), while ‘Kexin 13’ recorded a decrease in D50 with an increasing P application rate. The D50 of ‘Kexin 13’ in HP was 5.02% lower than CK. However, the D50 of ‘Kexin 13’ was larger than ‘Youjin’. The starch yield of ‘Youjin’ under MP treatment and ‘Kexin 13’ under HP treatment was the highest, corresponding to 31.36% and 29.66% increase compared to CK.   Conclusions  Appropriate P fertilizer application rate efficiently increased the dry matter accumulation and starch yield of potato. Further, it can boost amylopectin levels and improve potato starch’s transparency and swelling power. The optimum application rate of P2O5 is 90 kg/hm2 for ‘Youjin’ and 135 kg/hm2 for ‘Kexin 13’.
Effects of combining zinc and phosphate fertilizers using different methods on the availability of zinc and phosphorus in soil
ZHAO Li-fang, YUAN Liang, ZHANG Shui-qin, ZHAO Bing-qiang, LIN Zhi-an, XIONG Qi-zhong, LI Yan-ting
2021, 27(9): 1614-1626.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021107
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  Objectives  We explored Zn and P availability in the soil amended with phosphate fertilizers resulting from Zn's physical and chemical combination. The aim was to choose a suitable Zn and phosphate combination method for high-efficiency utilization of the nutrients.   Methods  Zn sulfate heptahydrate of 0.5 and 5 parts by weight were combined with 99.5 and 95 parts by weight of K2HPO4 through the physical mixture (P+Zn) and chemical reaction (PZn) methods, respectively. Further, four Zn-containing phosphate fertilizers were prepared, P+Zn0.5, P+Zn5, PZn0.5, and PZn5. The composite structure of Zn and P were observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The change in the soil available Zn and P content was studied using a soil culture experiment. The alkaline phosphatase activity and pH of the fluvo-aquic soil were measured simultaneously.  Results  1) The combination of Zn and P increased the available Zn content in the soil by 2.90%, 12.17%, 24.64% and 10.86% for P+Zn0.5, P+Zn5, PZn0.5, and PZn5, respectively. PZn0.5 and PZn5 increased soil available Zn content by 21.13% and 7.37% than P+Zn0.5 and P+Zn5. In addition, PZn0.5 reduced Zn fixation rate by 10.49 percentage points than PZn5. 2) Compared with K2HPO4 control, the combination of Zn and P (P < 0.05) increased soil available P content. At 60 days of cultivation, the soil available P content of PZn0.5 and PZn5 were (P < 0.05) higher than P+Zn0.5 and P+Zn5 by 5.76% and 5.70%, respectively. P+Zn0.5, PZn0.5, and PZn5 reduced soil P fixation rates by 1.45, 1.19, and 0.25 percentage points than K2HPO4 control. 3) Compared with K2HPO4 control, P+Zn0.5 and P+Zn5 increased the soil alkaline phosphatase activity at the beginning of cultivation and the effect of PZn0.5 was better than PZn5. 4) PZn0.5 and PZn5 reduced soil pH at the beginning of cultivation. The reduction was more prominent in PZn0.5 than PZn5.  Conclusions  The combination of Zn and phosphate fertilizer by the physical mixing and chemical reaction processes could reduce Zn fixation in the soil, and the products obtained from the chemical reaction method performed better. The chemical reaction between Zn and phosphate fertilizer can also reduce P fixation in the soil, similar to soil pH reduction. Adding 0.5% zinc sulfate heptahydrate to phosphate fertilizer through a chemical reaction is recommended.
Effects of organic acid composition in the decomposed liquid of green manure crops on the activation level of AlPO4 and FePO4·2H2O
GU Chi-ming, LI Yue, LI Yin-shui, XIE Li-hua, SHEN Xin-jie, LI Xiao-yong, QIN Lu, LIAO Xing
2021, 27(9): 1627-1635.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021092
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  Objectives  The organic acid composition of decomposed green manures was studied to understand the different effects of green manures on improving soil phosphorus availability. The study aims to provide a reference for selecting suitable green manure crops for an efficient rotational system.  Methods  Six types of green manure crops were selected for the experiment: milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus var. Longipinnatus), Orychophragmus violaceus, double-low rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), double-high rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), and mustard (Brassica juncea). The green manure plants were cut and loaded into centrifugal tubes, and 1 mL of soil extract solution was added and isolated before incubation for 45 days under natural shading conditions. The decomposed liquids of the green manure crops were collected by centrifuge to determine the contents of 10 organic acids (propane diacid, malic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid). A simulation experiment was conducted by eluting AlPO4 (Al-P) and FePO4·2H2O (Fe-P) from the decomposed liquids, the water-soluble P contents in the dilution were then analyzed.  Results  The total organic acid content in the decomposed solution of Orychophragmus violaceus was the highest, followed by radish, double-low rapeseed, mustard, double-high rapeseed, and milkvetch. The descending order of the 10 organic acids by concentration was tartaric acid, propane diacid, citric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid in all decomposed liquids of the green manure crops. tartaric acid and propane diacid accounted for more than 15% of the total organic acid, while maleic acid and fumaric acid accounted for less than 1%. The decomposed liquid of radish had the highest capacity to activate insoluble P, corresponding to a theriotical activation of 0.6–1.2 kg insoluble P per 1000 kg of radish plant. This was followed by milkvetch (0.6–1.0 kg per 1000 kg) and mustard green manure (0.6–1.0 kg per 1000 kg), and Orychophragmus violaceus recorded the lowest activation capacity of 0.2–0.6 kg per 1000 kg. Correlation analysis showed that the activation level of Al-P was positively related to the content of citric, malic, and oxalic acids. The activation level of Fe-P was positively related to tartaric acid content.   Conclusions  The proportion of citric, malic, and oxalic acids in the total organic acids of the green manure crops is closely related to the activation level of Al-P, and that of tartaric acid is related to the activation level of Fe-P. The decomposed liquid of radish has the highest tartaric acid and a relatively higher proportion of citric and succinic acid than other green manures. This implies that radish has the highest ability to activate Fe-P. Milkvetch and mustard rape have higher proportions of oxalic, citric and succinic acids in the total organic acids, indicating that they have a strong ability to activate Al-P. Therefore, radish, milkvetch, and mustard are recommended as green manures in rotational systems to increase the biological availability of Al-P and Fe-P in soils.
Comment on special topic
Genetic approaches to lower grain phytic acid for high phosphorus use efficiency in crops
JIANG Peng, LI Jia-qing, GUO Jing-xuan, ZHAO Zheng, YUAN Li-xing
2021, 27(9): 1636-1647.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.20604
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  Objectives  Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient element for crop growth and development. In plants, P is mostly stored in mature grains in the form of phytic acid. Non ruminants, including humans, cannot digest phytic acid to utilize P and other nutrient elements owing to their chelation with phytic acid. This leads to decreased nutrition value and increased loss risk of P resources to environments via grain harvest and animal manure. Reducing grain phytic acid content is thus an important focus in crop breeding. We summarized the research progresses on pathway of P entering crop grains, the physiological processes regulating grain phytate-P, and genetic improvement strategies reducing grain phytate.   Main advances  The accumulation of phytate-P in grain was mainly composed of three steps: transporting inorganic P (Pi) from xylem or phloem and subsequently to grains, synthesizing phytic acid from Pi, and loading phytic acid into vacuole for storage. To date, many membrane transporters and metabolic enzymes involved in these processes have been characterized, such as SULTR3;4, SULTR3;3, PHT1;4 transporters mediating inorganic P transport to grains; MIPS, ITPK, IPK1 enzymes respond to phytic acid synthesis; and MRP proteins for vacuolar storage of phytic acid. We further compared yield performances and other agronomic traits of grain phytate mutants, and evaluated the different strategies of genetic improvements. The shortcoming of low grain phytate mutants remained, such as defective in yields formation and seeds germination rate.   Prospects  In the future, three approaches can be emphasized for breeding low-grain-phytate crop varieties, including modulating spatial-temporal expression of key genes, exploring superior gene allelic variation, and cultivars-specialized P nutrition management.
Short communication
Construction of regional fertilization system based on GIS and nutrient abundance index
GAO Hong-yan, SUO Quan-yi, ZHENG Hai-chun, GAO Fan-shen
2021, 27(9): 1648-1655.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021219
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  Objectives  We assessed available soil nutrients using a nutrient abundance index and graded the spatial distribution of the former based on GIS and soil nutrient grading in Xiliao River Plain. Further, we proposed fertilizer recommendations across the spatial layout.  Methods  Xiliao River Plain in Inner Mongolia covers Horqin District, Kailu County, Naiman Banner, Horqin Left Back Banner, and Horqin Left Middle Banner. Based on 15421 soil test data and 143 “3414” maize trail data, we calculate the spatial interpolation results of alkaline N, available P, and readily available K in the cultivated soil using GIS. Combining GIS with the method of soil abundance index, the nutrient management zones of soil alkaline N (AN), available P (AP), and readily available K (AK) were divided in Xiliao River Plain. The fertilizer uptake of different soil NPK nutrient combinations was determined. The map of N, P, and K zonal fertilization of maize was developed.  Results  The spatial distribution of soil nutrients in the cultivated soil was uneven. The content of soil AN was low, and the contents of soil AP and AK were medium in Xiliao River Plain. The most important combinations of soil AN–AP–AK were low (N)–medium (P)–medium (K), medium (N)–medium (P)–medium (K), and medium (N)–medium (P)–high (K). The area ratio of each combination was 42.4%, 14.1%, and 13.5%. There were better logarithmic relationships between the soil AN, AP, and AK content (x) and the economic optimal fertilizer rate (y). Nitrogen optimal fertilization model was y = –102.5ln (x) + 617.22, phosphorus optimal fertilization model was y = –36.11ln (x) + 174.1, and potassium optimal fertilization model was y = –25.89ln (x) + 180.96. Under the different soil nutrient combinations, the optimal dosage combinations of N, P2O5, and K2O for maize were 202–110–58 (kg/hm2), 168–107–57 (kg/hm2), and 164–102–47 (kg/hm2).  Conclusions  The relative yield of maize has a good logarithmic relationship with soil AN, AP, and AK content. The simulation effects of the function between the relative yield of maize and soil nutrients differ under different methods.When dividing the abundance index of soil alkaline nitrogen, available phosphorus, and readily available potassium in the Xiliao River Plain, grading intervals of the relative yield of 75% and 85% are suitable. Under the big data support of soil nutrients, the regional fertilization management system can be established accurately and rapidly by combining the GIS and abundance index methods.
Optimum application of seaweed extracts promote the yield, quality and nutrient absorption of peach fruit
YU Hui-li, XU Bian-bian, XU Guo-yi, SHAO Wei, LIU Hui-min, ZHANG Zi-hua, QIAO Xian-sheng, SI Peng
2021, 27(9): 1656-1664.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021058
Abstract(129) FullText HTML(157) PDF 542KB(10) Related Articles
  Objectives  The effects of adding different ratios of seaweed extracts (60% seaweed extract, 6.5% alginic acid, 5% humic acid, pH 6.7, and 1.15 g/mL density) to NPK fertilizer were studied for the efficient use of seaweed extract.  Methods  Peach cultivar of ‘Zhongtao 8’ was used as the test material in a two-year field experiment. The tested application dosages of seaweed extracts were designed as the ratio of NPK fertilizer used in four topdressings (w/w): 0% (CK), 5% (T1), 10% (T2), 20% (T3), and 40% (T4). The seaweed extracts were applied to the soil with NKP fertilizer simultaneously. We measured the single fruit weight, yield, fruit quality, color, and nutrient content of peach.   Results  With increasing of seaweed extract dosage, peach yield and quality increased first and then decreased. The highest yield and soluble solid content were recorded in T2 in 2019 and 2020, with 31.77%, 40.67% for yield and 10.67%, 7.20% for soluble solid content higher than CK. Further, the yield of T2 was (P < 0.05) different from other treatments. However, the titratable acid content of T2 was the lowest, which was 11.11% and 50.00% lower than CK in 2019 and 2020. In 2019, except for the soluble sugar in T1, the soluble sugar content and sugar to acid ratio in all the other seaweed extract treatments were lower than CK. Except for T4 in 2020, the soluble sugar content and sugar to acid ratio in other seaweed extract treatments were higher than CK, and T2 was 20.55% and 166.29% higher than CK. Seaweed extract application promoted nutrient absorption and fruit coloring in 2019 and 2020. The highest fruit K content was 16.7% (T2) and 11.94% (T3) higher than CK in 2019 and 2020. Based on the principal component analysis, the total score of T2 was the highest in the two consecutive years.  Conclusions  Seaweed extract shows a satisfactory effect in increasing peach fruit yield and quality while improving fruit coloration. The appropriate application dosage of seaweed extracts is 10% of topdressed NPK fertilizer.
The appropriate nitrogen fertilization rate to enhance Artemisia argyi yield and quality
MA Lin, CHEN Chang-jie, MIAO Yu-huan, GUO Lan-ping, LIU Da-hui
2021, 27(9): 1665-1674.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2021071
Abstract(138) FullText HTML(169) PDF 636KB(10) Related Articles
  Objectives  Nitrogen (N) fertilization affects the growth, yield and quality of Artemisia argyi. We investigated the optimal N application rate for high yield and quality to provide a scientific basis for standardized N fertilization of A. argyi in Qichun.  Methods  Two field experiments were conducted at the experimental base of A. argyi in Qichun, Hubei Province, from 2018 to 2019. The first field was newly planted, and the second was continuously planted with A. argyi. We used P2O5 120 kg/hm2 and K2O 120 kg/hm2 as the basis to set up five N (urea) application rates of 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg/hm2. The agronomic traits, yield, leaf quality and N use efficiency of A. argyi were studied.   Results  The growth of A. argyi was sensitive to N application rate. The emergence number and leaf yield of A. argyi reached the peak at N 168 kg/hm2 and N 172 kg/hm2 in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The corresponding maximum leaf yield was 7 030 kg/hm2 and 6 200 kg/hm2. Higher N application rate increased N and Cu contents in A. argyi leaves, while the K and Mg contents were the highest at N60 and N120, respectively. The P content was the highest at N240. The highest moxa yield of A. argyi (1 743 kg/hm2 in 2018 and 1 426 kg/hm2 in 2019) was obtained at N 147 kg/hm2 and N 142 kg/hm2, respectively. The total volatile oil and its components, β-eugenone and caryophyllin, increased continuously. The contents of eucalyptol, α-platycladone, camphor, borneol and α-caryophyllene reached the highest at N 180 kg/hm2. The highest phenolic acids and flavonoids contents were obtained at N 60−120 kg/hm2. In addition, N partial productivity, N absorption rate, and N agronomic efficiency of A. argyi leaves showed a decreasing trend with the increasing N application rate.  Conclusions  The yield and quality response of A. argyi to N fertilizer application rate were the same in new and old fields. The N application rate for the highest yield was N 170 (168−172) kg/hm2, N 144 (141−147) kg/hm2 for the highest moxa yield, N 180 kg/hm2 for the highest volatile oil contents, and N 60−120 kg/hm2 for the highest phenolic acids and flavonoids contents.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(6694) PDF 2130KB(2067)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(6688) PDF 2629KB(15727)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(4447) PDF 929KB(1670)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(6760) PDF 1766KB(1162)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(5824) PDF 876KB(2276)
Nitrogen and transplanting density interactions on the rice yield and N use rate
ZHOU Jiang-ming, ZHAO Lin, DONG Yue-yong, XU Jin, BIAN Wu-ying, MAO Yang-cang, ZHANG Xiu-fu
2010, 16(2): 274-281.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0203
Abstract(3685) PDF 1119KB(1192)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(4560) PDF 1228KB(1340)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(7190) PDF 906KB(2118)
Effects of long-term straw return on soil fertility, nitrogen pool fractions and crop yields on a fluvo-aquic soil in North China
ZHAO Shi-cheng, CAO Cai-yun, LI Ke-jiang, QIU Shao-jun, ZHOU Wei, HE Ping
2014, 20(6): 1441-1449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0614
Abstract(4874) PDF 1271KB(1008)
Decomposition characteristics of maize and wheat straw and their effects on soil carbon and nitrogen contents
NAN Xiong-xiong, TIAN Xiao-hong, ZHANG Lin, YOU Dong-hai, WU Yu-hong, CAO Yu-xian
2010, 16(3): 626-633.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0316
Abstract(5039) PDF 1163KB(1618)