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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Association profiles between the expression of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene ZmPAO and dynamic variation of chlorophyll contents in maize
WEI Ning-ning, NIE Jia-wei, WANG Ya-hui, LI Ting, ZHAO Zi-xin, ZHANG Xin-hua, XUE Ji-quan, XU Shu-tu
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18268
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ObjectivesTo better understand the polymorphism of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) in maize and the functional sites related to the contents of chlorophyll components in maize ear leaves, the structural information used for the development of ZmPAO functional markers was analyzed to clarify the genetic mechanism of chlorophyll metabolism at late maturity stage of maize.MethodsA total of 141 of maize inbred lines with extensive genetic variation was used as a related population. The chlorophyll component contents in two sites from 7 time points were measured as phenotypic data. Tassel 5.0 was used to analyze the relationship between the expression profiles of pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (ZmPAO) and the changes of chlorophyll components at different periods after maturity by the mixed linear model (MLM, Mixed linear model), and the effective association sites were investigated by haplotype analysis.ResultsThe chlorophyll contents at the late growth stage of maize revealed greater variation, and chlorophyll a generally has lower accumulation than chlorophyll b, but the total chlorophyll (the sum of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) showed a downward trend. A total of 19 of effective functional sites were identified, in which 4 sites were existed in the exon region, one of them located at UTR and others settled in the intron. The phenotypic interpretation rate in the functional site for chlorophyll component content variation was ranged from 3.89% to 16.57%, the total phenotypic effect ranged from 5.24% to 41.78%. Site S3235 from the sixth intron had a phenotypic interpretation rate of 16.57% for Yang-chlb6; Site S3675 of the seventh exon represented 12.16% phenotypic interpretation rate for the phenotypic variation for Yang-chla1 and 14.14% for Yang-chlb1, respectively. The favorable trait sites with obvious haplotypes was the same as preferred variation sites in association analysis.ConclusionsThe excavation of effective functional sites and haplotype analysis of traits showed that two amino acids mutated in the ZmPAO exon, and the hydrophobic amino acids were transformed into hydrophilic amino acids, indicating that the ZmPAO gene might be regulated by the protein structure variation and as well as the transcriptional level because more related sites appeared in noncoding regions, although they are not yet identified. However, the transcription level is greatly affected by environmental factors which usually lead to the inconsistency of the related sites that found in different locations of the gene at different growth stages, but the existence of effective mutation sites is universal.
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2019, 25(11): 1-5.  
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Combining chemical fertilizer with organic manure or straw increase the yield stability and sustainability of maize and wheat in Loess Plateau of east Gansu Province
WANG Ting, DING Ning-ping, LI Li-li, ZHOU Hai-yan, SHANG Lai-gui
2019, 25(11): 1817-1826.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19190
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ObjectivesThe effect of different fertilization patterns on the yield increase of spring maize and winter wheat and the stability and sustainability of the increment were studied under different precipitation years, which will provide scientific basis for efficient management of nutrient resources in the crop production of rainfed area.MethodsThe study was based on the long-term fertilization experiment established in Pingliang City, Gansu Province in 1979. The experiment had lasted for 38 years, of which, the number of dry, normal and wet years was 9, 7 and 10 for winter wheat and 7, 2 and 3 for spring maize. There were six treatments, including: no fertilizer (CK), single chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N), nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer (NP), straw + nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer (SNP), single organic fertilizer (M) and organic fertilizer + nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer (MNP). We investigated the yields of winter wheat and spring maize, calculated yield stability and yield sustainable index (SYI), fertilizer contribution rate to yield (FCR) and rainfall use efficiency (RUE), and the relationships among the yield, fertilization patterns and precipitation.ResultsCompared with N treatment, the yields of winter wheat under NP, SNP, M, and MNP treatments significantly increased in all the dry, normal and wet years by 89.8%–151%, 108%–174%, and 52.1%–101.9%, the yields of spring maize were increased by 56.3%–99.9%, 81.3%–104%, and 105%–127%, respectively. The precipitation did not affect the stability and sustainability of winter wheat yield significantly, but affected those of spring maize. Compared to N treatment, the FCR and RUE of winter wheat under NP, SNP, M, and MNP treatments in the dry and wet years were significantly increased by 166%–198%, 520%–654% and 100%–164%, 53.4%–105%, respectively, and those of spring maize were increased by 161%–218%, 262%–289% and 56.0%–99.2%, 104%–125%. Compared to the dry year and under the same fertilizer pattern, the FCR of winter wheat under NP, SNP, M and MNP treatments were decreased by 9.9%–23.3% in normal years and by 10.6%–23.3% in wet years, while the FCR of maize in wet years were 6.0%–25.0% higher than those in dry years and 20.4%–27.7% higher than in normal years. Compared to dry years, the RUE of winter wheat under NP, SNP, M and MNP treatments were decreased by 2.2%–26.6% in normal years and 22.3%–37.7% in wet years, and those of maize were decreased by 41.9%–49.5% in normal years and 10.9%–24.4% in wet years. The yields of winter wheat and spring maize were closely related to fertilization patterns and precipitation in growth periods in different precipitation years.ConclusionsIn Loess Plateau of east Gansu Province, the yield, the stability and sustainability of yield, the contribution rate of fertilizer to yield and rainfall use efficiency of crops are significantly improved by both the combination use of NP fertilizers with straw returns or manures, regardless of precipitation. Thus, they are two effective fertilization strategies to guarantee the sustainable and efficient crop production in the dry farmland in this area. Further optimization in fertilization details is required in term of precipitation years.
Effects of organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the wheat yields and soil nutrients under long-term fertilization
TANG Ji-wei, XU Jiu-kai, WEN Yan-chen, TIAN Chang-yu, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2019, 25(11): 1827-1834.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18436
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ObjectivesThe effects of chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizer on the wheat yields and soil nutrients under the condition of equal NPK nutrient input, were investigated to determine the optimum application amount of each fertilizer. This result could provide a basis for the scientific fertilization of wheat and the improvement of soil fertility.MethodThe experiment was started in 2006 with organic manure and chemical fertilizer applied with five nitrogen rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 600 kg/hm2), respectively. Therefore, there were nine fertilization treatments in total. During the eight-year field experiment, the crop yields and soil nutrients were measured after wheat harvested.ResultsThe contents of soil organic matter, total N, available P and readily available K increased with organic fertilizer application increment and application years. For chemical fertilizer, the contents of organic matter, total N, available P and readily available K increased slowly, and there was no significant difference among treatments and among cultivation years. In the first few years, the increase of chemical fertilizer input could slowly increase the content of the soil available P and readily available K, and then they remained at a stable level. Under the same N level, the nutrient content of soil treated with organic fertilizer was significantly higher than that treated with chemical fertilizer. In treatments of organic fertilizers, the treatments of N 240, 360, and 600 kg/hm2 obtained significantly higher wheat yields than N 120 kg/hm2 treatment did, and no significant difference was observed among the three treatments. In treatments of inorganic fertilizers, there was no significant difference in yields among them. Under equal N application rate, no significant difference was observed between the organic and inorganic fertilizer treatments, except for N rate of 120 kg/hm2, in which the wheat yield in inorganic treatment was significantly higher than that in organic one.ConclusionsSoil nutrients show increase trend with the increase of organic fertilizer input, while they stay stable with the increase of inorganic fertilizer input. Organic fertilizer performs better than inorganic fertilizer in increasing soil nutrient levels. Both organic and chemical fertilizers have significantly increased wheat yield. When the N input level is less than 120 kg/hm2, inorganic fertilizer could obtain higher yield, when the N input levels are higher than 240 kg/hm2, inorganic and organic fertilizer have similar yields, and wheat yield would not increase when excess N is applied.
Effect of different manures combined with chemical fertilizer on yields of crops and gaseous N loss in farmland
LI Yan-qing, WEN Yan-chen, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2019, 25(11): 1835-1846.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18494
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ObjectivesThe paper studied the yield and nitrogen loss caused by fertilization rate and combination proportions of manures with chemical fertilizer, to provide a theoretical basis for efficient use of different organic manures in the area.MethodsA winter wheat/summer maize rotation field experiment was conducted in Yucheng Experimental Base of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shandong, from October 2014 to September 2015. The tested wheat cultivar was Jimai22 and maize cultivar was Zhengdan958. In the conventional nitrogen application rate of N 225 kg/(hm2·season), chemical fertilizer (CF), chicken manure (CHM), pig manure (PM) and cattle manure (CM) were applied in different chemical and manure N ratios (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%). In addition, single application of double N rate of fertilizers (DCF, DCHM, DPM and DCM) and no fertilizer control were included in the experiment. The crop yields, N2O emission and NH3 volatilization flux were determined.ResultsIn the N rate of 225 kg/hm2, the 100%CHM and 100%PM treatments had similar yields with 100%CF, but 100%CM treatment produced lower yields. Compared with their conventional N rate, DCF, DCHM and DPM had similar yields, while DCM increased maize yield significantly. The yields of wheat and maize in different proportion treatments of pig and chicken manure were all similar to those of 100%CF, and there was no significant difference among them. While among the combining treatments of cattle manure with chemical fertilizer, wheat yield decreased with the increasing ratios of cattle manure, and maize yields were less affected by the ratios. In N rate of 225 kg/hm2, 100%CF treatment had an annual NH3 volatilization of 39.63 kg/hm2, which was 37–53 folds greater than those of 100% CHM, PM and CM treatments. The NH3 discharge coefficient in 100%CF was approximately 9%, while those in the three 100% manure treatments was only 0.2%. The total annual NH3 volatilization quantities of organic manure with chemical fertilizer were increased significantly with increase of chemical fertilizer ratio. When the chemical fertilizer accounted for 75%, the total annual NH3 volatilization quantity was similar to that of 100%CF. Applying double N rate of CF, PM, CHM and CM all increased the annual NH3 volatilization significantly. NH3 volatilization occurred mainly during wheat season in manure treatments while mainly during maize season in CF treatments. The total annual N2O emission for 100%CF was 2.85 kg/hm2, higher than those of 100% manure treatments. The total annual N2O emission of the manures were in the order of pig manure (2.51 kg/hm2)>chicken manure (1.91 kg/hm2)>cattle manure (1.85 kg/hm2). The average N2O emission in the double N rate treatments was more than 1.5 times of those in conventional N rate. When the chemical fertilizer accounted for 50%, the total annual N2O emission quantity was similar to or higher than those of 100%CF. The N2O discharge coefficient for 100%CF was around 0.4%, while those for 100% manures were only about 0.3%. The NH3 and N2O emission was mainly occurred during wheat season in 100% manure treatments, whereas that was mainly during maize season in 100%CF. The NH3 and N2O emission quantities in double N rate treatments were significantly increased, but the discharge coefficients were kept the same.ConclusionsManure sources and nitrogen combining proportions with chemical fertilizer perform significanly different on crop yields, N2O emission and NH3 volatilization. Under the conventional N rate, chicken and pig manure could be applied alone or combined with a proportion of less than 50% of total N, while cow manure could be applied combined with more than 75% of chemical nitrogen, to achieve the similar crop yield as with chemical fertilizer alone, and reduce the gaseous loss of nitrogen fertilizer in farmland.
Potential of integrated agronomic practices to increase grain yield and utilization efficiency of fertilizers in summer maize production
LIU Zheng, GAO Jia, GAO Fei, YANG Jin-sheng, REN Bai-zhao, ZHANG Ji-wang
2019, 25(11): 1847-1855.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18485
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ObjectivesIntegrated and concord agronomic practices are the foundation of the high grain yield and fertilizer efficiencies in summer maize production in Shandong Province. The current integrated management was modified and testified in this paper, for achieving the highest potentials of yield and efficiency in maize production.MethodsThe testify experiment was conducted in State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology and College of Agronomy, located in Dawenkou County of Tai'an City, from 2013 to 2017. A summer maize hybrid of ‘Zhengdan958’ was used as the experimental material. The experiment was composed of four treatments: local conventional practice CK (no tillage, straw returning); Opt-1(relative to CK, delay maize harvesting, increase planting density, decrease N application rate, and split apply fertilizers); HY (the maximum grain yield with highest fertilizer rate and three application practices); Opt-2 (decrease planting density and fertilizer rate). The grain yield, dry matter weight and utilization efficiency of N, P and K of summer maize were measured.ResultsThe grain yield of Opt-2 treatment was 27.6%–37.9% and 19.2%–31.9% higher than those of CK and Opt-1 treatment, but significantly lower than those of HY treatment; its average dry matter translocation efficiency was 5.8% higher than that of CK, but lower than those of Opt-1 and HY treatment; the contribution of dry matter accumulated before tasseling stage was significantly lower than Opt-1 and HY as well, but the average dry matter accumulation after tasseling was 28.7%–36.8% higher than CK and Opt-1, which was similar with HY treatment. The grain N accumulation in Opt-2 treatment was 146.0–171.4 kg/hm2, which was lower than that in HY treatment but higher than in CK and Opt-1 treatment. The grain P accumulation in Opt-2 treatment was 75.6–92.7 kg/hm2, which was higher than all the other treatments. The grain K accumulation in Opt-2 was 40.0–43.8 kg/hm2, which was 38.3%–58.9% and 16.3%–32.6% higher than those in CK and Opt-1 treatment, respectively. The utilization efficiencies of N and P in Opt-2 treatment were highest but that of K was the lowest.ConclusionsUnder the same sowing and harvest date with conventional optimum practices in maize, the modified optimum practices increase plant density by 10% and nitrogen fertilizer rate by 15%, and conduct twice top dressing. As a result, the dry matter accumulation of the whole growing period is significantly increased, especially that after tasseling, and the high yield is increased by 27.6%–37.9%, and the partial fertilizer productivities of N and P increased by 47.5%–67.6%.
Mechanism of spraying γ-poly glutamic acid increasing yield and nutrient uptake of summer maize
ZHANG Jing-jing, BAI You-lu, YANG Li-ping, LU Yan-li, WANG Lei, LI Ge, ZHANG Yin-jie
2019, 25(11): 1856-1867.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19073
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ObjectivesThe experiment was conducted to study the regulatory effects of γ-poly glutamic acid (γ-PGA) on the growth and nutrients uptake of summer maize to provide technical guidance and theoretical basis for scientific use of γ-PGA in summer maize.MethodsThe treatment factors included two nitrogen levels [normal nitrogen (N 180 kg/hm2) and 30% nitrogen reduction (N 126 kg/hm2)], two synergists (γ-PGA and glutamic acid), and three dosage levels, low (37.5 g/hm2) and high (150 g/hm2) and clear water control (0 g/hm2). Measurements included summer maize dry matter accumulation, dynamic change of NPK, and yield traits.Results1) There were significant differences between different synergists in the grain number per ear, yield, dry matter, and nutrient accumulation of summer maize. With spraying both low and high dose γ-PGA treatments, compared with clear water controls, higher yields were achieved by increasing the grain number per ear, and significantly promoting the accumulation of dry matter especially from flare opening stage to silking stage. The accumulation of N, P, K also increased significantly. There was no significant difference between two doses. The treatments with glutamic acid had no significant effects when compared with water control. 2) Under normal nitrogen level, compared with clear water control, the treatment with low-dose γ-PGA increased the total dry matter accumulation by 5.08% but had no significant effect on yield, while the high-dose treatment increased the yield by 3.42% with greater grain number but no significantly greater amount of dry matter accumulation. Both low and high dose treatments increased N, P, K accumulation by 5.20%–6.97%, 7.29%–10.85%, 3.48%–5.27%, respectively. At the 30% reduction of nitrogen level, the treatment with the high-dose γ-PGA increased the yield by 3.07% with greater grain number, while the low-dose treatment increased grain number per ear, grain weight and yield. For both treatments, the total accumulation of dry matter and potassium were increased by 6.48%–7.93% and 4.36%–6.12%. The low-dose treatment increased the accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus by 8.41% and 11.94%, which were also significantly higher than those of high-dose treatment. There was no significant difference in all indexes of glutamate treatments under the two nitrogen levels. 3) In the high-yielding year (2017), the high-dose treatment with γ-PGA increased the yield by 2.54%, while the low-dose treatment had no significant effect on the yield. In terms of the total accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the increase was all significant. In the low yield year (2018), the yield of the low and high dose γ-PGA treatments was increased by 4.37% and 4.14%, respectively; and the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients of low dose treatment were significantly higher than those of control and the high dose treatment. For the glutamic acid treatment, only the low-dose treatment in 2018 significantly increased the yield by increasing the grain weight, but the effect was lower than that of γ-PGA.ConclusionsThe application of γ-PGA can promote dry matter accumulation after flowering and increase the total weight of dry matter and nutrient accumulation, and increase the yield mainly by increasing the grain number per ear of summer maize, while the application of glutamic acid has no significant effect. The major effects are not because of the decomposition of L-glutamic acid. Under 30% reduction of nitrogen, γ-PGA has a greater effect than that under normal nitrogen level. Under normal nitrogen level, the treatment with high dose γ-PGA has a better effect; while under 30% reduction nitrogen, the low dose treatment has a better effect. In addition, under 30% reduction of nitrogen, spraying low dose γ-PGA can achieve the goal of increasing efficiency while reducing fertilizer rate.
Climate warming may significantly reduce grain yield and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake of spring wheat in irrigation area of Yellow River
LI Na, ZHANG Feng-ju, XU Xing, XIAO Guo-ju, LUO Cheng-ke
2019, 25(11): 1868-1878.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19018
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ObjectivesThe uptake and accumulation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrient of spring wheat affected by climate warming were studied at different growth stages, so as to predict the impaction degree of climate warming on spring wheat production in the arid and semi-arid regions.MethodsA field experiment was conducted in Ningxia University Experimental Station in Yellow River Irrigation Area in 2018, using Triticumaestivum L. cv. Ningchun50 as test material. Infrared radiators, with a set of automatic temperature controlling equipment, were installed on each plot to increase required canopy temperature, and the warming period was day and night continuously. Taking the local wheat canopy temperature as control (CK), 4 warning gradients of 0.5℃, 1℃, 1.5℃ and 2.0℃ were setup. At seedling, jointing, heading, filling 10 days after filling and maturing stages, the plant samples were recollected, the biomass and N, P, K contents were measured, and the yield and yield components were investigated at harvest.ResultsWhen the canopy temperature was increased by 0.5℃, the dry weight of spring wheat in the seedling stage, the contents and accumulation of N, P, K in leaves, stems and ears in jointing stage were significantly higher than those in CK. When canopy temperature was increased by 1.0℃, the N, K contents and accumulative N uptake in seedlings stage and the leaf N, P, K contents in jointing stage were significantly higher than those of CK, with increment of 3.2%–23.7%. When the temperature was increased by 1.5℃, only plant K content at seedling stage was significantly increased by 22.2%. When the temperature was increased by 2.0℃, all the N, P, K contents and accumulations were significantly decreased in all the growing stages. At the maturity stage, the spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield all decreased with the increase of temperature. In treatment of warming 2.0℃, they were decreased by 53.7%, 24.1%, 13.4% and 21.7%, respectively.ConclusionsThe 0.5℃–1.0℃ increase of temperature will benefit the uptake of N, P and K nutrients before jointing stage of wheat. After jointing stage, all the tested warming degrees negatively affect the uptake and accumulation of N, P and K nutrients, lead to significantly decreased dry matter accumulation, 1000-grain weight and kernel numbers at harvest, and declined yield of spring wheat eventually.
Subsoiling 35 cm in depth improve soil physicochemical properties and increase grain yields of wheat and maize in aquic brown soil
LIANG Hai, CHEN Bao-cheng, HAN Hui-fang, WANG Shao-bo, WANG Gui-wei
2019, 25(11): 1879-1886.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18462
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ObjectivesCurrent tillage is 20 cm depth, this long-term practice has reduced the thickness of the plough layer, increased the thickness of the plough pan, and affected the growth of crops. Subsoiling in different depths was attempted in this study to provide technical support for field farming management.MethodsA field experiment was conducted in aquic brown soil, Yantai, Shandong Province. Taking conventional tillage 20 cm as control (CK), subsoiling of 30 cm, 35 cm and 40 cm in depth were designed in the experiment. The tillage was conducted before sowing of winter wheat, and all treatments were once applied 1125 kg/hm2 of humic acid compound fertilizer (N–P2O5–K2O=18–10–12) with the tillage practice. No tillage was conducted for maize, and chemical fertilizer was top dressed at the jointing stage of maize. At wheat and corn harvest period, soil samples of 0−10 cm, 10−20 cm, 20−30 cm and 30−40 cm in depth were taken to determine the soil organic matter and available N, P and K contents and the soil bulk densities.ResultsCompared with CK, the subsoiling treatments of 30 cm, 35 cm and 40 cm increased yields of crops, for wheat the increments were 10.9%, 15.3% and 15.5%, respectively, and for maize they were 12.0%, 14.9% and 9.4%, respectively. The subsoiling treatments effectively reduced the soil bulk density by 0.03−0.18 g/cm3 in the 10−40 cm soil layer, improved the ratio of three phases and the available nutrient contents in the 20−40 cm soil layer (P < 0.05). The soil bulk density in the 0−10 cm soil layer of CK was significantly lower than those of the subsoiling treatments, and those in the 0−10 cm and 10−20 cm soil layers of subsoiling 35 cm treatment was significantly higher than in the others. The lowest soil bulk density in the 0−10 cm and 10−20 cm soil layers of the maize season were all in subsoiling 35 cm treatment, which was significantly lower than in other treatments. After wheat harvest, the minimum R value was between 13.2 and 15.9, and after maize harvest was between 6.03 and 8.81. Subsoiling treatments increased the available P and N contents in 20−40 cm soil layer, with increment of 0.56−37.4 mg/kg for P and 31.9−77.8 mg/kg for N in the 35 cm subsoiling treatment. The available K was increased most significantly by 24.3−100.3 mg/kg in treatment of subsoiling 30 cm. The most significant increase of organic matter content was in subsoiling of 40 cm, with increase of 0.95−0.69 g/kg.ConclusionsDeep subsoiling is effective in reducing soil bulk density, increasing the crop yield of the current and the following season, improving the available nutrient contents of the 20−40 cm soil layer. Comprehensively considering the mechanical consumption and the tillage effect, the 35 cm depth of tillage is recommended for the tested area.
Characteristics of ammonia oxidation microbial abundance and community structure in paddy soils of rice–crayfish symbiosis farming system
WANG Rong, ZHU Jie, JIN Tao, LIU Zhang-yong
2019, 25(11): 1887-1899.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18414
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ObjectivesTo study the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microbes in paddy soil under rice-crayfish farming system, for deeper understanding the changing trend of the microbial ecosystem under the system.MethodsThe study was carried out at the Base of Agricultural College, Yangtze University in Jingzhou, Hubei Province. The comparison of conventional mid-season rice planting model (MR), and rice-crayfish symbiosis farming system (CR) was conducted using the technology of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and the platform of Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing to study the impact of rice-crayfish farming system on the abundance, diversity and community structure of ammonia oxidation microbes in different soils.ResultsRice-crayfish farming system significantly increased the content of soil nitrate, total carbon and total nitrogen. However, the effects on soil pH, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, carbon and nitrogen ratio in soil were insignificant. The copy number of AOA amoA gene and AOB amoA gene was 3.13 × 105 and 7.01 × 105/g dry soil) respectively under CR system, while the copy number of AOA amoA gene and AOB amoA gene was 1.41 × 105 and 3.87 × 105 /g dry soil, respectively under MR system. The number of soil AOA and AOB was significantly higher in CR system, and the number of AOB was significantly higher than that of AOA in both CR and MR system. The α community diversity index indicated that CR system significantly decreased the community diversity of soil AOA but did not significantly affect the community diversity of soil AOB. Analysis of Venn results showed that CR system increased the number of species of AOA amoA gene and changed the species composition of AOB amoA gene, accompanied by the decrease in the number of species AOB amoA. At the generic level, norank_c_environmental_samples_p_Thaumarchaeota, unclassified_k_norank_d_Archaea, norank_c_environmental_samples_p_Crenarchaeota, norank_p_environmental_samples_k_norank were the predominant phyla of AOA, and their relative abundance accounted to 99.25%–99.46% of AOA total sequence of amoA gene. Moreover, CR significantly increased relative value of abundance of norank_c_environmental_samples_p_Crenarchaeota at the AOA genus level. unclassified_k_norank_d_Bacteria, norank_f_environmental_samples, norank_o_environmental_samples_c_Betaproteobacteria, unclassified_o_Nitrosomonadales were the main genus group of AOB, and their relative abundance was 97.78%–98.49%.The CR system significantly increased the relative abundance of norank_o_environmental_samples_c_Betaproteobacteria and unclassified_o_Nitrosomonadales at the AOB gene level. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the community structure of soil AOA and AOB was similarly affected by the physical and chemical properties of soil. The most influential factor for community structure of soil AOA and AOB was nitrate nitrogen, followed by total carbon and ammonium nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, and pH. Based on the analysis of distance of RDA projecting, the effect of CR system on soil AOA community structure was greater than that of AOB, and MR was similar to CR in terms of the system to the community structure of soil AOB.ConclusionsRice-crayfish symbiosis farming system has significantly decreased the diversity of AOA communities, but does not significantly affect AOB communities. Rice-crayfish symbiosis farming system also significantly increases the abundance of AOA and AOB and significantly affects the structure of the community. Soil nitrate nitrogen, total carbon, ammonium nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and pH affect soil microbial quantity and diversity, which are the main reasons for community structure changes.
Evolutionary characteristics of organic matter and its components in typical paddy soils in northern China
WANG Ying-ying, ZHANG Yun, ZHANG Guang-cai, GAO Xiao-dan, YE Chao, LIU Si-qi, ZHANG Ya-nan, LI Li
2019, 25(11): 1900-1908.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18488
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ObjectivesThe objective of this research is to explore the evolutionary characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM) and its components during the cultivation history of paddy soil in northern China, and to provide theoretical basis and data support for the improvement of SOM quality, rational utilization of paddy soil and improving its production potential, and establishment of high and stable-yielding paddy fields.MethodsThe submerged paddy soils developed from brown soils and meadow soils in different planting years in Liaoning Province were chosen as the research objects. Combining investigation, field fixed-site test and indoor analysis, the effects of rice cultivation history on the content and fractions of SOM and humus characteristics of paddy soil were elucidated.ResultsThere was no significant correlation between the total SOM content and the age of rice cultivation (P > 0.05), and the total SOM content was maintained at 18.60–26.3 g/kg. With the increment of rice cultivation years, the proportion of easily oxidized organic matter (ROM) in SOM was reduced by 18%–20%, even though its content was above 50% at the beginning, and the organic matter oxidation stability coefficient (Kos) was below 1.2, with an increase of 52%–57%. The ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid (HA/FA) and the relative color (RF) of HA were increased, the activation degree of humic acids (AD) and the looseness/tightness of soil humus decreased significantly, with the increment of the rice cultivation years, respectively.ConclusionsWith the extension of the planting years of rice, the soil organic matter become stable in property and less active, which leads to weakened ability of paddy soil in supplying and storing nutrients, and is unfavorable for exerting the production potential of the paddy fields. Appropriate tillage and nutrient managements should be considered to slow down and prevent the decline of soil fertility eventually.
Study on absorption and distribution characteristics of nitrogen in soybeans with dual root systems based on 15N tracing technique
MA Chun-mei, WANG Jing, XIA Xuan, WANG Chang, LYU Xiao-chen, LI Sha, CHENG Juan, GONG Zhen-ping
2019, 25(11): 1909-1919.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18469
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ObjectivesNitrogen application promote soybean growth and increase yields, but inhibit nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. The resource of nitrogen in root and nodules were studied, and the effect of supplying NO3 and NH4+ on the nitrogen absorption and distribution of soybeans was systematically investigated.MethodsThe grafting method was used to generate soybean plants with dual root systems, in which two modulated roots shared one symbiotic shoot. Two experimental treatments were conducted with NO3 and NH4+ as nitrogen sources under sand culture conditions. Experiment I, supplying one side of root with 50 mg/L of 15NO3 or 15NH4+ (side A), and no nitrogen on the other side (side B). Experiment II, supplying one side of root with 50 mg/L 15NO3 or 15NH4+ (side A), and supplying the other side with 50 mg/L NO3 or NH4+. At R1 (initial flowering) and R5 (initial seeding) stages of soybean, the plant samples were collected and divided into separate parts for the analysis of N contents.ResultsThe 15N abundance in the nodules on both the side A and side B were higher than natural (0.365%), which indicated that the nitrogen in the nodules was derived from both self-nitrogen fixation and root absorption. The rates of nodule-fixed N in both side A and B of experiment Ⅱ were significantly lower than those in experiment Ⅰ, indicating that the fertilizer N was preferentially absorbed and used by soybeans. No significant differences were observed in both the 15N abundance and N accumulation in all parts of soybean when supplied with NO3 or NH4+, which indicated that soybean was not sensitive to N forms under the experimental N level of 50 mg/L. In experiment Ⅰ, the 15N abundance of root and nodules on the side B was higher than the natural but lower than that in the tested fertilizers (3.63%), suggesting that the N absorbed from root of side A was transferred to the root and nodules in side B via the shoot. Considering the shoots, root and nodule in the dual root systems as a system, we proposed a method for calculating the amount of N translocation from shoots to roots and nodules during the R1–R5 stages based on the difference in the 15N abundance. When adding 50 mg/L of N, the translocated N from the shoots accounted for 28.4%–40.8% of the N accumulation in roots and 14.4%–17.2% of that in nodules of soybeans.ConclusionsThe N required for nodule growth and development is derived from both self-nitrogen fixation and root absorption. The fertilizer N will be preferentially absorbed and used by soybeans in the presence of fertilizer N. N forms, namely NO3 and NH4+, will not affect the N absorption and distribution of soybean plants under the tested N supply concentration (50 mg/L). All the N acquired by the roots and nodules will be transported to the shoots, and a portion of them is then redistributed to the roots and nodules.
Root morphology, configuration and nitrogen absorption kinetics of cassava cultivars with different nitrogen efficiencies
KANG Liang, LIANG Qiong-yue, YAO Yi-hua, JIANG Qiang, DONG Meng-meng, GU Ming-hua, HE Bing
2019, 25(11): 1920-1928.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19024
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ObjectivesThe root morphological configuration and nitrogen (N) absorption kinetics were compared between N efficient and inefficient cultivars of cassava under low N stress, which would help to illustrate the key indicator for the N efficiency and provide reference for cassava breeding and production.MethodsA pot experiment was conducted in the solar tunnel of National Key Laboratory, Guangxi University. A two-factor (cultivar × N level) split-plot design was employed. The two cassava cultivars were N-efficient SC10 and inefficient SC205, which were grown under N stress (no nitrogen application, N0) and normal N supply (applying N 55.2 mg/kg soil, N1). At 60 days after emergence of cassava, the whole root system was taken out of pot carefully and washed by water. The root images were taken using EPSON 2000 root scanner and analyzed using WinRHIZO PRO root analysis software. The plant was divided into root, stem and leaf and weighed, and the N contents were assayed. Root lamination test was conducted inside the large root observation system. The nitrogen absorption kinetics was tested using modified exhaustion method. The root morphology and configuration characteristics and the NO3-N uptake kinetic parameters of the two cultivars were compared.ResultsCompared with N1, the dry weight of plant and N accumulation in plant were significantly decreased in N0. The decrease in SC10 were by 37.4% and 46.2%, respectively, and those in SC205 were by 69.4% and 74.1%, respectively, significantly higher decrease was in SC205 than in SC10. Under the N0 condition, the N accumulation in roots, stems and leaves of SC10 were all significantly higher than those of SC205, and the N accumulation in whole plant of SC10 was152.5% higher of that of SC205. The decrease of the total root length, root surface, fine root length of SC10 were by11.0%, 10.0% and 20.4%, respectively, whereas those of SC205 were by 35.9%, 27.7% and 50.2%, respectively in N0. Significantly higher decrease was in SC205 than in SC10. Low N condition induced root growth to deeper soil. Under N0 condition, SC10 developed a root system of inverted triangle in shape, with a maximum depth of 180 cm, while SC205 had a root system of elliptical in shape, with maximum depth of 130 cm. N uptake kinetics experiment showed that the roots of SC10 had higher affinity to NO3 than SC205, with the Km value of 3.27 mmol/L in SC10 and 7.87 mmol/L in SC205.ConclusionsThe root of N-efficient cassava cultivar has higher affinity to NO3 than inefficient cultivar. Under N stress, N efficient cultivar could develop a relatively larger and deeper root system, which could accumulate more nitrogen in root and aboveground parts of plant, and thus alleviating N stress.
QTL mapping of leaf related traits of maize with or without nitrogen stress
GUO Xiang-yang, CHEN Jian-jun, WEI Xiao-yi, WU Xun, ZHU Yun-fang, WANG An-gui, LIU Peng-fei, TANG Ji-hua, CHEN Ze-hui, LUO Hong-bing
2019, 25(11): 1929-1938.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18507
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ObjectivesLeaf is the important organ for photosynthesis, transpiration and resistance in crops. The purpose of this study was to provide an important theoretical basis for breeding maize cultivars with high sunlight utilization efficiency, to dissect genetic variation of maize leaf-related traits under normal and no nitrogen application, and to map related QTLs.MethodsUsing maize backbone Zong3 as the donor and Xu 178 as the acceptor, a total of 166 single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) of maize backbone Zong3 were constructed with Xu 178 as the background by means of hybrid, backcrossing and molecular marker assisted selection. All the SSSLs and Xu 178 were treated under normal (N+) and no N supply (N–) conditions in field plot experiment. The experiments were conducted in Guiyang and Dejiang City of Guizhou Province and Luoping City of Yunnan Province. The leaf area (LA), chlorophyll content (CC) and number of green leaves under ear (NGLE) were investigated.ResultsAcross the whole genomes, 42 leaf-related traits QTLs were identified under both N+ and N– conditions and located on ten chromosomes. Under N+ treatment, we identified 8 QTLs related to leaf area, 5 QTLs related to green leaf number under ear, and 8 chlorophyll content QTLs at the three experimental sites. qLAI1b was detected in all the three sites, and it contributed 14.41%, 14.47% and 16.38% of phenotypic variation in Dejiang, Guiyang and Luoping, respectively. The allele from Zong3 exaggerated the phenotypic effects. Besides, the QTLs (qLN7a and qLN7b) related to the number of green leaves under ear were detected in the three experimental sites. Under N– treatment, we identified 9 QTLs related to LA, 7 QTLs related to NGLE, and 8 chlorophyll content QTLs at the three experimental sites. Among them, QTL qLAI3b, which was located on bin3.08, whose fragment size was 120.48 cM, and it contributed 20.4% (Dejiang), 12.8% (Guiyang) and 13.2% (Luoping), respectively. The allele from Xu178 synergistic the phenotypic effects. QTL qLN9 (umc1957~umc1867~umc2078), which was located in bin9.01, whose fragments size was 62.7 cM. QTL qCHL4a, which was located on bin4.08, whose fragment size was 18.69 cM, and it contributed 17.6% (Dejiang), 10.6%(Guiyang)and 11.4% (Luoping), respectively. The allele from Zong3 exaggerated the phenotypic effects.ConclusionsTwo QTLs are detected under two nitrogen treatments, one is qLAI3b, which is located on Bin3.01 with flank markers of umc1844~umc1320~bnlg1182, and the other are qLN7a and qLN7b, which are located on bin7.01 and bin7.05 with flank markers of umc1642~umc2160~umc1929 and phi328175. These loci may play important roles in nitrogen absorbing, transporting and utilization during maize development, and served important candidate loci in further map-based cloning of maize leaf-related traits.
Effects of nitrogen deficiency on nitrate uptake and assimilation of apple callus
WEN Bin-bin, ZHANG Xin-hao, SHEN Hong-yan, WU Hong-yu, CHEN Xiu-de, XIAO Wei, GAO Dong-sheng
2019, 25(11): 1939-1948.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18470
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ObjectivesInvestigation of the growth, nitrogen uptake and assimilation of apple callus under nitrogen deficiency can help us to understand the response mechanism of apple growth and development, and provide theoretical basis for further study of molecular mechanism of nitrogen deficiency affecting callus.MethodsLeaf callus of ‘Gala 3’ apple induced from tissue culture seedlings were used as tested materials. Differentiation medium (MS) with deficient and normal levels of NO3-N (0 mol/L and 0.039 mol/L) were prepared, and the NH4NO3 and KNO3 in the deficient MS were replaced by NH4Cl and KCl. The same age of functional leaves were selected, and cut perpendicular to the vein and removed the petioles and tips using the sterilized surgical blade. The back of leaves were laid flat on MS normal differentiation medium, dark cultured for 3 days and then 7 days under light. The leaves were transferred to prepared MS medium immediately and cultured for 3 weeks. The callus was collected from the wound of leaves after cultured for 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 days. The cell morphology, NO3-N content, NO3 uptake flux, N assimilation enzyme activity and relative expression of N assimilation enzyme genes were observed and tested.ResultsOne day after NO3-N deficiency treatment, the cells of callus became smaller in volume, and arranged in loose with larger intercellular space. After 7 days, the cells were deformed and arranged irregularly. After 7 days, the NO3 content in callus reached the peak at 1.54 mg/g, which was significantly higher than that of the control. The maximum decrease rate was 13.64% after 7 days. Before NO3-N deficiency treatment, the NO3 absorption rate was the highest, which was 22.38 pmol/(cm2·s). With the prolongation of treatment time, the absorption rate decreased sharply and the decrease in the first treatment day was as high as 84.1%. After treatment for 7 days, NO3 was changed from uptake to efflux and the deficit was 24.45 pmol/(cm2·s). There was no significant change in NR activity within 7 days treatment, while increased rapidly in NR activity with increase rate of 19.26% after 7 days treatment. There was no significant difference in NiR activity within 14 days treatment, but the increase rate of NiR activity reached to 21.83% after 14 days treatment. After 1 day of nitrate deficiency treatment, GS activity was the lowest as 0.22 U/g. After 7 days, with a slight increase of 22.9%. The GOGAT activity was the lowest after treatment for 3 days, which was 0.088 U/g and then the enzyme activity increased and remained stable, but still lower than the control. When treated for 3 days, the relative expression of MdNR2 gene began to be higher than that of the control. After 21 days treatment, the relative expression of MdNR2, MdNIR, MdGS2, and MdGOGAT genes reached the peak, which were 3.36, 2.52, 11.37 and 2.29 times higher than those in the control, respectively.ConclusionsApple callus cells are extremely sensitive to N deficiency. The cell response occurs after one day of nitrate deficiency treatment, the content of nitrate nitrogen increased gradually, but the absorption rate of NO3 decreased sharply. The activity of assimilating enzyme of nitrogen become decreasing and the expression of nitrogen assimilation enzyme gene is up-regulated. After 7 days of nitrogen deficiency treatment, the absorption of NO3 is transformed into efflux; the nitrogen assimilation enzyme activity increases generally, and the gene expression of nitrogen assimilation enzyme is further increased. To sum up, nitrogen deficiency leads to unbalanced nitrogen metabolism, the morphological structure of cells is seriously affected, resulting in abnormal growth and development of callus.
Effects of different magnesium nutrition levels on photosynthetic characteristics and chloroplast ultrastructure of areca palm seedlings
LI Jia, CAO Xian-mei, LIU Li-yun, NIU Qi-xiang
2019, 25(11): 1949-1956.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19158
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ObjectivesIn this paper we investigated the effects of different magnesium nutrition levels on the chloroplast ultrastructure and photosynthetic characteristics of areca palm seedling leaves, which provided a theoretical basis for the balanced fertilization treatment and high yield and high quality cultivation of areca palm.MethodsThe three-leaf age of ‘Reyan No.1’ areca palm seedlings were used in a sand culture experiment. The 1/2 MS nutrient solution was used as control, in which the Mg concentration was 0.75 mmol/L(CK); and the Mg deficient and sufficient treatments were prepared by adding Mg 0 mmol/L (–Mg) and Mg 2.25 mmol/L(+Mg). After the seedlings grew for 50 days in the treated solution, plant samples were taken. The non-structural carbohydrate contents, the activitiesof sucrose synthase enzymes (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthaseenzymes (SPS), chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters and the chloroplast ultrastructure in the leaves of areca palm seedlings were observed.Results1) –Mg treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) of betel nut, the maximum photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm of photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ), the actual photochemical efficiency Y(Ⅱ) and the photochemical quenching coefficient qP; but all the above parameters were not significantly different between +Mg treatment and CK. 2) The contents of soluble sugar and sucrose in the leaves under –Mg treatment were significantly higher than those in CK, while the starch content was significantly lower. The starch content in +Mg treatment was significantly higher than in CK, but the soluble sugar and sucrose contents were not significant. 3) Under –Mg treatment, the chloroplast membrane became disintegrated, most of the grana lamellae disappeared, the thylakoid structure was broken, and the number of osmiophilic granule increased. Under +Mg treatment, the chloroplast shape was deformed, the chloroplast membrane was blurred, and the grana lamellae partially disappeared. The osmiophilic granules and starch granules increased.ConclusionsMagnesium deficiency could damage the chloroplast ultrastructure of areca palm seedlings, inhibit the metabolism of chlorophyll and carbon and in turn reduce the photosynthetic efficiency. High level of magnesium supplying is less possible to cause unfavorable effect on areca palm leaves.
Symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and diurnal changes of photosynthesis of ‘Newhall’ navel orange leaves
ZHOU Gao-feng, LI Bi-xian, LIN Hua-zhen, GUAN Guan, LIU Gui-dong, YAO Feng-xian, ZHONG Ba-lian
2019, 25(11): 1957-1966.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18443
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ObjectivesThe study investigated the symptoms of micronutrients deficiency of navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. CV. Newhall] in early and later stages. The diurnal change of photosynthesis of leaves was also determined in the early stage of micronutrients deficiency, which would help understanding the symptom of deficiency.MethodsA sand culture pot experiment was conducted using the rootstock of trifoliate orange Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. as the tested material. For the complete nutrition control, the nutrition solution was composed of 1/2 Hoagland nutrition solution and whole Arnon solution. For the treatments of –Fe, –Mn, –B, –Zn, and –Cu, the components of Fe-EDTA, MnCl2, H3BO3, ZnSO4 and CuSO4 were removed off from the Hoagland nutrition solution, respectively. Starting from the emergence of sprout of new branches, the navel orange seedlings were continuously treated for 6 months in nutrient deficient solution, and the early deficiency symptoms were observed. After another 4 months' treatment (a total of 10 months of growth period), the late deficient symposiums were observed. The chlorophyll contents and diurnal change of photosynthetic characteristic were measured during the observation of deficiency.ResultsAt the 6th month, the new leaves under Fe deficiency treatment were yellowish green with green reticulated veins; at 10th month, the old leaves were pale yellow and veins were also white. The new leaves suffering from Mn deficiency had irregular light colored band, but the old leaves were yellow or gray white, with opaque brown spots in interveinals. For B deficiency, the veins of old leaves slightly protruded, and the new leaves were significantly thickened and hardened and the new buds were clustered; at the 10th month, corky split veins and slight yellowing were observed in the old leaves. For –Zn treatment, the new leaves were mottled at the 6 months, and became narrower, smaller and even malformed at the 10 month. At the 6 month of –Cu treatment, the new leaves were uneven, and at the 10th month, the new leaves were bent into shape of bow and the branches were slender and twisted. The total chlorophyll contents in new leaves under –Fe, –Mn and –Zn treatments were all decreased significantly, and the decline was in the order of –Fe > –Mn > –Zn, with decrement of 74.7%, 31.9% and 14.8%, respectively. The diurnal change of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal conductance (Gs) were significantly affected in the new leaves under –Fe and –Zn treatments and in the old leaves of –B treatment.ConclusionsThe symptoms of microelements (Fe, Mn, B, Zn and Cu) deficiency of ‘Newhall’ navel orange seedlings leaves were different in the early and late stages; the Fe, Mn and Zn deficiency changed the diurnal change of photosynthesis of new leaves and old leaves.
Combined application of phosphorus fertilizer and super absorbent polymer with low nitrogen fertilizer rate enhanced seed yield of Festuca kryloviana Reverd.
SHI Zheng-hai, LIU Wen-hui, ZHANG Yong-chao, LIU Kai-qiang, WEI Xiao-xing, QIN Yan
2019, 25(11): 1967-1976.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18486
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ObjectivesThe seed production of Festuca kryloviana Reverd. is often limited by water and nutrient supply. Hence, we tested the efficiency of combined application of low nitrogen and high phosphorous fertilizers rate and super absorbent polymers) on seed yield of F. kryloviana in an alpine region.MethodsThis experiment was conducted in Haibei Prefecture, Qinghai Province. A three-year old perennial forage germplasm of the F. kryloviana was tested. Two super absorbent polymer rates (PM) (0 and 30 kg/hm2), two nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates (0 and 60 kg/hm2) and four phosphorus (P) fertilizer rates (0, 60, 75 and 90 kg/hm2) were combined into sixteen treatments making a 2 × 2 × 4 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design. The seed yield and traits were measured at harvest.Results1) The polymer alone did not affect the seed yield of F. kryloviana significantly, but its interaction with N or NP significantly did (P < 0.05). Application of 60 kg/hm2 of N (N60), with or without P and absorbent polymer, generally reduced seed yields by 16%–48%. Contrarily, P significantly increased the seed yield by 28%–49% (P < 0.05). Treatments P75 and P90 were similar (P>0.05), but both significantly (P < 0.05) obtained higher seed yield than P0 and P60. The highest seed yield (560 kg/hm2) and the lowest (260 kg/hm2) emerged under N0PM30P90 and N60PM0P0 treatments, respectively. 2) Treatments containing PM30 generally aided increase in the seed weight per inflorescence with maximum (29%) found in N0PM30P90. Treatments containing N60 decreased the seed number, seed weight per inflorescence, 1000-kernel weight and numbers of reproductive shoots by range of 12%–18%. The maximum (50%) reduction of seed number per square meter was found under treatment of N60PM0P0. The interaction of N and PM reduced the numbers of reproductive shoots and the seed number per square meter by 24% and 34%, respectively. With increase of P rate, the seed weight per inflorescence increased the most, followed by the seed number per inflorescence and the seed number per square meter. The index values of yield traits in P75 and P90 were higher than those in P0 and P60. 3) The correlation coefficients of the seed yields (seed number per square meter by 0.847; numbers of reproductive shoots by 0.822 and seed weight per inflorescence by 0.767) were high. According to the path analysis, effects of reproductive shoot number (0.637) and the seed weight per inflorescence (0.518) were direct and the most important. 4) With increase of P rates, the partial productivity of P fertilizer decreased significantly while the agronomic efficiency was not significantly different. N60 significantly reduced the partial productivity and agronomic efficiency of P.ConclusionsThe seed yield of F. kryloviana is greatly affected by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, and less by super absorbent pdymer. Application of 60 kg/hm2 of nitrogen decreases the seed yields while P fertilizer increases the productive branches, seed weight per inflorescence, and the seed yields. Therefore, application of low nitrogen (N60) or super absorbent polymer alone are proved unproductive, but combined application of polymers (30 kg/hm2) and high phosphorus (P 75 kg/hm2) fertilizer rate promotes efficient seed production of F. kryloviana.
Prediction of compost maturity based on convolutional neural network
XUE Wei, HU Xue-jiao, WEI Zhong, MEI Xin-lan, CHEN Xing-jian, XU Yang-chun
2019, 25(11): 1977-1988.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18477
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ObjectivesThe compost maturity is mainly judged by complex chemical and biological experiments, which is difficult to operate and inefficient. Convolutional neural networks simulate human vision, which can retain the color information of compost images, and extract representative features such as contour, lines and granularity at the same time, thus avoiding the influence of different illumination conditions on the prediction effect of compost maturity. This paper proposed and verified a prediction model combining images of compost and convolution neural network.MethodsComposting samples were collected from Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang provinces, and the composting materials in three provinces were straw, cauliflower residues and livestock manure, respectively, and the composting cycle was 50 days, 45 days and 60 days in turn. In the factory shed, HIKVISION video camera (model C3W) was used to take composting images of different maturing stages in JPEG format under automatic light and compensation at night. The used focal length was 2.8 mm, resolution was 1080 p, and the distance was 1 m from the compost surface. Except for the image data sets from the three composts, the fourth image data set was taken in the mixture of them three in ratio of 1∶1∶1. 80% of the images from each data set was used to train CNN model and to establish prediction model parameters, and the remaining 20% to testify the prediction accuracy of the model.ResultsThe compost maturity prediction model was composed of one input layer, three convolution layers, three pool layers, two full connection layers and one output layer. The accuracy of the predicted maturity from the compost images was averaged 98.7%, 98.7%, 98.8% and 98.2% for the vegetables residues, straws, livestock manure and the mix of above, respectively. Comparing with the most optimal result of classical algorithm on each data set, the average accuracy of this method in image feature extraction and classification were improved by 3 to 14 percentage points. Texture feature was more effective than color feature in judging compost maturity by CNN method.ConclusionsAs the priority of convolutional neural network in extracting the appearance features of compost images, the compost maturity prediction model based on it could accurately and rapidly identify the compost maturity directly through compost images under natural light conditions.
Molecular mechanism for the adaption of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency
LI Fang, HAO Zhi-peng, CHEN Bao-dong
2019, 25(11): 1989-1997.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18490
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, a ubiquitous symbiotic association established between AM fungi and roots of most higher plants in terrestrial ecosystems, is essentially important for plant adaptation to various environmental stresses, especially for phosphorus (P) deficiency. Many studies uncovered the physiological mechanisms of AM plant adaptation to P deficiency, while recent studies have reached the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this mini-review we summarized the molecular mechanism of plant and mycorrhizal fungi sensing P stress, secretion of organic acids, regulation of phosphatase and hormone biosynthesis genes, and also the potential role of P transporters, transcription factors and small molecule miRNAs in regulating the response of AM symbiosis to low P stress. We specially introduced the research progresses in: 1) the key roles of environmental P concentration as nutritional signal initiating the establishment of AM symbiotic system; 2) regulation of phytohormone balance by AM fungi and subsequent influences on plant growth and development and root architecture; 3) the involvements of plant, fungi and mycorrhiza specifically induced phosphate transporter genes in P uptake and the regulating mechanisms; 4) the important roles of transcription factors in sensing P stress and regulating the expression of functional genes, and their importance in plant tolerance to P stress. These factors are functionally distinct but also interact with each other, and constitute a complex regulatory network for plant adaptation to P stress. Future research should deep into the mechanisms of P transport at the mycorrhizal symbiotic interface, the regulation of transcription factors relevant to plant adaptation to low P stress, and the interaction of various regulatory factors. Such work would provide strong support to the development and application of mycorrhizal technology for improving plant P nutrition.
Mechanism of nitrogen, phosphrous and potassium combined application promote absorption, transportation and accumulation of Pb in sunflower (Helianthns annuus L.)
GUO Yue, YANG Jun, GUO Jun-mei, YANG Jun-xing, ZHENG Guo-di, LI Zhi-tao, CHEN Tong-bin, YU Bao, NI Lei, WEN Qian, BO Zhi-xian
2019, 25(11): 1998-2008.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18475
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ObjectivesSunflower (Helianthns annuus L.) has an huge potential for phytoremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils. This study investigated the effect of fertilizers on the Pb absorption and transportation mechanisms in different sunflower species, which helped to improve the Pb phytoextraction efficiency with rational fertilizations. The results will provide theoretical and technological support for reasonable phytoremediation of a large area of mild and moderate Pb contaminated soils in China using sunflower.MethodsA pot experiment was conducted using a Pb-contaminated soil (total Pb 174 mg/kg) in northern China. Three sunflower cultivars, namely LD5009 (edible sunflower), T562 (oil sunflower) and Huanlehuopaozhu (Hhz, ornamental sunflower), were used as tested materials, and fertilizer treatments of CK, N, NP, NPK were setup for each cultivar. At the 40th day after transplanting, the sunflower plants were harvested, and the biomass, Pb concentration, subcellular compartmentalization were determined, at the same time the pH value and the contents of different Pb forms in rhizosphere soil of three sunflower species were measured.ResultsThere were significant differences in Pb accumulation capacity among three sunflower species, and the highest shoot Pb content was in LD5009, which was 1.6 and 1.7 times as high as that in Hhz and T562. Application of fertilizers significantly promoted the growth of the three cultivars and the absorption and transportation of Pb in them. The Pb contents in shoots of LD5009, Hhz and T562 under NPK treatments were 184, 112 and 108 μg/plant, respectively, which were significantly higher than those under other treatments (P < 0.05). The results of Pb subcellular distribution in leaf of sunflower showed that Pb was mainly compartmented in metal-rich granule fraction (56.1%–86.4%) and cellular debris fraction (8.1%–38.3%). Application of fertilizers significantly increased the Pb concentration in cellular debris and metal-rich granule fraction (P < 0.05). The study on the Pb forms in rhizosphere soil of sunflower showed that although the NP and NPK fertilizers treatments lead to reduction of acid soluble Pb, the promotion effect of fertilizers application on root and shoot growth of sunflower was far greater than that on the reduction of soil Pb availability, which consequently promoted Pb absorption and transportation of sunflower.ConclusionsLD5009 is a good candidate for phytoremediation of mild and moderate Pb contaminated soil. N, P, K combined application effectively promotes the growth of sunflower, as well as increases the Pb absorption and transportation in sunflower, therefore effectively improves the Pb phytoextraction efficiency in sunflower.
Slow-release property of urea containing 2.5% additives and the fitness of nutrient supply with crop growth
YUE Yan-jun, WU Yue-jin, YANG Yang, LIU Bin-mei, NI Xiao-yu, TAO Liang-zhi, YU Li-xiang, YANG Ye, FENG Meng-xi, ZHONG Wen-jin
2019, 25(11): 2009-2018.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19050
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ObjectivesThe addition of additives, composed of modified montmorillonite and organic polymer adhesives, in urea has been proved of slow-releasing property in addition ratio of > 5%. However, according to a recently released National Standard of China, functional materials in urea products should be ≤ 2.5%. To date, there is little consensus about the performances of slow-release urea (SRU) with matrix materials at such low proportions. We developed a novel SRU with matrix materials at 2.5%, and studied its slow release property and effects on crop growth and yield attributes.MethodsA two-year field experiment was conducted during 2016 and 2017, following a randomized block design with three replicates. The experiment included three treatments, i.e., the control test (CK, without N application), common urea (CU), and SRU. Nitrogen application rate was N 150 kg/hm2 for rice and 195 kg/hm2 for maize. Shoot height, leaf area, root area, leaf chlorophyll concentration, leaf nitrate reductase activity, leaf glutamine synthetase activity, biomass, grain yield, yield components, fertilizer N leaching, fertilizer ammonia emission, and soil inorganic N concentration were assessed and compared among the treatments. Nitrogen loss via N leaching and ammonia emission was assessed in laboratory experiments.ResultsThe means of the two-year data were compared. Compared with common urea, SRU treatment tended to increase plant height (by 4.5% for rice and 12.4% for maize), leaf area (by 9.8% for rice and 11.5% for maize), root area (by 9.5% for rice and 5.0% for maize), leaf chlorophyll concentration (by 18.5% for rice and 7.8% for maize), leaf nitrate reductase activity (by 19.6% for rice and 20.3% for maize), and leaf glutamine synthetase activity (by 17.7% for rice and 11.5% for maize). Compared with CU treatment, SRU treatment significantly increased biomass of rice and maize in both growing seasons (P < 0.05). The yield increase of rice under SRU treatment was greater than that of maize. Rice grain yield in SRU treatment was 17.2% (P < 0.05) greater than that in CU treatment; while maize grain yield in SRU treatment was 6.6% (P > 0.05) greater than that in CU treatment. Compared with CU treatment, SRU treatment tended to increase panicle density and decrease grain number per panicle (for rice); while it tended to increase grain number per spike and thousand grain weight (for maize). Path analysis showed that the increases of rice grain yield in SRU treatment were mainly due to the increases of panicle density; while the increases of maize grain yield in SRU treatment were largely due to the increases of grain number per spike. Characteristics of fertilizer N loss (via N leaching and ammonia emission) were well described by logistic equations (P < 0.01). Parameters from the fitted equations showed that SRU had lower fertilizer N loss risks than CU. At anthesis stage, SRU treatment increased soil inorganic N concentration (in paddy fields) by 9.2% (P < 0.05); while it increased soil inorganic N concentration (in maize fields) by 18.1% (P < 0.05). The SRU treatment had lower risks of N leaching and ammonia emission, which were partly responsible for the greater soil inorganic N concentration and the improved crop performances in SRU treatment.ConclusionsThe current slow release urea has good performance in reducing N loss, increasing soil inorganic N concentration, and improving rice and maize growth. Thus, it is a promising slow-release fertilizer for production of rice and maize.
Optimum levels of nitrogen and potassium in the irrigation water for best growth and quality of tomato in soilless culture
WANG Jun-wei, HUANG Ke, MAO Shu-xiang, XU Hao-ran, WU Qiu-yun
2019, 25(11): 2019-2028.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19006
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ObjectivesReasonable N and K nutrition supplementation is an important strategy to improve tomato growth and fruit quality. In this study, we attempted to optimize N and K supplement levels for tomato precision management in substrate cultivation system.MethodsIn greenhouse, a soilless culture experiment was conducted using sand and pearlite mixture in ratio of 1∶2 in volume as growth substrates, and potato cultivar A20 as tested materials , the irrigation treatments were composed of two factors (N and K) and five levels. The basic levels of N and K in irrigation water were 244 and 313 mg/L respectively, and the designed steps were 120 mg/L for N and 150 mg/L for K, respectively. The yield, chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate in leaves, the soluble sugar and titratable acid contents, the sugar/acid ratio, vitamin C, and lycopene contents in fruits were measured.ResultsWithin the N levels of 74–414 mg/L in the irrigation water, both the yield and chlorophyll content increased first and then decreased. Within the K supply levels of 101–525 mg/L, the net photosynthetic rate in leaves, lycopene contents in fruits increased first and then decreased, the soluble sugar content, sugar/acid ratio and Vc content in fruit kept increasing. N supplying levels mainly affected yield, chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate, while K supplying levels mainly affected soluble sugar, titratable acid, sugar/acid ratio, Vc and lycopene contents. There were significant interaction between N and K levels on yield and chlorophyll content. Adequate K supplement promoted the uptake and assimilation of N nutrition and increased the leaf chlorophyll content and yield. Appropriate N supplement was conducive to K uptake and utilization. According to the principal component analysis, the comprehensive performance of tomato yield and quality reached the optimum at the N 378 mg/L and K 391 mg/L with the highest net photosynthetic rate in tomato leaves.ConclusionsUsing sand and pearlite as growth substrate, the optimum N and K supplying levels in irrigation water for tomato production are 378 and 391 mg/L, respectively, and the comprehensive performance of tomato yield and quality reached optimum level. The fertilization strategy may serve as reference for the precise management of nutrient solution for tomato cultivation in production practice.
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