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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Optimum combination of planting density and fertilization mode for high yield, quality and nitrogen utilization of spring-sown fresh waxy maize
YAO Xiao-yu, QIU Wen, LU Hu-hua, GUO Jian, LU Da-lei
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023220
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  Objectives  Coordinated plant density and fertilization mode is one of primary conditions for high yield, quality, and fertilization efficiency in crop production. We studied the effects of different plant density and fertilization combinations on spring-sown fresh waxy maize production in Jiangsu Province.  Methods  Field experiment with split design was conducted in Nantong, Jiangsu province in 2021 and 2022, the test maize cultivar was “Suyunuo 11”, a spring-sown waxy maize hybrid. The main plot was five plant densities, including 4.5×104 (D1), 5.25×104 (D2), 6.0×104 (D3), 6.75×104 (D4), and 7.5×104 per hm2 (D5); and the subplots were three fertilization modes under the same total N rate 225 kg/hm2, including: basal applying compound fertilizer N 75 kg/hm2 and topdressing urea N 150 kg/hm2 at six-leaf stage (CF); applying all nitrogen fertilizer as basal fertilizer (SF-b), and as topdressing fertilizer at six-leaf stage (SF-t), using slow-release compound fertilizer; and a no fertilizer control under each density. The plant biomass and N content were investigated at pre- and post-silking stage, and the fresh ear and grain yield, and the grain quality indices were measured at milking stage.  Results  Under the same fertilization mode, D2, D3, D4, D5 increased the fresh ear yield by 4.14%, 7.48%, 11.68%, and 7.17%, increased grain yield by 6.09%, 7.48%, 12.19%, and 7.08% on average, compared to D1. D4 was recorded significantly higher fresh ear and grain yield, dry matter and N accumulation at pre- and post-silking stage than the other density treatments, thus achieved the largest partial productivity and recovery efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. The grain starch, soluble sugar and protein contents decreased with the increase of plant density to different extent, and not improved by fertilization modes. Under the same plant density, SF-t was recorded significantly higher fresh ear and grain yields than CK and SF-b, but lower translocation of dry matter and N accumulation from pre-silking to post-silking stage; SF-b was recorded similar or higher fresh ear and grain yields, and dry matter and N translocation rate to CF mode. Among all the total 20 combinations, D4 combined with SF-t showed the highest yield and N use efficiencies, and not worst grain qualities.  Conclusions  Topdressing all the nitrogen fertilizer in once at 6-leaf stage of maize, using slow release compound fertilizer, could significantly increase the dry matter and nitrogen accumulation at post-silking stage, which is more effective for yield formation than translocating dry mater and N accumulated from pre-silking stage. Properly enhancing plant density plays pivotal roles in exerting population yield potential. Comprehensively, plant density 6.75×104 per hectare combined with one topdressing of N 225 kg/hm2 using slow-release fertilizer at six-leaf stage could be taken as the optimal cultivation measure for waxy maize production in Jiangsu.
Effects of natural wetland conversion to farmland on soil organic sulfur forms and arylsulphatase activities in karst areas
CHEN Yun-shuang, SHEN Yu-yi, CAO Yang, WANG Zi-hui, XU Guang-ping, SUN Ying-jie, HUANG Ke-chao, TENG Qiu-mei, MAO Xin-yue
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023216
Abstract(21) FullText HTML(14) Related Articles
  Objectives  Soil organic sulfur forms and arylsulphatase activities are sensitive indicators of changes in soil sulfur pool. We compared the soil organic sulfur forms and arylsulphatase activity characteristics among the land use types derived from the natural wetland, to assess the sustainability of land use types.  Methods  The study was carried out in the typical Huixian karst wetland in Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, 6 land use types including the natural marsh wetland and the derived paddy field, upland, orchard, breeding land and abandoned land were selected as research objectives. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0−10, 10−20, 20−30 and 30−40 cm for the analysis of organic sulfur forms and arylsulphatase activities, respectively.  Results  1) Compared with the natural marsh wetland, soil total S stocks, the contents of ester bond sulfur, carbon bond sulfur and residual sulfur in the other five land use types showed a decreasing trend with the changes of land use type. The proportion of carbon bonded sulfur to organic sulfur was 39.08%−63.54%, the proportion of ester bonded sulfur to organic sulfur was 22.91%−34.28%, and the proportion of residual sulfur to organic sulfur was 15.19%−28.46%. The proportion of ester bonded sulfur and residual sulfur to total organic sulfur were decreased respectively, and the proportion of carbon bonded sulfur to total organic sulfur was increased(P<0.05). 2) The soil organic sulfur content of the Huixian karst wetland ranged 158−442 mg/kg, and the total sulfur ranged 180-511 mg/kg, total sulfur with an average content of 345.53 mg/kg, which were lower than that of the world soil total sulfur average value. The average organic and total sulfur in the 0−40 cm soil layers of land use types declined in the order of wetland>paddy field>upland>breeding land>orchard>abandoned land, and the differences between wetland and other land types was significant (P<0.05). 3) The arylsulphatase activities decreased with the increasing of soil depth under all the land use types. Compared with the natural marsh wetland, the arylsulphatase activities of the other five land types decreased by 18.19% (paddy field), 27.48% (upland), 39.72% (orchard), 33.81% (breeding land), and 51.77% (abandoned land), respectively. Soil organic carbon, total N, soil water content and arylsulphatase had higher correlation coefficient with soil organic sulfur form (P<0.05).  Conclusions  The reclamation of natural marsh wetlands led to the decrease of soil total and organic sulfur contents significantly (P<0.05), total sulfur content ranged 98.06−222.87 mg/kg and was less than the average total sulfur content (299 mg/kg) of soil in tilling layer in 10 provinces in Southern China. Soil organic carbon, total N, water content and arylsulphatase are the main factors causing the change of soil organic sulfur forms. Therefore, reducing the reclamation of karst wetland is important to maintain the balance of soil nutrients and ecosystem health of the Huixian karst wetland in the long term.
Mechanism of improving soil potassium balance and supply capacity in peanut-sweet potato rotation system by organic and chemical fertilizer combined application
YUAN Jie, YE Jia-min, WANG Ji-dong, LI Juan, ZHANG Li-cheng, ZHANG Ming-qing, XU Cong, WANG Lei, ZHANG Yong-chun
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023186
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  Objectives  Based on a long-term fertilizer experiment, we analyzed soil potassium (K) apparent balance, the K absorption site in minerals and the desorption dynamics of K as affected by long-term application of chemical fertilizer combined with different organic fertilizers, to clarify the mechanism of the beneficial effect differences of organic fertilizers in improving soil K fertility.  Methods  The long-term fertilization experiment of peanut-sweet potato rotation system was established in 2007, including five treatments: no fertilization (CK), merely chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer combined with commercial organic fertilizer (NPK+CM), pig manure (NPK+PM), and straw (NPK+RS). At sweet potato harvest in 2022 (the 16th year of the experiment), the tuber yield and whole biomass were investigated, plants were sampled to analyze K content. The soil K apparent balance was calculated. At the same time, soil samples were collected for analysis of the soil K content in different forms, and adsorbed at different clay mineral sites by using continuous leaching method. The release characteristics of K was studied using organic acid and sodium tetraphene boron as extractants.  Results  In this peanut-sweet potato rotation system, the annual apparent balance of soil potassium under CK was in deficit, while under the four fertilizer treatments were in surplus. Compared with CK treatment, NPK+PM and NPK+RS increased non-exchangeable K (non-exch- K) by 260 and 188 mg/kg, exchangeable K (exch-K) by 72.3 and 75.0 mg/kg, and water-soluble K (H2O-K) by 45.0 and 71.7 mg/kg, respectively (P<0.05). The interlayer (i-site), wedge edge (e-site) and surface (p-site) were the three main K adsorption sites. Compared with CK, NPK and NPK+CM treatment did not significantly changed the K adsorption amount and the ratio; NPK+PM and NPK+RS increased the p-site K content by 25 and 36 mg/kg, e-site K content by 58 and 66 mg/kg; NPK+PM treatment increased the i-site K content by 132 mg/kg; NPK+PM increased the K proportion at the e-site, while NPK+RS increased K proportion at p- and e-site but decreased that at i-site. In the K release experiment, NPK and NPK+CM treatment did not impact the rapid and total K release amount and rate regardless extractants; NPK+PM was recorded the highest rapid and total K release amount, which were significantly higher than NPK+RS under organic acid extraction, and had no significant difference from NPK+RS under sodium tetraphene boron extraction.   Conclusions  The long-term combination of chemical fertilizer with pig manure or rice straw could improve the contents of non-exchangeable, exchangeable and water-soluble K in soil effectively. Chemical fertilizer did not change the ratio of adsorbed K at the main clay sites, while chemical fertilizer combined with pig manure significantly increased the interlayer Kcontent, and chemical fertilizer combined with straw increased that at the wedge edge and mineral surface. Merely applying chemical fertilizer would not affect the bioavailability of soil K, long-term combining application of chemical fertilizer with pig manure or straw could increase the bioavailability of soil K, and the combination of chemical fertilizer with pig manure would be more effective than the combination of chemical fertilizer with straw under soil K deficient condition.
Screening of temperature-sensitive polyurethane materials to enhance the nutrient intelligent release of controlled-release fertilizers
LI Juan, QIAO Dan, WANG Ya-jing, LIN Ru, GU Dian-run, ZHOU Yuan-fang, LI Han, YANG Xiang-dong
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023168
Abstract(77) FullText HTML(46) PDF 1259KB(2) Related Articles
  Objectives  Temperature is one of the important factors affecting crop growth and nutrient release rate of fertilizer. The nutrient release of temperature-sensitive controlled-release fertilizers could match with the crop nutrient uptake more efficiently. So we screened the temperature-sensitive compounds and studied their coating properties primarily.   Methods  In this study, 18 different polyols, namely hexanedioicacid-1, 4-butanediol (PBA), polytetramethylene ether diol (PTMG), polycaprolactone diol (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with varying molecular weights, were subjected to a one-step reaction with diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) to prepare polyurethane (PU) films. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to assess the phase transition temperature of the films. A thermos-sensitive compound was chosen to prepare TSPU encapsulated urea, and the nutrient release period was tested.  Results  The release performance of CRU prepared from different polyols descended in order of PTMG > PCL > PBA > PEG. For the same series of CRUs, the controlled-release performance decreased with the increase in the molecular weight of the polyols. DSC testing results indicated that PU films prepared from low molecular weight polyols (below 2000) did not exhibit thermos-sensitivity, but did in the high molecular weight polyols. The critical transition temperatures for PTMG2000, PTMG3000, PCL2000, PBA2000, and PCL3000 were 13℃, 22℃, 27℃, 39℃, and 43℃, respectively. PCL2000 and PCL3000 were selected as thermos-sensitive materials, and mixed with polypropylene glycol (PPG) in molar ratio of 2∶8 to prepare two TSPU-coated urea fertilizers (PUCF1 and PUCF2). Both PUCF1 and PUCF2 showed temperature-dependent nutrient release rates, with daily release rate of 11.1% and 7.1% at 35℃, which was 13.2 and 6.0 times of that at 25℃. The nutrient release period of PUCF1 and PUCF2 was as long as 30 days at 25℃.  Conclusions  Polyols with high molecular weight exhibit thermos-sensitivity. Modification of them with diphenylmethane diisocyanate could improve the controlled release properties of the films made of the high molecular polyols. Under the experimental condition, the coated urea showed a certain thermos-sensitive characteristics and a controlled release period of up to 30 days. More researches are needed to design temperature-responsive controlled-release fertilizers.
Effects of controlled release mixed nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen uptake, utilization, and yield of winter wheat
HAN Rui-feng, NIU Yu-xi, WANG Xin-yue, LI Guo-ming, LIN Xiang, WANG Rui, WANG Dong
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023141
Abstract(253) FullText HTML(103) Related Articles
  Objectives  We investigated the effect of the combined application of controlled release urea (CRU) with common urea (CU) on promoting the yield, relocation of accumulated nitrogen to grains, and soil nitrate contents at different stage of winter wheat, to serve the efficient production of winter wheat in the Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi Province.   Methods  A winter wheat field experiment was conducted in Xianyang, Shanxi Province from 2020 to 2022, and the nitrogen release period of the test controlled release fertilizer is 90 days. Two N application amounts 192 and 240 kg/hm2 were set up, and under each N rate, the conventional urea was applied in base and topdressing as control (F1), and controlled release fertilizer and common urea were completely applied as base fertilizer in mix ratio of 30%+70% (F2), 50% +50% (F3), 70%+30% (F4), and 100%CRU (F5). At the main growth stages of winter wheat, 0−40 cm deep soil samples with one sample every 10 cm were collected for the determination of nitrate concentration, and at maturity stage, 0−200 cm soil samples were collected with one sample every 20 cm from 40−200 cm depth. At the overwintering, regreening, jointing, flowering, and maturing stages of wheat, the above ground part of wheat were sampled for biomass and N content analysis. At flowering stage, the plants were divided into three parts (ear, stem and sheath, and leaves), and at maturing stage were divided into four parts (grains, glume + rachis, stem + sheath, leaves). And yield and yield components were investigated at harvest.   Results  F2 treatment was recorded the highest NO3-N concentration in 0−20 cm soil layer before regreening stage; F4 and F5 treatment were recorded the lowest NO3-N at regreening stage, and in the 80−200 cm soil layer at harvest stage, while achieved significantly higher yield than the other treatments due to the higher number of spikes. F2 and F3 treatments achieved similar yield on average under both N2 and N1 rate. F4 and F5 treatments had higher yield under N2 rate than under N1 rate, thereby their net benefits under N2 increased by 10.08% and 6.41% than under N1 rate, and the nitrogen internal utilization efficiency were not changed significantly. Compared with F1 treatment, F4 treatment showed an average increase of 18.63% in reallocation amount of pre-anthesis N accumulation to grain, and 16.96% in N accumulation in grains. The 0−20 cm soil NO3-N at jointing stage was positively correlated with the reallocation amount of pre-anthesis N accumulation to grain. There was a significant positive correlation between 0−20 cm soil NO3-N at anthesis stage and nitrogen transport at pre-anthesis stage and nitrogen accumulation at post-anthesis stage.   Conclusions  Properly high N accumulation during anthesis stage is beneficial to the reallocation of nitrogen from vegetative organs to grains, and improves winter wheat yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency as result. Complete basal application of N 240 kg/hm2 in ratio of 70% resin coated urea with 30% ordinary urea could maintain high nitrate concentration in 0−20 cm soil from regreening to anthesis stage of winter wheat, so promoting the total number of stems and spikelet, increasing the nitrogen accumulation of plants during anthesis period, and leave low NO3-N in 80−200 cm soil layer at harvest.
Non-destructive monitoring of Cephalotaxus mannii growth status at seedling stage based on canopy images
SHI Meng-meng, WANG Xue-feng, YUAN Ying, CHEN Fei-fei, HUANG Chuan-teng, WANG Peng, CHEN Xing-jing
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023182
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  Objectives  Cephalotaxus mannii is a state key protected plant. The construction of non-destructive growth monitoring method would provide an easy and instant tool for the warning of restricted growth conditions.   Methods  A pot experiment with L9 (34) design was conducted in Yunlong Town, Haikou City from 2021 to 2022 , using 1-year-old C. mannii as test materials. The three factors was irrigation rate (W), light transmission (S), and nitrogen rate (N). The large gradients of each factor levels were designed to make Cephalotaxus mannii seedlings grow differently, the irrigation levels were 2500, 5000, and 7500 mL; the light transmission rates were 70%, 40%, and 15%; the three N levels were 0, 5, and 10 mg/plant. Since the seedlings grow for one month, the seedling ground diameter, plant height, canopy length, lateral branch length, leaf chlorophyll content were monitored in frequency of every two months, and total 7 monitors. Based on ANOVA and multiple comparisons, the seedlings with significantly lower indices were defined as being in an unsuitable growth environment (record as 0), otherwise in a suitable environment (record as 1). Three representative seedling were chosen from each treatment for taking canopy images at the initial of monitoring, then the color feature parameters of the images were extracted as independent variables by segmenting the images. A classification model was constructed to diagnose whether the current environment suitable or not suitable for seedling growth. The chlorophyll relative content (SPAD) were estimated by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and stepwise regression (SR) models. Simultaneously, the dummy variables converted by binary classification was added into the model.  Results  The seedlings of C. mannii grew were impacted significantly by transmission rate and irrigation level, not by nitrogen application rate. The support vector machines (SVM) effectively identified seedlings under the unsuitable environments (the false positive rate was 14%). PLSR and SR models well estimated the SPAD values using image color feature parameters as independent variables, and PLSR model adapted better than SR model in solving the collinearity and dimensionality reduction problems. The conversion of two categorical variables into dummy variables did not improve the prediction accuracy of APSD values under suitable environment, but did that under unsuitable environments. Using this model to invert the SPDA of seedlings under unsuitable environments, the lower leaf tips appeared chlorosis, indicating the reliability of the prediction.   Conclusions  The growth of Cephalotaxus mannii seedlings is mainly impacted by light and irrigation rate, with significant effects on the lower leaf tips by light and irrigation. The color feature parameters captured from the canopy images are effective in diagnosing the growth status of Cephalotaxus mannii, especially under unsuitable environments like low light and poor irrigation. Additionally, the PLSR with dummy variables model can enhance the predictive ability of SPAD for class 0 samples. Therefore, the method can be used to non-destructive diagnose for the growth environment of Cephalotaxus mannii.
Effects of biostimulants on maize growth and soil microbial community structure
LI Bing-yan, SONG Da-li, WANG Xiu-bin, ZHAO Shi-cheng, ZHOU Wei
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023189
Abstract(45) FullText HTML(31) Related Articles
  Objectives  Five biostimulants were studied on their yield promotion effect and possible influence on soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure, aims to provide academic base for their efficient application.  Methods  A field trial was conducted in calcareous tidal soil in Yuanyang County, Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China, with maize as the test crop. The tested biostimulants included trehalose, chitosan, humic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid, all the stimulants were applied into soil in furrow before sowing, and no biostimulant application (CK) was used as control. At the six-leaf stage of maize (jointing stage), plant samples were collected to determine dry matter mass, and 0−20 cm soil layer samples were collected to determine soil enzyme activity and microbial community characteristics. At harvesting stage, maize yield and yield components were investigated.  Results  The five biostimulants showed different promotion effects on the yield and yield components. Compared with CK, humic acid significantly increased root, shoot and whole plant dry weight by 43.1%, 114% and 101%; all biostimulants did not show effect on grain number per ear; trehalose, chitosan and humic acid increased 1000-grain weight by 5.5%, 4.9% and 8.2%; chitosan and humic acid increased single era weight by 13.6% and 12.5%; humic acid increased yield by 10.2%, while the other biostimulants did not. Compared with CK, trehalose, chitosan, humic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid did not change urease activity significantly, but all increased the alkaline phosphatase activity; trehalose, chitosan and humic acid exhibited similar promotion effect on the dehydrogenase activities (P<0.05); humic acid increased soil microbial biomass by 29.3%, enhanced bacterial, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria biomass by 43.9%, 48.8% and 40.5%, respectively, without change on the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria. Pearson correlation analysis showed that maize yield was positively (P<0.05) correlated with soil microorganisms, bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and the dry matter of root, shoot and whole plant (P<0.05), not significantly correlated with soil enzyme activity.  Conclusions  Trehalose, chitosan, humic acid, and γ-aminobutyric acid all showed promotion effect on the maize yield and yield components to different degree, humic acid showed the best promotion effect on the dry matter quality of maize roots and shoots, well as yield, because its wide promotion effect on the biomass of soil microorganisms, bacteria, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and the soil alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities, so humic acid is the most prospective biostimulant in agricultural productin.
Non-synchronous response of rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria of corn to continuous cropping
FU Wen-jiang, ZHAO Yun-chen
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023149
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  Objectives  To explore the structure and function of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and root of corn with different continuous cropping years, as well as the response mechanism of bacteria in the rhizosphere and root to continuous cropping effects.  Methods  Soil physicochemical properties were determined in seed production maize fields with different years of continuous cropping (1, 5 and 15 years), and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the changes in bacterial diversity, community composition characteristics, and community function in the rhizosphere and root of corn.  Results  Compared to 1 year, the soil bulk density, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available nitrogen, and pH significantly increased after 5 and 15 years cropping, while the total porosity, available potassium, and organic matter content significantly decreased (P<0.05). The composition of rhizospheric and endophytic bacterial community of corn changed, and the diversity and network complexity of bacterial community decreased with the increasing of continuous cropping years. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gemmatinonadota decreased in rhizosphere soil, while the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Actinobacteriota increased. The relative abundance of beneficial Nitrospira, Sphingomonas, Lysobacter, Haliangium and Bryobacter decreased in rhizosphere soil. The relative abundance of inner phylum of Proteobacteria increased, while the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and actinomycetes decreased. The relative abundance of inner beneficial genera of Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Flavobacterium, Rhizobium and Pantoea decreased. In addition, the relative abundance of rhizospheric bacterial biosynthesis of antibiotics, amino acid biosynthesis, fatty acid synthesis, C5-branched dibasic acid metabolism, lipoic acid metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, D-alanine metabolism, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, cell cycle – caulobacter, and sulfur relay systems decreased with increasing years of continuous cropping. There was an overall decrease in the relative abundance of amino acid biosynthesis, pantothenic acid biosynthesis, biosynthesis of vancomycins, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, streptomycin biosynthesis, lipoate biosynthesis, alanine and glutamate metabolism within the root of corn, and an overall increase in relative abundance of biosynthesis of anisamycins, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, bacterial chemotaxis, and C5-branched dibasic acid metabolism.  Conclusions  Soil nitrogen and phosphorus content and bulk density and pH significantly increased with the increase of cropping years, while total porosity, organic matter and available potassium content significantly decreased in corn seed production. The composition and function of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and root of corn were affected, and rhizospheric and endophytic bacterial diversity, complexity and function decreased. And rhizospheric bacterial communities were more variable than endophytic bacteria.
Effects of exogenous carbon addition on the effectiveness of phosphorus under two soil phosphorus levels
XU Da-jian, YANG Kai, MENG Peng-fei, LANG Ming, GUO Tao
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023130
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  Objective  Addition of exogenous carbon could promote phosphorus effectiveness and thereby unlock the phosphorus supply potential of the soil. We studied the mechanism from the changes in soil microbial community structure and function driven by the carbon addition.  Methods  Indoor incubation method was used, glucose was used as the exogenous carbon source, and the low and high P soils were collected from the maize and vegetable fields in Beibei District, Chongqing City. Each soil was divided into two groups, one group was added with glucose and the other was not, then incubated under shading condition at 60% of field water capacity. Soil samples were collected after 0, 2, 15, and 60 days of incubation, BBP phosphorus fractionation method, Olsen method, and ignition method were employed to measure different forms of phosphorus contents, and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA was used to analyze the microbial community structures.  Results  The soil Olsen-P contents in glucose addition soil groups decreased after 2 and 15 days of incubation, then recovered to the original levels. Among the fractions by BBP method, CaCl2-P, Enzyme-P, HCl-P, and Citrate-P content did not show obvious change during and at the end of incubation in low-P soils, regardless of glucose addition; the CaCl2-P and Citrate-P contents in high-P soils were significantly decreased by glucose addition, while the Enzyme-P and HCl-P content did not show significant differences compared with the controls. Analysis of microbial community structure revealed that the bacterial community responded more strongly to glucose in low-P soil than in high-P soil. Glucose addition increased bacterial α-diversity in the low-P soil, leading to clear separation of bacteria communities from the control group on the PC1 axis in the PCoA plot. However, glucose addition did not cause significant separation in high-P soil. Results of the co-occurrence network analysis displayed a significant difference in the abundance of OTUs and a more pronounced modular pattern in the low-P soil after glucose addition compared to the control group. The species Paraburkholderia, which had been shown in related studies to possess phosphorus solubilization function, was the most explanatory species for the differences between the treatment and control groups in terms of sample processing. In contrast, no microorganism with proven phosphorus solubilization function was observed in the high-P soil after glucose addition. The plspm model results demonstrated that the addition of glucose induced changes in microbial community structure in soils with two phosphorus levels, resulting in differences in the changes of different phosphorus fractions.  Conclusion  The effect of exogenous carbon addition on phosphorus pool and bacteria community structure is more pronounced in low-P soil compared to high-P soil. Glucose addition causes greater fluctuations of P pools, increases the species richness and compositional differences of the microbial communities, enriches the known P soluble bacteria Paraburkholderia in low-P soil, resulting better effect in stimulate the bioavailability of soil P.
Effects of field-aged biochar on soil organic nitrogen fractions in dry farmland of Loess Plateau
PAN Zhan-dong, CAI Xue-mei, CAI Li-qun, DONG Bo, WU Jun, ZHANG Ren-zhi
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023195
Abstract(69) FullText HTML(30) Related Articles
  Objectives  The effects of field-aged biochar on soil organic nitrogen components and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were studied to provide scientific basis for improving soil fertility and improving nitrogen use efficiency in the Loess Plateau of central Gansu.  Methods  Based on the long-term positioning experiment of dry farming comprehensive experimental station of Gansu Agricultural University in 2015, six levels of corn straw biochar addition (CK: 0 t/hm2, BC1: 10 t/hm2, BC2: 20 t/hm2, BC3: 30 t/hm2, BC4: 40 t/hm2, BC5: 50 t/hm2) were set up, and wheat was continuously planted for 5 years. The contents of soil organic nitrogen components and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in 0−5 cm, 5−10 cm and 10−30 cm soil layers were determined by Bremner method, and the changes of soil organic nitrogen components and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen under aged biochar treatment were analyzed.  Results  Biochar treatment significantly increased the yield of spring wheat, and the yield of spring wheat treated with BC3 was the highest, which was 24.76% higher than that of CK. Compared with CK, biochar treatments significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon by 6.55%−10.94% and 68.63%−139.74%, and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen ratio (BC/BN) increased by 10.60%−202.44%, respectively. Organic nitrogen components: the proportion of AAN, non-acidolysable nitrogen (AIN), acidolysable ammonia nitrogen (AMN), unknown-acidolyzable nitrogen (UAN), amino sugar nitrogen (ASN) accounting for 27.46%−45.13%, 15.47%−31.14%, 19.00%−28.66%, 1.59%−18.54%, 2.76%−8.86% of soil total nitrogen, respectively. In acid hydrolysis nitrogen, biochar treatment showed: AAN>AMN>ASN; compared with CK, soil AAN and ASN contents in BC2, BC3, BC4 and BC5 treatments were significantly increased by 17.58%−81.51% and 43.60%−107.55%, respectively. Compared with CK, soil AMN content in BC2 and BC3 treatments was significantly increased by 15.46%−28.95%. Among them, under BC3 treatment, the content of total acid-hydrolyzed nitrogen, AMN and ASN was the highest, and the content of AIN was the lowest.  Conclusions  Soil total nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon are the main factors affecting the difference of organic nitrogen components. The tested biochar rate all significantly increased the soil total N and microbiomass carbon. Application of biochar 30 t/hm2 showed significantly higher effect on increasing the total soil acidolyzable nitrogen, amino acid nitrogen, and ammonium nitrogen, thus the soil under this biochar rate had the highest nitrogen supply capacity, and achieved the highest spring wheat yield. Therefore, suitable biochar application amount could increase the soil nitrogen supply capacity in the long-run in Loess Plateau.
Innovation and industrial development of green efficiency fertilizers in China
ZHAO Bing-qiang, YUAN Liang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023221
Abstract(112) FullText HTML(62) Related Articles
Green efficiency fertilizers are characterized of controlled nutrient supply, higher nutrient-sue efficiency, and low risk of environmental pollution, represent one of the development trends in global fertilizer industry. The research and development of green efficiency fertilizer in China started in 1970s and 1980s, and over more than 40 years of rapid development, the green efficiency fertilizer have realized industrialized production. The annual output of green efficiency fertilizers have reached 20 million tons, and applied in more than 500 million mu (33 million hectare) of farmland, increasing 10 billion kilograms of crop yield and saving 2 million tons of fertilizers. The green efficiency fertilizers in China are divided into four categories, according to their yield and nutrient efficiency promotion paths. The slow-release fertilizer by controlling nutrient release through coating technology; the stabilized fertilizer by addition of urease inhibitors and/or nitrification inhibitors to regulate urea/N transformation; the urea formaldehyde fertilizer by addition/condensation reaction to form UF slow-release fertilizers to slow down the hydrolysis of urea in soil; and the value-added fertilizer in which bioactive organic synergists were added to comprehensively coordinate the nutrient supply and absorption in the “fertilizer-crop-soil” system. The green efficient fertilizer research and production in the near future should focus on the following aspects: 1) Increase yield with equal and/less nutrient input, or maintain yield with less nutrient input. 2) Integrated yield increase function through harmonious “fertilizer-crop-soil” system, especially stimulate the root absorption ability. 3) Fertilizers with multiple beneficial functions in crop quality, resistance to stress, conservation and remediation of soil. 4) Research and usage of degradable natural/plant-sourced materials with characteristics of bioactivity, safe to humane and environment. 5) Increasing fertilizer efficiencies through the cross amalgamation of multiple disciplines, in multiple ways and mechanisms. 6) Trying to realize the simultaneous production of green efficiency fertilizers with common fertilizers device, to achieve high production capacity in low cost, avoiding the second procession. 7) Meeting the requirement of nutrient supply and simplified fertilization and mechanic operation at the same time.
Study of nitrogen fertilizer management and cultivation strategies in different rice planting areas of the Yangtze River Basin of China
XIAO Da-kang, DING Zi-juan, HU Ren, SHAO Di, MA Xiao-wei, LI Jin-tao, HOU Jun, ZHANG Wei-feng
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023160
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  Objectives  Nitrogen (N) fertilization plays important roles in yield and efficiency of rice production. We studied the suitable N management for different planting areas, rice varieties, and cultivation methods, etc., for the efficient rice production in the Yangtze River Basin, China.  Methods  Literatures were searched in CNKI and Web of Sciences, using key words N application rate, sum of base and tillering N fertilizer (BTN rate), planting area, rice variety, cropping system, transplanting density, soil property, etc. There were total of 56 published papers meet the requirement of N, and a total of 956 sets of qualified data were screened out from the field experiments of the papers. Meta-analysis was used to quantitatively analyze the effects of N fertilizer management on N uptake, aboveground dry matter weight (ADMW), and yield of rice under different N application rates, basal+tiller fertilizer rates (sum of basal and tiller fertilizers), planting areas, varieties, planting modes, transplanting densities, and soil properties.  Results  BOth the N uptake and ADMW of rice would not stop increasing with the enhancement of N fertilizer rate until the total N rate and the basal+tiller fertilizer rate beyond 300 and 180 kg/hm2, when they were higher than 250 kg/hm2 and 120 kg/hm2, there was no significant yield increase. The grain yield increase caused by N fertilizer in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River Basin was 24.9%, significantly lower than those in the middle reaches (42.4%) and lower reaches (41.8%) of rice planting areas. Although there was no significant difference among rice varieties, hybrid rice varieties had an advantage in increasing N uptake and rice yield compared to japonica and indica rice, with an increase of 12.6%−15.2% and 3.5%−5.1%. N fertilizer significantly improved less N uptake, ADMW, and yield of single cropping rice compared to double cropping rice and rice -upland rotation. For example, the yield of single cropping rice was increased by 29.1%, while the yield of double cropping rice and rice-upland rotation were increased by 46.3% and 43.8%, respectively. When the transplanting density was controlled within 106/hm2, increasing the transplanting density could effectively improve the N uptake and ABDW of rice. Under high soil organic matter (>25 g/kg) and available P (>20 mg/kg), and low available N (<90 mg/kg) and potassium in soil (<80 mg/kg), rice yield responded the highest to N fertilizer, with rice yield increase ofv43.3%−48.5%, the total contribution rates of SOM, AP, AN, and AK to rice yield and nitrogen uptake reached 61.7% and 40.2%, respectively. N dry matter production efficiency, rice production efficiency, and harvest index all decreased when N rate exceeded 250 kg/hm2, while N absorption use efficiency, agronomic use efficiency, and partial productivity all decreased with increasing nitrogen application rate.   Conclusions  Increasing the application of nitrogen fertilizer in the Yangtze River Basin can effectively improve rice yield. To decrease the risk of yield reduction and increase N use efficiency, the total N input should not exceed 250 kg/hm2, the sum of base and tillering N should controlled within 120 kg/hm2, and the gap with the total N input could be top dressed as ear fertilizer. In the upstream of the Yangtze River Basin, hybrid rice is preferred as the good variety advantages. Under single cropping system, the rice cultivars with long growth period should be chosen to reduce their dependence on N fertilizer. Double rice cropping or rice-upland rotation system is beneficial for improving soil fertility and achieving the goals of reducing N, increasing yield and N use efficiency. In the double rice cropping or rice-upland rotation system of the middle and lower reaches, reasonable increase of transplant density (< 106/hm2) can further improve rice yield and N use efficiency.
Returning green manure to increase tobacco quality and soil fertility in the erosion area of Fuxian Lake in Yunnan Province
FENG Yu, CHEN Hua, FU Li-bo3, ZHOU Guo-peng, YIN Mei, WANG Zhi-yuan, CHEN Jian-feng, WANG Wei, YANG Yan-xian, CAO Wei-dong, LI Yong-mei
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023155
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  Objectives  Effects of planting and utilizing green manure on soil nutrients, yield, and quality of tobacco in the erosion area of Fuxian Lake in Yunnan, were studied to clarify the resources of suitable local green manure varieties, which provided reference for optimizing the local tobacco planting system.   Methods  The field experiment was conducted from 2019 to 2021, with four treatments: winter fallow, rape (Brassica campestris), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), and smooth vetch (Vicia villosa Roth var. glabrescens). We measured the following indicators: soil properties after returning green manure to the field and harvesting flue-cured tobacco, agronomic traits of tobacco plants, yield of tobacco, proportion of top grade tobacco, chemical composition of tobacco leaves, appearance and sensory quality, and output value.  Results  In 2020, there was no significant difference in soil organic matter content before tobacco planting compared to winter fallow. The available nutrients, including alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) slightly decreased. After tobacco harvest, soil organic matter increased by 3.2 g/kg, and the average available nutrients increased by 6.8 mg/kg, 10.1 mg/kg, and 84.8 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment of smooth vetch had the greatest increase in available nutrients. In 2021, both before and after tobacco planting and harvest, soil organic matter and available nutrient content of green manure treatment was significantly increased compared to winter fallow. Among them, soil organic matter content of rape treatment was the highest, and the available nutrient improvement effect of smooth vetch treatment was the best. The soil chlorine content in the winter fallow treatment was significantly higher than that in the green manure treatment. In 2020 and 2021, the average yield of tobacco treated with green manure increased by 13.8% and 22.6%, respectively, and the proportion of top grade tobacco increased by 11.2% and 24.7%, with the highest increase in yield observed in the treatment of smooth vetch. In 2021, the agronomic traits of tobacco were significantly improved, with the treatment of smooth vetch performing the best. Comparing to winter fallow, the plant height, stem girth, and maximum leaf width were increased by 26.6 cm, 2.2 cm, and 6.9 cm, respectively. The appearance quality of the middle and upper leaves of tobacco was improved by 5.0−5.7 points and 4.5−5.8 points respectively compared to winter fallow, and the sensory quality increased by 2.0−3.2 points and 3.6−4.2 points, respectively, with the highest score obtained from the treatment of smooth vetch. The average price of tobacco treated with green manure significantly increased by 7.4%−11.9% in the second year, and the output value significantly increased by 30.5%−38.0%. Among them, the economic benefits of the treatment of smooth vetch were the best. Retuning green manure reduced the difference in total sugar and reducing sugar content in tobacco leaves, and increased their potassium content. Random forest regression analysis showed that soil organic matter, chloride ion and available potassium content, as well as plant height, maximum leaf width and stem circumference of flue-cured tobacco were the key indicators affecting the yield of flue-cured tobacco.   Conclusions  Green manure and tobacco rotation can improve soil nutrient properties, and the effect is more significant in the second year. It can improve the proportion of high-quality tobacco and the quality of tobacco, significantly improving economic benefits. Overall, smooth vetch ( Vicia villosa Roth var. glabrescens ) can be the preferred green manure variety for tobacco rotation in the erosion area of Fuxian Lake in Yunnan Province.
Mechanism, influencing factors and practical application of organic acids in improving soil phytate bioavailability
CAO Xing–yuan, AI Wen–yan, WEN Si–ying, YANG Xiao–li, LIU Xue
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023134
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Phytate in soils mainly origins from plant residues and monogastric animal excrement. The phytate can only be mineralized to release P through hydrolysis and dephosphorylation, which are catalysed by specific enzymes-phytase (myo-inositol hexakisphate phosphohydrolase). Phytic acids or phytate, are important components of soil organic phosphorus, accounting for 50%–80% of total organic P. Phytic acids contain 6 phosphate groups and 12 dissociable protons, thus readily being adsorbed by soils or form insoluble complexes with metal ions. Consequently, phytic acids are prevented from interactions with phytase, their decomposition and mineralization efficiency are thus decreased greatly, hard to release P for plant uptake. Improving the solubility and bioavailability of phytate is one of the prerequisites to ensure the efficient P supply of soil to crops. Soil organic acids are derived from plant root excretes, microorganisms, and organic matter decomposition. Organic acids have plenty of functional groups, which can form more stable ligand complexes with metal ions, therefore, mobilize the adsorbed phytate or phytate-metal complexes through competitive adsorption, complexation, and fracturing organic matter-metal bridges. The kinds and contents of soil organic acids varied, depending on plant and microbe species. Besides, soil pH, organic matter content, the types and contents of soil minerals/metal oxides all influence the mobilization efficiency of organic acids-mediated phytate. As such, further studies should work on the following points: 1) Phytate mobilization efficiency of different organic acids in different types of soils. Quantitatively analyze phytate desorption and mobilization efficiency by different kinds and concentrations of organic acids; 2) Phytate-adsorped mineral surface is highly negative charged in a large pH ranges, which hinders the adsorption and displacement reactions of organic acids. Therefore, it is necessary to explore strategies to improve the mobilization of adsorbed-phytate; 3) Monitoring and evaluate the long-term performance of organic acids-mediated phytate mobilization.
Current situation and reduction potential of potato fertilization in China
WANG Xi-ya, SHENG Yin-sheng, HE Ping, XU Xin-peng, QU Xiao-jing, ZHOU Wei
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023137
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  Objective  Reasonable fertilization is required for the high yield, quality and profit of potato production. We investigated the fertilization situation of the main potato production areas around China, and the localized potential of fertilizer reduction.  Methods  A total of 1807 potato fields in the main potato producing areas were surveyed during 2019−2021 in China. The questionnaire included potato yield, fertilizer sources and ratios of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers, and the frequency of basal dressing and topdressing. The fertilizer nutrient reduction potential was evaluated using the fertilizer recommendation rate produced by Nutrient Expert (NE) system.   Results  On average across China, the annual total N, P2O5 and K2O input for potato was 252, 219, and 224 kg/hm2, respectively. N 187 kg/hm2, P2O5 164 kg/hm2 and K2O 175 kg/hm2 were from chemical fertilizer, and the left from organic fertilizer. The organic nutrients accounted for 25.8%, 25.6%, and 21.4% of the total N, P2O5 and K2O inputs. Compound fertilizer was the main chemical fertilizer source in the surveyed potato fields, supplied 84.6%, 95.7% and 92.8% of chemical N, P2O5 and K2O nutrients. And 82.9% of organic fertilizer was from livestock and poultry manure. Compared with the fertilizer rate recommended by NE system, the fertilizer nutrient reduction potential across China was about 41.9%, of which the N, P2O5, and K2O reduction potential in the monocropping area of North China were 24.1%, 59.7%, and 42.1%; the P2O5 and K2O reduction potential in the monocropping area of Northeast China were 56.0%, and 44.8%, respectively; the N, P2O5, and K2O reduction potential in the monocropping area of Northwest China were 30.6%, 69.2%, and 35.8%, respectively. The reduction potential of N, P2O5, and K2O were 5.5%, 55.0%, and 37.2% in the mono/two cropping area of Southwest China, and 40.2%, 78.2%, and 70.4% in winter season area of South China, respectively.   Conclusion  The nutrient inputs in potato is generally high and unreasonable in nutrient ratios, particularly the low proportion of organic fertilizer nutrients. The promotion of the Nutrient Expert recommendation will save 41.9% of current fertilizer nutrient input in China, the reduction rate of N, P2O5, and K2O nutrient is dependent on the cropping system, production areas, and fertilization method.
Using DNDC model to study the potential of nitrogen fertilizer reduction in spring maize production under long-term straw return
LI Xiao, JIANG Rong, HOU Yun-peng, HE Ping, ZOU Guo-yuan, XU Xin-peng, FAN Dai-jia, HE Xin, HE Wen-tian
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023126
Abstract(115) FullText HTML(52) Related Articles
  Objectives  This study focused on the potential of nitrogen fertilizer reduction as affected by straw return, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for efficient nutrient management in spring maize production of Northeast China.  Methods  A split plot experiment was carried out in Gongzhuling City, Jilin Province from 2017 to 2020. The treatments were under conditions of straw return and removal, nitrogen (N) fertilizer was applied at 6 rates, as: 0, 70, 140, 210, 280 and 350 kg/hm2, respectively. The denitrification-decomposition model (DNDC) was calibrated and validated based on the field experimental measurements, then used to simulate the impact of straw return and removal on maize yield and N use efficiency, and predict the potential of N fertilizer reduction over a 30-year period (1991−2020).  Results  The calibrated DNDC model well simulated the spring maize yield, biomass, N uptake, and soil inorganic N content of the treatments, the normalized mean relative errors (nARE) averaged −5.7%−7.6% and the normalized root mean square errors (nRMSE) averaged 10.0%−28.5%. According to the simulations, long-term straw return increased the maize yield, N recovery efficiency, agronomic efficiency, and partial productivity of N under the maximum yield N rate by 6.0%, 5.5%, 2.7 kg/kg, and 6.7 kg/kg, respectively, and decreased N surplus rate by 36.3%, relative to those of straw removal. Straw returns reduced N fertilizer requirement by 35.5 kg/hm2 (18.4%) to reach the maximum yield under straw removal. Compared to the N input under straw removal from 1991 to 2020, the N fertilizer reduction potential by straw return first increased and then decreased to a plateau level. The average reduction potential was as high as 23.6% during 7th−15th years, and then declined to 15.8% during 19th−30th years of straw return. The annual precipitation influenced the reduction potential of straw return, the average reduction potential was 20.5% in wet years, 18.7% in normal years, and 15.4% in dry years.   Conclusions  Long-term straw return increases the maize yield and N use efficiency, decreases the N fertilizer input and N surplus significantly. According to the DNDC model simulations, the relatively steady N fertilizer reduction rate by straw return is 10%−20%, depending on the annual precipitation in the spring maize area of Northeast China.
Rhizosphere management technology at the core of starter P fertilizer and ammonium sulfate topdressing increases lint yield and P efficiency in cotton production under mulched fertigation system
PENG Yi, WEI Xin, XU Jian-hui, YANG Guo-jiang, FENG Gu
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023187
Abstract(65) FullText HTML(33) Related Articles
  Objective  Excessive phosphorus (P) fertilizer application are common in the cotton production of Xinjiang, decreasing low P efficiencies and low benefit of cotton production. We established a rhizosphere management technology to reduce the P fertilizer input and maintain the high yield of cotton at the same time.  Methods  Field experiments were employed in five cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production regions of Xinjiang, including Shihezi, Changji, 184 tuan, Beiwucha, and Liuhudi. The P inputs in the five regions are all far exceeded the recommendation. Two treatments were set up in all the five experimental sites: conventional fertilizer practice control (CK), and rhizosphere management (RM). The core of the RM was reducing total P input through applying P and ammonium sulfate (AS) before germination of cotton as starter fertilizer, and topdressing AS with drip irrigation at cotton bud and boll stage to induce rhizosphere acidification. The lint yield, and biomass of the organs were weighed at harvest, the N and P contents in the organs were analyzed, and the partial productivity of N (PFPn) and P (PFPp) fertilizer, P surplus and earnings were calculated, respectively.   Results  The RM treatments were recorded similar lint yields (3.26 t/hm2) as CK (3.29 t/hm2), without significant impaction on the aboveground biomass distribution, N and P uptake, and seed cotton P content, thereby increased PFPp by 81%. RM treatment reduced P surplus by 75% on average, the P surplus was as low as 3.6 kg/hm2 under RM treatment in experimental site CJ where no basal P fertilizer. At the target lint yield level of 3.1~3.5 t/hm2, RM treatment reduced 16.6% of N and 56.5% of P fertilizer input, thus decreased N and P fertilizer cost by 40.7%, saving 2082 ¥/hm2, and improved net income by 1845 ¥/hm2. In the high fertilizer input sites BWC and LHD, the RM treatment reduced N and P fertilizer cost by 3993, 4464 ¥/hm2, and improved net income by 2931, 4367 ¥/hm2.  Conclusions  The rhizosphere management technology reduced the total P application amount while kept the same high cotton lint yield, so increased the P fertilizer efficiency and decreased P surplus greatly. The cotton net profit was increased significantly as the decrease of fertilizer cost. So, the rhizosphere management technology is recommended in the nutrient management of cotton production.
Yield difference and growth adaptation characteristics of maize varieties under strip tillage with straw mulching
SHA Ye, ZHAO Si-yu, GUO Wen-qing, LIU Zheng, HAO Zhan-hong, KE Li-hua, HUANG Yi-wen, FENG Guo-zhong, MI Guo-hua
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023144
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  Objectives  Straw mulching combined with strip tillage (“strip tillage”) has been promoted as an effective measurement for black soil protection in Northeast China. In regarding to the exaggerated soil temperature heterogeneity, the adaptability of maize varieties was evaluated, for maintaining maize yield at the same time of soil protection.  Methods  The field experiment with split design was conducted in Lishu County, Jilin Province in 2020 and 2021. The main factor was two tillage methods under straw mulching: strip tillage (ST) and conventional tillage (CT); and the sub-factor was 10 maize varieties. The soil temperature of intra- and inter-rows, and the emergence time and rate were monitored, the periodical dry matter accumulation, yield and yield components of maize were investigated. The relative change of indices of maize varieties under ST was calculated using equation (ST–CT)/CT for the adaptive assessment and classification of maize varieties, and their growth dynamics were fitted with logistic equation.  Results  Compared with CT, ST treatment decreased soil temperature until 50–70 days after sowing in 2021 and 2022, with the total decrease of cumulative temperature by 305℃ and 107℃ in the intra-rows, and 450℃ and 355℃ in the inter-rows; postponed the emergence time of maize but did not affect the final emergence rate. The yield and yield components of maize varieties responded to the tillage methods differently. Compared to CT, the variety Zhengdan 958, Dika M753, and Dika M751 under ST treatment increased yield by 8.4%, 3.5%, and 2.1%, ranking strong adaptability varieties; Dika 517, Liangyu 99, Fumin 58, Hongshuo 899, and Tieyan 58 reduced average yields by 6.6%, 6.0%, 3.3%, 1.5%, and 0.7%, ranking weak adaptability varieties; the left two ranked moderate adaptability varieties. From the analysis of yield components, the ear number per unit area, the grain number per ear, and the 100-grain weight of high adaptability varieties increased by 1.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5%, respectively, the moderate adaptability varieties decreased by 0.0%, 1.1%, and 2.4%, respectively; and the weak adaptability varieties decreased by 1.7%, 3.9%, and 0.0%, respectively. The analysis of the Logistic growth fitting curve showed that, ST treatment reduced the growth rate of maize from V1 to V14 stage, accelerated the growth rate from V14 to R3 stage, exhibiting the “compensatory growth ability”, which was stronger in high adaptability varieties than the other varieties. The plant average growth rate during the rapid growth period under ST treatment was 6.1% higher than under CT, and the average grain number per ear was 4.3% higher. The correlation analysis showed that the grain yield was significantly positively correlated with the grain number per ear (r=0.65–0.66), the shoot dry weight at maturity (r=0.57–0.80), V1 (r=0.72–0.84), V2 (r=0.69–0.83) (P<0.05).  Conclusion  The main maize varieties are different in the adaptability to strip tillage. Although the low temperature and late emergence caused by strip tillage, the highly adaptive varieties have stronger "compensatory growth ability" in the rapid growth period, which improves the dry matter accumulation rate in the key growth period before silking stage, promotes the formation of grain number per ear, and finally achieves higher yield.
Plastic film and straw mulching improve yield and nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize
XU Zi-hang, WANG Rui, LIU Yu-wang, QIU Zi-jian, LIU Li-xia, LIU Xiao-lin, BAI Ju, WANG Yong-liang
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023145
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  Objectives  Water and fertilizer use efficiencies of spring maize production system are low in the valley plains of eastern Loess Plateau. For this reason, we studied the effects of different surface mulching measures on yield, nitrogen translocation efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency and economic benefit of spring maize, in order to provide scientific management measures for high yield and high efficiency of spring maize production in this region.  Methods  The study was based on a long-term experiment started in 2014 in the Dongyang Experimental Demonstration Base of Shanxi Agricultural University in Jinzhong City, Shanxi Province, with the tested maize cultivar ‘Dafeng 30’. Four treatments included fertilization without mulching (NM), with plastic film mulching (FM), and with straw mulching (SM), and control without mulching and fertilization (CK). In 2021 and 2022, the photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of spring maize were measured at different growth stages, and the grain yield, and economic benefit were investigated at harvest.  Results  Compared to NM treatment, FM treatment improved the chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and effective light interception of spring maize at pre-silking periods, but significantly reduced those at the post-silking periods. Lodging rate was recorded more than 70% in FM treatment in 2021, 45.41% lower shoot N accumulation at post-silking periods, impacting the yield formation. SM treatment improved the chlorophyll content, leaf area index, and effective light interception across the growing period of maize, thus increased the dry matter and N accumulation at pre-silking periods, and increased the N uptake and nitrogen use efficiency of maize. Compared with NM treatment, FM and SM treatment increased grain yield by 6.18%−15.26%; FM treatment significantly increased the shoot N uptake, N recovery efficiency, agronomy efficiency and partial factor productivity by 21.84%, 31.59%, 28.86%, and 16.18% in 2022; SM treatment increased the shoot N uptake, N recovery efficiency, agronomy efficiency and partial factor productivity by 13.86%, 18.48%, 19.21% and 12.14% in 2021, and 25.54%, 36.92%, 33.86% and 18.99% in 2022, respectively. Compared with FM, SM treatment increased grain N uptake by 27.89% and 9.25% in 2021 and 2022, the grain N uptake and N recovery efficiency by 18.57% and 15.58%, and increased yield and economic benefit by 8.55% and 12.48%, respectively.  Conclusion  Straw mulching is better than plastic film mulching in coordinate the growth of pre- and post-silking stage, decreasing lodging rate, and improving nitrogen use efficiency, so resulting in higher yield and economic benefit of spring maize. In addition, straw can provide additional nitrogen for soil, and has no risk of micro-plastics pollution. Therefore, straw mulching should be used to replace plastic film for the efficient utilization of water and fertilizer in the spring maize production in the valley plain of eastern Loess Plateau.
Effects of nitrogen application methods on the growth and root development of Cinnamomum kanehirae seedlings
WANG Xian-bang, ZHOU Zai-zhi, HAN Qiang, PAN Dong-kang, WANG Dan-wei, HUANG Gui-hua
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023213
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  Objectives  The quality of seedlings decides the rate of survivals during afforestation to some extent. We studied the suitable fertilization method and nitrogen fertilizer amount for the health Cinnamomum kanehirae seedlings.   Methods  A pot experiment was carried out inside green hours, taking 1-year old tissue culture seedlings of Cinnamomum kanehirae as test materials. The fertilizer treatment included two conventional methods at N rate of 200 mg/plant, i.e. averaged applied in two time, and in 10 time (denoted as CF1 and CF2); and 4 exponential fertilization methods with N rate of 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/seedling (denoted as EF200, EF400, EF600 and EF800); and a no fertilizer control (CK). The nitrogen fertilizer was applied in 10 time, and the N amount of each application was calculated using classic Timmer formula. The seedling and root growth and development indexes, as well as nutrient absorption were measured after the fertilization as completed.   Results  Fertilization significantly improved the growth and development of seedlings. Compared with CF1 and CF2, EF200 treatment increased seedling height, ground diameter, biomass (stem and leaf), root system (length, volume, surface area, specific root length and specific root surface area), and N content of leaf, stem and root significantly. Under exponential fertilization, the biomass, and N content of leaves, stems and roots showed a trend of first increase and then decrease with the increase of N application rate, and EF400 was recorded the maximum and significantly higher values than the other treatments.  Conclusions  Nitrogen application has significant effect on the growth of Cinnamomum kanehirae seedlings, using exponential method to allocate nitrogen fertilizer with the growth of Cinnamomum kanehirae seedlings could achieve higher promotion effect than the conventional method. Comprehensively considering seedling growth and nutrient accumulation, N 400 mg/seedling is recommended for the cultivating of Cinnamomum kanehirae seedlings.
Effects of microbial fertilizer application on maize yield in China: A meta-analysis
GAN Yuan-wei, FENG Xiao-jie, LI Yong-hua, YANG Lu, NING Peng
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023194
Abstract(115) FullText HTML(57) Related Articles
  Objectives  Application of microbial fertilizers have displayed remarkable promotion effect on the growth and grain yield of maize, despite of fluctuations due to climate, soil conditions, managements, et al. Therefore, we searched the factors causing the fluctuations using Meta-analysis method.   Methods  There were total of 244 pairs of yield data were collected from 38 literatures published from January 2000 to May 2022 in the study. Yield responses were quantified using meta-analysis under various climate conditions, soil properties, and planting managements. The relative importance of each variable was compared based on Random Forest method.  Results  Application of microbial fertilizer increased maize grain yield by 13% on average in China. Compound microbial fertilizer outperformed single microbial fertilizer in terms of yield increase, in particular, either Bacillus or Trichoderma-contained compound microbial fertilizer increased maize yield by 22%–29%, Acfinobacteria and Proteobacteria-included ones increased maize yield by 17%. The magnitude of yield increase was higher under warmer or less rainfall climate. The yield increase was 12% and 15% in regions of annual mean temperature ≤10℃ and >10℃, and that was declined from 20% to 11% when the average annual rainfall raised from ≤600 mm to >600 mm. Relative to the controls, application of microbial fertilizer increased maize yield by 30% in low-yielding fields, and the increased declined to 10% and 9% in the medium- and high-yielding fields, respectively. In the insufficient nutrient input systems, i.e. N application rate less than 100 kg/hm2, P2O5 or K2O less than 50 kg/hm2, application of microbial fertilizer could increase maize yield by 16%−28%, and under sufficient nutrient supply such yield benefits were only 9%−10%. Yield responses to microbial fertilizer application were more obvious under higher planting density than under lower plant density, the yield increase was 77% under planting density beyond 80,000 plants per hectare, but declined to 9%−10% under low densities. According to the random forest analysis, the key variables affecting maize yield responses to microbial fertilizer were annual mean temperature, planting density, soil pH, annual rainfall, N and P application rates, soil total nitrogen, soil available potassium, and organic matter, of which the annual mean temperature being the most dominant factor.  Conclusions  The application of microbial fertilizer is a reliable and green measurement for maintaining and further increasing maize yield, in practically under adverse environments. In all the main biological regions of maize production, Bacillus or Trichoderma-contained compound microbial fertilizer, and relatively higher plant density are conducive to optimize the maize yield benefits of microbial fertilizers.
Response of soil nutrients, enzyme activities, yield and saponin content of Panax notoginseng to different water and fertilizer combinations
WANG Zhao-yi, TUO Yun-fei, LIU Xiang-ning, SHI Xiao-lan, DING Ming-jing, LI Jian-qiang, XIANG Ping, HE Xia-hong, YANG Qi-liang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023133
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  Objectives  We studied the soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities, P. notoginsen yield and saponin content under different water and fertilizer combinations at the main growth stages of P. notoginseng, to optimize the water and fertilizer combination for the P. notoginseng production.  Methods  The experiment was conducted in the P. notoginseng Base of Luxi County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2018 to 2021. The treatment was composed of 3 watering (W) and four fertilization (F) quotas, forming 12 combination treatments: W1F1, W1F2, W1F3, W1F4, W2F1, W2F2, W2F3, W2F4, W3F1, W3F2, W3F3, and W3F4, taking the local irrigation and fertilization as control (CK). The three water quota was 120 mm (W1), 240 mm (W2), and 360 mm (W3); The four fertilizer quota were 48 kg/hm2 (F1), 72 kg/hm2 (F2), 96 kg/hm2 (F3), and 120 kg/hm2 (F4). Soil samples were collected at rooting, seedling, flowering and ripening stage for the measurement of nutrient content and enzyme activity. Plant samples were collected at the ripening stage for the analysis of yield and saponin content of P. notoginseng. The entropy weight method was used to calculate the weight of each measurement index, and the TOPSIS method was used to comprehensively evaluate the effect of each treatment combination.  Results  Water and fertilizer quota significantly affected the content of NO3-N, NH4+-N, available P and available K, and the activities of urease, sucrase, acid phosphatase, and catalase (P<0.05). At rooting stage, the highest soil NO3-N, NH4+-N, and available K content was all in W2F4 treatment (34.6 mg/kg, 21.0 mg/kg and 132.1 mg/kg). At seedling stage, the highest NO3-N content was in W2F4 (39.4 mg/k), and the highest NH4+-N and available K content in W3F2 (25.4 mg/kg, 136.0 mg/kg). At flowering stage, the highest soil NO3-N, NH4+-N, and available K content was appeared in W1F4 (49.9 mg/kg), W3F3 (30.2 mg/kg), and W2F4 treatment (178.1 mg/kg), respectively, and at ripening stage, appeared in W2F4 (41.8 mg/kg), W3F3 (25.7 mg/kg), and W2F4 treatment (158.0 mg/kg), respectively. The available P content increased with the increase of fertilizer application rate at the same irrigation level in all four growth stages, and the highest available P content at the rooting, seedling, flowering and ripening stage was all determined in treatment W3F4 in value of 23.6 mg/kg, 25.9 mg/kg, 30.1 mg/kg, and 26.7 mg/kg, irrespectively. The four enzyme activities had a tendency to increase with the increasing of fertilizer rate at the three irrigation quota, and the maximum activity of urease, sucrase, acid phosphatase and catalase was measured in treatment W3F4 at the four growth stages as well. The highest yield was in W2F4 treatment (2800 kg/hm2). Water use efficiency was maximum in W1F3 and W1F4 treatments (2.0 kg/m3, 2.0 kg/m3), and fertilizer partial productivity was highest in W2F1 and W3F1 treatments (1.7 kg/kg, 1.7 kg/kg). The Rg1 and Rb1 saponin contents were highest in the W3F2 treatment, while the Rd and R1 saponin contents were highest in the W1F4 treatment. Yield and NO3-N, urease, acid phosphatase, catalase, sucrase, available P, available K and Re were significantly correlated (P<0.05), while Rg1 and fertilizer partial productivity showed highly significant positive correlation (P<0.01). According to the TOPSIS analysis, W3F4 treatment ranked first in terms of soil nutrients, enzyme activities, and saponin content proximity at the rooting, seedling, and fruit stages, while W1F4 treatment ranked first at flowering stage.  Conclusions  Comprehensively evaluate the soil nutrient availability, enzyme activity, yield and saponin content of P. notoginseng, and the water and fertilizer use efficiency, water 360 mm and fertilizer 120 kg/hm2 (W3F4 treatment) is the optimum combination.
Nitrogen application activates rhizosphere soil phosphorus and enhances the phosphorus accumulation of Pilea sinofasciata
TANG Rui, PU Yong, DAI Wen-ying, YU Hai-ying, LI Ting-xuan, YE Dai-hua
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023192
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  Objectives  Phosphorus (P)-enriching plants can accumulate high levels of P, and nitrogen (N) fertilization has been fund to enhance the accumulation. In this study, we investigated the rhizosphere biochemical properties of a P-accumulating plant under N fertilization, aiming to provide a scientific basis for understanding how N nutrition promotes the remediation of P-excessive soils by P-accumulating plants.   Methods  A pot experiment was conducted using a P-accumulating plant, Pilea sinofasciata, with a mining ecotype (ME) and a non-mining ecotype (NME) under N doses of 0 and 140 mg/kg and P doses of 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg. The P accumulation in roots and shoots of the two ecotypes, as well as P composition, enzyme activity, and microbial activity in the rhizosphere and bulk soils, were analyzed.   Results  (1) When exposed to soil containing 800 and 1200 mg/kg of P, the growth and P uptake of both ecotypes were inhibited. N application increased their tolerance to high P treatments, with increased biomass and P accumulation. The biomass and P accumulation were respectively improved by 72.52% and 78.67% in ME, and 80.07% and 125.59% in NME by N application. Under N treatment, the maximum shoot biomass (27.23 g/plant) and P accumulation (193.82 mg/plant) of ME were recorded at P 800 mg/kg, which were 1.18 and 1.24 times higher than those of NME, respectively. (2) N application increased the concentrations of H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pi, and decreased the concentrations of NaHCO3-Po, but did not significantly affect the concentrations of NaOH-P, HCl-P, and residual-P in the rhizosphere soil of both ecotypes. Under N treatment, the concentrations of H2O-P and NaHCO3-Pi in rhizosphere soil of ME were lower than those of NME. (3) N application increased the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and phytase in the rhizosphere soil of both ecotypes, as well as the concentrations of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the rhizosphere soil and the intensity of soil respiration, indicating that N application could improve the phosphatase and microbial activity in the rhizosphere soil of both ecotypes. With N application, the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and phytase in the rhizosphere soil of ME were higher than those of NME, while microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, and soil respiration intensity were not significantly different between the two ecotypes.   Conclusions  The growth and P accumulation ability of Pilea sinofasciata were inhibited at soil P content of 800 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg without N application. N application could alleviate the growth inhibition caused by high P treatment, and increase rhizosphere P availability by promoting the activity of phosphatase, phytase, and soil microbial communities, further promoting the P accumulation of Pilea sinofasciata, especially that of the ME.
Cloning and functional analysis of PbHAK17 from Pyrus betulifolia in response to low potassium and salt stress
JIN Yu-meng, YANG Han, SHEN Chang-wei, XU Yang-chun, DONG Cai-xia
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023114
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  Objectives  Pyrus betulifolia is a commonly cultivated rootstock with high salt tolerance. A potassium transporter gene, PbHAK17 that was screened out from Pyrus betulaefolia, seems respond to both K and salt stress. We studied its expression and function characteristics through bioinformatics, gene expression, and genetic transformation analysis.   Methods  Firstly, the PbHAK17 gene was cloned, and the protein structure and phylogenetic relationship were analyzed. Subcellular localization, K-deficient yeast, and transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana experiments were then employed to determine the function of the gene. The growth status, K+ and Na+ contents of overexpressed Arabidopsis lines and wild-type Arabidopsis lines were analyzed under normal and K deficiency (0 and 3 mmol/L K+), and salt stress (50 and 200 mmol/L Na+).   Results  The PbHAK17 is 2370 bp in length and encodes 789 amino acids, and the PbHAK17 protein was localized on the cell membrane. K deficiency and salt stress induced a significant up-expression of PbHAK17 in the root of Pyrus betulifoliaand. In conditions of potassium deficiency, the PbHAK17 yeast transformant showed significant promotion effect on the growth of deficient yeast through supplementing K, and restored the growth of deficient yeast under salt stress. The K+ content in leaves and roots of Arabidopsis overexpressing PbHAK17 was higher than that of wild-type Arabidopsis under low K treatment. Under the same Na+ concentration, PbHAK17 transgenic Arabidopsis had larger and denser leaves than wild-type Arabidopsis, and the K+/Na+ ratio of roots was significantly higher than that of wild-type Arabidopsis.   Conclusions  The pear potassium transporter gene PbHAK17 was localized in the plasma membrane of the cell, K deficiency and salt stress could induce the overexpression of PbHAK17 in the root system, increase K+ accumulation in root and leaves, and regulate the K+/Na+ ratio in plant, bring about stronger tolerance of Pyrus betulifolia to K deficiency and salt stress.
Interaction between plant phosphorus nutrition and abiotic stress responses and its potential application in agricultural production
ANG Ye-fei, GUO Yue, CHEN Hui-ying, LIU Ruo-yi, ZHU Qiu-qing, WANG Long, ZHU Yi-yong, YI Ke-ke, ZENG Hou-qing
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023289
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Phosphorus homeostasis plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and resistance to environmental stresses. There are interactions among environmental stresses, soil phosphorus availability and plant phosphorus homeostasis. Phosphorus homeostasis is indispensable for the proper growth and development of plants and their resistance to environmental stresses. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salt, low temperature, high temperature and heavy metals, not only influence the availability of phosphorus in soil, but also affect the absorption, transport and utilization of phosphate in plants. Increasing the supply of phosphate can reduce the inhibitory effect of abiotic stresses on plant growth under certain conditions and improve the resistance of plants to abiotic stresses. Studies have shown that abiotic stress can affect the phosphate signaling and influence the expression of phosphate responsive genes or proteins at the molecular level. Genetic modulation of the expression of genes, such as regulators in the phosphate signaling or phosphate transporters can improve the resistance of plants to abiotic stresses. In this paper, we summarized the effects and the underlying mechanism of drought stress, salt stress, temperature stress and heavy metal stress on phosphorus homeostasis, as well as the role and the underlying mechanisms of phosphorus homeostasis in abiotic stress resistance in plants. There are still many questions to be answered in the future. For example, which signal molecules and pathways are involved in the complex interaction between phosphorus nutrition and abiotic stresses in plants; what is the biological significance of the interaction between abiotic stress and phosphorus nutrition in plants, and what is the meaning from the ecological and evolutionary aspects; how to utilize or adjust the interaction between abiotic stress and phosphorus nutrition by means of transgenic and gene editing, so as to improve crop resistance to abiotic stress and phosphorus utilization efficiency simultaneously; what is the role of soil microorganisms in the interaction between phosphorus nutrition and abiotic stress. The answers to these questions will help us to understand the molecular mechanism of the interaction between phosphorus signaling and abiotic stress responses, and contribute to their application in agricultural production.
Effect of biochar combined with DMPP on reducing NH3 and N2O emission in paddy soil and its microbial mechanism
HE Li-li, HUANG Jia-jia, WANG Meng-jie, LIU Yu-xue, LÜ Hao-hao, WANG Yu-ying, YANG Sheng-mao
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023117
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  Objectives  The effect and mechanism of biochar and nitrification inhibitor on reducing the emission of main active nitrogen gas in paddy soil and evaluate the mitigation effects of single or combined application of biochar and nitrification inhibitor.   Methods  a typical paddy soil in Zhejiang province was collected, and a potted experiment was conducted with airtight box gas chromatography to observe the effects of rice straw biochar and nitrification inhibitor (DMPP) on soil N2O and NH3 emissions during crop growth. Five treatments were set up: no nitrogen fertilizer (N0), urea (Urea), urea + nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), urea + biochar (BC), urea + nitrification inhibitor + biochar (BCDM), inorganic nitrogen content changes in surface and leakage water, N2O emission and ammonia volatilization were observed during the critical fertilization period of crops. Fresh soil was collected to extract soil microbial DNA, and qPCR technology was used to analyze the number of key functional microorganisms (AOB, AOA and nosZ) in the production process of active nitrogen gas to reveal its microbial mechanism.  Results  After base fertilization, NH4+-N concentration in surface water was not significantly increased in each treatment, after tillering and panicle fertilization, BC and DMPP treatment significantly increased NH4+-N concentration in surface water, up to 35.44 mg/L. BCDM and DMPP treatments reduced NO3-N content of surface water up to 80.04% and 56.88%.Compared with Urea treatment, BC and DMPP alone or combined application significantly reduced the accumulated nitrogen loss in surface water up to 95.2% (BCDM).The results of nitrogen leakage at 20 cm and 40 cm soil depth of key fertilization periods (base fertilizer period, tillering period and ear fertilizer period) revealed that the cumulative leakage N loss in Urea was 3.67 kg N/hm2, while BC, BCDM and DMPP treatments reduced cumulative leakage N loss by 16.5%, 27.9% and 37.4%. Compared with Urea treatment, BC, DMPP and BCDM treatment significantly reduced the cumulative N2O emission by 31.50%, 64.04% and 57.60%, respectively, in the basal fertilizer stage and the intermediate drainage stage. DMPP significantly increased ammonia volatilization loss by 10.5%, while BC combined with DMPP or BC alone decreased ammonia volatilization loss by 25.2% and 21.6%. During the growth period of paddy field, the indirect N2O emission caused by NH3 emission in all treatments accounted for the main position of the total N2O emission, the contribution rate of NH3 to the total emission of N2O treated in BC, BCDM, DMPP and Urea treatment was 83.9%, 90.2%, 90.5%, 52.9% and 82.0%, respectively. QPCR results showed that compared with Urea treatment, BC and DMPP alone or combined application significantly increased the amoA gene copy number of AOA by 48.0%−73.4%, and decreased the amoA gene copy number of AOB by 62.7%−95.6%; DMPP alone or combined with BC increased the copy number of nosZ gene by 3.7%-14.8%, thus promoting the N2O reduction ability, and reducing N2O emission.  Conclusions  In the growing stage of rice, the combined application of biochar and DMPP can significantly reduce the copy number of amoA-AOB gene in soil,decrease the nitrification process, and reduce NO3-N content, thus, reduce the inorganic nitrogen loss in surface and leakage water; it can increase the copy number of N2O reductase nosZ gene, which is a key function of active nitrogen gas production process, thus reducing the total emission of N2O (N2O direct emission and NH3 indirect emission) by 32.2%, and It is an effective combination of reduction of N2O emission and NH3 volatilization.
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2023, 29(10).  
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Effects of continuous replacing equal amount of chemical fertilizer nutrients with rice straw and straw biochar on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency in cold region
LIU Ya-xian, AN Ning, WU Zheng-chao, YANG Jin-feng, HAN Wei, HAN Xiao-ri
2023, 29(10): 1771-1782.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023131
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  Objectives   Straw returning is one of the important measures to improve soil quality, crop productivity and reduce chemical fertilizer input simultaneously. We studied the growth, yield of rice and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency when replacing partial fertilizer with rice straw and straw biochar in the long run, to provide scientific support for the optimal management of rice straw resources.   Methods   The long-term field experiment, located in Shenyang Agricultural University, was established in 2013. The five treatments were: merely chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK), and replacing equal amount of chemical fertilizer nutrients with 1.5 t/hm2 rice straw biochar (low-input rate, LB), 3.0 t/hm2 rice straw biochar (high-input rate, HB), 4.5 t/hm2 rice straw (low-input rate, LS), and 9.0 t/hm2 rice straw (high-input rate, HS). The tiller number, chlorophyll content, plant height, grain yield and yield components of rice were investigated. The partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer (PFPN) were calculated.   Results   Compared with the high rate treatment, LB and LS treatment increased the total tiller number by 27.1% on average. And LB increased the tiller number by 13.9% than LS treatment at the end of tillering stage (P<0.05). At the tillering stage, the chlorophyll content (CCI) and plant height of LB and LS treatment were significantly higher than those of HB and HS, with increases of 25.7% and 10.4%, respectively. The CCI and plant height in LB treatment were 9.9% and 5.9% higher than in LS treatment at tillering stage, however, the CCI and plant height in LS treatment were 11.5% and 4.0% higher than in LB treatment from the jointing to ripening stage. Compared with NPK treatment, LB and LS significantly increased grain yield by 6.5% and 6.2%, HS had similar grain yield, while HB significantly decreased grain yield by 20.3%. As a result, LB, LS and HS significantly improved PFPN by 11.7%, 26.7% and 49.0%, while HB decreased PFPN by 11.7%. According to the correlation analysis, the contribution to yield increase in LB treatment was contributed by tiller number (25.2%), effective spike number (2.1%), and seed-setting rate (0.8%); that in LS treatment was by plant height (5.2%), and 1000-grain weight (2.7%).   Conclusions   Continuous straw or biochar replacement of chemical fertilizer at low rate could stimulate the tillering and growth of rice plants, increase rice yield and the partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer. Replacing chemical fertilizer with high rate of straw could maintain rice yield and enhance the partial factor productivity of nitrogen fertilizer greatly, while high rate of biochar will bring about yield decline risk in the long run.
Effects of zinc biofortification fertilizer on zinc content and bioavailability of brown rice
LIU Xiao-hang, WANG Zhang-min, NIU Shan-shan, SONG Jia-ping, ZHANG Ze-zhou, LIU Zhi-kui, PANG Min, YIN Xue-bin
2023, 29(10): 1783-1793.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023064
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  Objectives   We studied the availability of zinc (Zn) biofortification of brown rice and the bioavailability of Zn in brown rice.   Methods   Zn biofortification experiment was carried out in Liyang County, Jiangsu Province. The tested Zn fertilizer was alditol chelated Zn (Zn 170 g/L), and the tested rice cultivar was mid-maturing late japonica rice ‘Nanjing 46’. The treatments included one foliar application of Zn fertilizer at rate of 2.55 (Zn1), and 5.10 kg/hm2 (Zn2), two foliar application at total rate of 5.10 (Zn3) and 10.20 kg/hm2 (Zn4), and spraying water was used as control (CK). At maturing stage, brown rice samples were collected for measurement of the content of total Zn, four Zn fractions, and phytic acid (PA), and the molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn (PA/Zn) was calculated. The dissolution rate of brown rice Zn in the gastric and gastrointestinal stage was detected by in vitro gastrointestinal simulation method.   Results   Compared with CK, Zn biofortification did not significantly change the phytic acid content, but increased the total Zn content of brown rice. Zn1, Zn2, Zn3, and Zn4 treatment increased the total Zn content by 23.93%, 37.51%, 82.38% and 87.81%, respectively. Zn3 and Zn4 treatment had similar but significantly higher promotion effect than Zn1 and Zn2. Zn1 and Zn2 treatment did not change the PA/Zn ratio of brown rice significantly, while Zn3 and Zn4 treatment reduced the ratio. Zn treatments affected the contents of the four Zn fractions in brown rice to varying degrees. Zn2 increased the salt-soluble and alkali-soluble Zn content, Zn3 treatment increased all the four Zn fraction contents, and Zn4 treatment increased all the Zn fraction contents except water soluble Zn. Compared with CK, Zn1 had no significant impact on the proportion of Zn fractions; Zn2 reduced the proportion of complex Zn; Zn3 reduced the proportion of water-soluble Zn, Zn4 reduced the proportion of water-soluble Zn but increased that of salt-soluble Zn. Zn biofortification enhanced the dissolution amount of brown rice Zn at the gastrointestinal stage, with the Zn dissolution amount of 19.52, 24.15, 23.14, 30.62 and 32.55 mg/kg under CK, Zn1, Zn2, Zn3, and Zn4 treatments, respectively. Zn3 and Zn4 treatment had similar but significantly higher Zn dissolution amount than Zn1 and Zn2. According to the correlation analysis, the gastrointestinal dissolution amount of Zn was positively correlated with total Zn content, negatively correlated with water-soluble Zn proportion, not correlated with complex Zn proportion. The bioavailability of Zn in brown rice was significantly correlated with PA/Zn ratio.   Conclusions   Zn biofortification is effective in increasing the total Zn content of brown rice and reduce the PA/Zn ratio, so increasing the bioavailability of Zn. Low Zn application rate does not affect the proportion of various Zn existing fractions in brown rice, while high Zn application rate significantly reduces the water-soluble Zn proportion and increases the salt-soluble Zn proportion, resulting in high gastrointestinal Zn dissolution amount. Aiming the Zn biofortification of brown rice, the effective method is applying foliar application alditol chelated Zn fertilizer in two times at a total rate of 5.10 kg/hm2.
Red soil N2O emission difference caused by fertilizers and other factors at the key growth stages of maize
SONG Yi, ZHANG Lu, HAN Tian-fu, SHEN Zhe, LI Ji-wen, LI Dong-chu, MENG Hong-qi, Ntagisanimana Gilbert, ZHANG Hui-min
2023, 29(10): 1794-1804.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023082
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  Objectives   We studied the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission at the key growth stages of maize in red soils under different fertilizer applications, and the main factors relative to the emission, so as to provide theoretical base for reduction of N2O emission in the red soil area.   Methods   The research based on a long-term fertilization experiment in the typical red soil region, started since 1990. Three of the treatments were selected for the research: no fertilization (CK), N and K fertilizer combined application (NK), and N, P and K fertilizer combined application (NPK). At seedling, big trumpet, grain filling and maturing stage of maize, the temperature, rainfall and N2O emission were monitored, the top soil chemical indexes (pH, SOC, NH4+-N and NO3-N content), and the activities of relative enzymes were analyzed.   Results   The N2O emission was pulsed throughout maize season, and the NK and NPK treatment led to significantly higher soil cumulative N2O emission than CK. NPK treatment significantly increased the N2O emission at seedling stage, while CK treatment increased that at big trumpet and grain filling stage, the two treatments had similar total N2O emission. From seedling to maturing stage, soil pH in NK treatment kept decreasing, with decrease range of 17.8%, while the pH in CK and NPK treatment did not changed significantly. Soil organic carbon kept an overall upward trend, with an increase range of 15.2%, 16.4% and 16.2% in CK, NK, and NPK treatment, respectively. The NH4+-N in all treatment soils decreased while NO3-N increased gradually. The NO3-N in NPK treatment was higher than NK treatment at seedling stage but lower at big trumpet and grain filling stage, and the NH4+-N in NPK treatment was significantly lower than in NK treatment at all the stages. The activity of soil denitrification enzyme (DE) decreased by 59.1%, 66.9%, and 29.1% from seedling to maturing stage in CK, NK and NPK treatment, respectively. The nitrate reductase (NR) activities in all the three treatment soils decreased to the lowest at the big trumpet stage and then increased, the activities in NK and NPK treatment soils were still higher than in CK soil at each growth stage. Nitrite reductase activities decreased to the lowest at grain filling stage, with the lower range 33.4% and 76.2% in CK and NK treatment, and 23.5% NPK treatment than the maximum. The Pearson correlation analysis showed the cumulative N2O emission was positively correlated with mean temperature (TEM), NO3-N, SOC and NR, negatively correlated with cumulative precipitation (PCP), soil pH and DE. Random forest model analysis showed the most important factors affecting cumulative N2O emissions were soil pH at seedling stage, PCP at big trumpet stage, NR at filling stage, and SOC at harvest stage.   Conclusions   In the red soil area, the important factors related to N2O emission are soil pH at seedling stage, cumulative rainfall at big trumpet stage, NR at filling stage, and SOC at harvest stage. Nitrogen fertilizer application decreases soil pH, increases nitrate and organic carbon content, thereby increases N2O emission. NK and NPK combined application would not influence the total N2O emission, but NPK application would increase N2O emission at maize seedling stage, while NK application would increase that at big trumpet and grain filling stage.
Foliar application of urea ammonium nitrate increases summer maize yield and reduces nitrogen input and soil nitrogen surplus
LI Zhi-hua, MA Zhen-tao, GAO Lan, REN Bai-zhao, ZHAO Bin, LIU Peng, REN Hao, ZHANG Ji-wang
2023, 29(10): 1805-1819.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023102
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  Objective   Base application plus one or two topdressing practices of urea is a conventional fertilization method in summer maize production of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, which is time-consuming and laborious, and high in N loss risk. We studied the feasibility and appropriate amount of spraying urea ammonium nitrate liquid fertilizer (UAN), combing with the currently promoted micro-sprinkler irrigation technology.   Methods   Field experiments were conducted in Taian City, Shandong Province in 2019 and 2020, with summer maize hybrids Denghai 605 (DH605) and Denghai 518 (DH518) as test materials. The treatments included furrow application of urea-N 210 kg/hm2 (Ur), sprinkler application of UAN-N 126 kg/hm2 (U1, reducing N by 40%), 168 kg/hm2 (U2, reducing N by 20%), and 210 kg/hm2 (U3), as well as a no nitrogen fertilizer control. At the tasseling stage (VT) and physiological maturity stage (R6), plant samples were taken to analyze N content and dry matter accumulation in different parts for the calculation of N absorption, reallocation, and utilization efficiencies. Before sowing and at the sixth leaf stage (V6), the twelfth leaf stage (V12), tasseling stage (VT), milk stage (R3), and physiological maturity stage (R6), soil samples from 0–20 cm, 20–40 cm, and 40–60 cm depth were taken to analyze the nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content for the calculation of N residue and surplus in soil.   Results   The grain yields of hybrid DH605 and DH518 in U3 treatment were significantly higher than in U2 and Ur, while those in U1 were significantly lower than U2 and Ur. The grain yield and net income of hybrid DH605 under U3 were 6.71% and 11.75% higher than under Ur, while those of DH518 under U3 were 7.57% and 13.61% higher than under Ur, respectively. The dry matter accumulation, N accumulation, N transport and post-anthesis N assimilation amount all reached peaks in U3 treatment (P<0.05). Compared with Ur, the U3 treatment increased the N recovery rates of the two hybrids by 20.78 and 19.22 percentage points, N agronomic use efficiencies by 4.57 and 4.99 kg/kg, respectively. U2 treatment was recorded similar grain yields in the two hybrids with Ur, but enhanced plant N accumulation, transport and post-anthesis N assimilation, so led to significant higher N recovery and agronomic efficiencies than Ur. At the VT stage of maize, the NO3-N content in 20–40 cm soil layer increased with the increase of UAN application rate. From VT to R6 stage, the NO3-N content in 0–20 cm soil layer of each treatment showed a decreasing trend, with the highest decrease in Ur treatment. At the R6 stage, UAN treatment soils were recorded lower NO3-N content in 40–60 cm soil layer than Ur treatment, weakened the potential risk of NO3-N leaching. Compared with Ur, U3 decreased the N surplus in DH605 and DH518 experiment by 43.63 and 40.36 kg/hm2 on two year average, and U2 decreased those by 48.25 and 51.91 kg/hm2, respectively.   Conclusions   With 20% less of conventional N input, foliar application of urea ammonium nitrate liquid fertilizer with sprinkler irrigation stimulates the nitrogen accumulation and reallocation, and increases the nitrogen recovery and agronomic efficiencies while increase maize yield, and decrease the soil nitrogen surplus and NO3-N leaching risk, achieving the target of fertilizer reduction and profit improvement in summer maize production.
Construction of intelligent fertilizer recommendation method for maize based on yield response and agronomic efficiency
XU Xin-peng, HE Ping, ZHOU Wei
2023, 29(10): 1820-1829.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023127
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  Objectives   Maize production is characterized by high yield and intensive fertilizer input, requires scientific fertilizer recommendation for high yield as well as fertilizer use efficiency and profit. We constructed an intelligent fertilizer recommendation method for maize based on large number of yield response and agronomic efficiency data, and carried out field experiments to calibrate and verify the availability of the recommendation.   Methods   The data were collected by searching key worlds/phrases “maize”, “maize + yield”, “maize + nutrient uptake”, and “maize + fertilizer use efficiency” from the multi-year/point maize field fertilizer experiments,including those supported by International Plant Nutrient Institute (IPNI) China Program, carried out by our research group, and published in the relevant articles. The QUEFTS model was used to analyze the nutrient uptake characteristics, yield response under optimized fertilization, fertilizer agronomic efficiency, and the intrinsic relationships among the indices, to build the Nutrient Expert (NE) system for maize. Totally 803 field experiments were conducted in the maize producing areas around China from 2010 to 2019 to validate and calibrate the precision of the NE system. All the field experiment composed of six fertilization treatments: recommendation based on NE (NE), farmers’ practices (FP), conventional recommendation based on soil testing (ST), and omission N, omission P and omission K treatments based on NE. Fertilizer application rate, maize yield, economic benefit, fertilizer use efficiency were investigated.   Results   Based on QUEFTS model analysis, the aboveground N, P and K nutrient requirements to produce 1 ton of grain yield were 15.9, 4.1 and 13.8 kg for spring maize and 17.8, 4.0 and 15.8 kg for summer maize, respectively. The average yield responses to N, P and K fertilizer were 2.9, 1.5 and 1.4 t/hm2 for spring maize and 1.9, 1.1 and 1.1 t/hm2 for summer maize. The agronomic efficiencies of N, P and K fertilizer were 15.0, 18.9 and 16.1 kg/kg for spring maize and 10.8, 16.8 and 12.3 kg/kg for summer maize, respectively. The soil N, P and K contribution to yield reached 73%, 86% and 87% for spring maize, and 79%, 87% and 88% for summer maize, respectively. The field validation results showed that, the NE treatment applied 29.3% and 14.3% less N fertilizer, 17.3% and 7.5% less P fertilizer than FP and ST treatments, but increased yield by 0.4 and 0.1 t/hm2, net profit by 797 and 354 yuan/hm2, N recovery use efficiency by 10.6 and 3.8 percentage points, and agronomic efficiency by 4.6 and 2.0 kg/kg; increased P recovery use efficiency by 8.0 and 3.1 percentage points, and agronomic efficiency by 6.5 and 1.5 kg/kg; increased K recovery use efficiency by 9.6 and 3.4 percentage points, and agronomic efficiency by 0.8 and 0.3 kg/kg, respectively.   Conclusions   The Nutrient Expert for maize exhibited obviously higher fertilizer reduction and benefit enhancement effect than the conventional soil testing recommendation method, indicating its operability and availability as a simple and precise fertilizer recommendation method in maize production around China.
Nitrogen fertilizer management for maize production adapted to straw mulching strip tillage in cold and arid regions
CHENG Zhi-peng, WANG Fu-gui, WANG Yu-kai, WANG Zhen, LIANG Hong-wei, WANG Tian-hao, ZHANG Yue-zhong, BAI Lan-fang, WANG Zhi-gang
2023, 29(10): 1830-1842.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023061
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  Objectives   In the cold and dry farming areas along the Greater Khingan Mountains, soil moisture in spring is often too low for maize to sow. Straw mulching during winter and no-tillage before sowing in next spring had been promoted to preserve soil moisture. However, the technology often leads to poor germination and is hard for topdressing of nitrogen fertilizer. In this study, we modified the strawmulch and tillage method, andtried to avoide topdressing by basal application of controlled release fertilizer and common urea in suitable ratio, to overcome the shortcomings of the technology.   Methods   Tillage method (trial 1) and fertilization experiment (trial 2) were carried out simultaneously in Zhalaite Banner of Xing’an League, Inner Mongolia from 2021 to 2022. In trial 1, four tillage treatments were setup, as: conventional ridging without straw mulch (CP), no-tillage without straw mulch (NT), no-tillage with straw mulch (RNT), and strip tillage with straw mulch (RST). In trial 2, strip tillage with straw mulch were used as tillage method (RST), three fertilization modes were set: conventional fertilization (Sd), controlled release nitrogen fertilizer mixed with common urea in ratio of 3∶7 (30%Cr), and 5∶5 (50%Cr). Before sowing and after harvesting, soil samples were collected from 0–20, 20–40, 40–70, 70–100 cm soil layers to determine the content of inorganic nitrogen, and calculate the residual nitrogen and apparent loss. Plant samples were collected at silking and maturing stage for the analysis of biomass and N content. The yield and yield components were investigated at harvest.   Results   Compared with NT, CP and RNT, RST increased the maize generation rate by 1.6%, 9.3% and 9.1%, the population biomass by 2.7%, 9.1%, and 9.1%, grain yield by 4.2%, 6.0% and 7.2%, the nitrogen agronomic efficiency by 29.7%, 45.5% and 60.0%, respectively. Compared with 30%Cr and Sd under straw mulch and strip tillage, the population biomass of 50%Cr increased by 3.3% and 10.6%, the pre-silking biomass increased by 4.1% and 9.9%, the post-silking biomass increased by 2.9% and 10.4%, the N accumulation increased by 3.6% and 14.6%, the pre-silking N accumulation increased by 3.8% and 12.8%, and the post-silking N accumulation increased by 4.3% and 21.4%, respectively. 50%Cr increased maize yield by 3.6% and 8.9%, nitrogen agronomic efficiency by 16.3% and 49.0%, the soil inorganic nitrogen residue decreased by 2.8% and 4.5%, and the apparent nitrogen loss decreased by 8.2% and 21.3%, and net income increased by 3.5% and 6.9%.   Conclusions   The modified tillage method: straw mulching during winter, clearing a seeding belt next spring and then subsoiling the seeding belt soil for fertilization and sowing, significantly increased the germinate rate. Under the modified tillage method, applying the whole fertilizer before sowing, with the controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and common urea in ratio of 5∶5, will not impact the germination rate, but effectively improve the pre- and post-silking dry matter and N accumulation, and the transfer rate of maize population, significantly improve grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and economic benefit of maize, and reduce the soil nitrogen residue and apparent N loss. So, the mix ratio of nitrogen fertilizers is adapted to the modified tillage method, being a light and simple management in production of maize in cold and arid regions.
Variety screening of greening manure rapeseed and the mulching effect on soil moisture conservation and fertility in dryland orchard of Loess Plateau
WANG Chun-li, QIANG Cheng, WANG Jian-ping, CAO Chen-hui, ZHANG Zhi, CHEN Wen-jie, YANG Jian-li
2023, 29(10): 1843-1852.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023101
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  Objectives   Drought and poor soil fertility restrict the apple production benefit in the semi-arid area of Loess Plateau. We screened suitable rapeseed varieties as green manure, and studied their mulching effect in improving soil moisture in spring and soil fertility.   Methods   The experiment was carried out in a hilly apple orchard in Yan’an City, Shaanxi Province, where the rainfall was rare in winter and spring, and mainly happen from July to October of a year. Firstly, rapeseed varieties were screened for water conservation effect, including five Brassica campestris L. winter varieties (V1−V5), one Brassica campestris L. spring variety (V6), and four Brassica napus L. winter varieties (V7−V10). The rapeseeds were sown in unplanted land between apple tree lines in early August 2019, and the aboveground part were mown by the end of October and mulched on nearby root area of apple tree (0−115 cm radius around tree trunk). The water contents in 0−60 cm soil depth in the root area were measured in the following March. The rapeseed varieties V9 and V10 showed better water conservation effect than the other ones, so were chosen as the test materials for the following two years position mulching experiment (2020−2022), in which the rapeseed sowing, mowing, and mulching were the same as in the variety screening experiment. In rapeseed growing season (in October 2021), the soil water contents in 0−175 cm soil layer in both rapeseed planting area and apple tree root area were measured. After autumn mulching of rapeseed plant, soil in 0−175 cm soil layer in the mulched root area of apple tree was sampled in March and May 2022 for the measurement of water contents, and the 0−20 cm soil was sampled on August for nutrient measurement. At harvest season, the apple yield and quality were measured.   Results   1) Screening of rapeseed variety: The mulching of rapeseed variety V1, V2, V3, and V4 did not show water conservation effect, the V5 mulching only increased water content in 0−20 cm soil layer. The V6, V7, V8, V9 and V10 mulching significantly increased 0−20 or 0−60 cm soil water content. The V6, V9 and V10 were recorded significantly higher aboveground biomass than the V1, V2, V3, and V5. The water contents in 20−40 and 40−60 cm soil layers were positively (P<0.05) correlated with the mulching amount of rapeseed plants. 2) Mulching position experiment: Rapeseed planting decreased water contents in 0−50 cm soil layer in their growing season (P<0.05), and did not influence that in root area soil of apple tree. In the second year (2022) of continuous mulching, the water contents in 0−150 cm depth of root area soil of apple tree were increased by 17.6%−21.8% in March, and those in the 0−100 cm soil layer were increased by 12.5%−21.6% in May; the contents of available P, available K, total N, and organic matter in the 0−20 cm soil were significantly increased by 32.2%−44.9%, 95.4%−146.4%, 25.2%−25.6%, and 23.8%−37.7%, respectively. The rapeseed mulching significantly improved the fruit yield per tree and single fruit weight, and increased apple vitamin C content, total sugar content and decreased total acid content.   Conclusions   Interplanting of rapeseeds in autumn and mulching with the aboveground shoots around root area soil of apple tree showed significant soil water conservation and fertility promotion effect, resulting in satisfactory yield and quality effect on apple fruit. As the mulching effect is correlated to the biomass of rapeseed shoots, Brassica campestris L. spring variety and Brassica napus L. winter variety are recommended as the mulching green manure of apple orchards.
Change of soil properties in Guanzhong arable land in Shaanxi Province
LIN Xiao-ding, DOU Chun-yu, ZHANG Cai-yun, LIU Li, ZHANG Li-na, YANG Min, YANG Xue-yun, ZHANG Shu-lan
2023, 29(10): 1853-1862.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023118
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  Objectives   The periodical change trend of arable land fertility reflects the outcome of fertilization practices. So we studied the change of soil fertility in recent four decades in Guanzhong area for sustainable agriculture.   Methods   We collected the published data from 1980 to 2020, the data from the Second Soil Census in 1980s, and the measured data by ourselves in Shaanxi Province, including soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN), total phosphorus (TP), Olsen-P (AP), total potassium (TK), available potassium (AK), pH, and bulk density at topsoil layer. The change in soil fertility was summarized in 10-years scale, and compared among the four periods.   Results   From 1980 to 2020, using every 10-year as a group, the median values of SOM content in the four groups were 11.0 g/kg, 11.1 g/kg, 13.6 g/kg and 18.5 g/kg, respectively, with a significant higher increase in the latter two decades than the early two decades. The median TN content in the four ten-year groups was 0.77 g/kg, 0.81 g/kg and 0.81 g/kg, 0.95 g/kg, with the significantly higher TN in the latest ten-year than in the other three groups. The median content of AN in 2011−2020 (58 mg/kg) was significantly higher than in the first 20 years. The median TP content in the four groups were0.70 g/kg, 0.76 g/kg, 0.82 g/kg and 1.03 g/kg, respectively, with a significant increasing trend. The median AP content in 2011−2020 was 21.9 mg/kg, which was significantly higher than those in the first three groups (8.5 mg/kg, 8.5 mg/kg and 18.7 mg/kg), and 80% of the data exceeded the agronomic threshold of AP (14 mg/kg) in the last 10 years. The median TK contents in the four groups were 19.3 g/kg, 19.9 g/kg, 18.6 g/kg and 19.6 g/kg, respectively, and not significantly varied. The median AK content was 212 mg/kg in 2011−2020, which was significantly higher than those in the first three groups (163 mg/kg, 149 mg/kg, 158 mg/kg). The median value of soil pH during 2011−2020 (7.76) decreased significantly compared with the first three groups (8.10, 7.90 and 8.00). The median soil bulk density in the four groups was similar.   Conclusions   In the Guanzhong region of Shaanxi Province, the SOM, TN, TP, AP and AK increased, while the pH decreased significantly from 2001 to 2020, compared with those from 1980 to 2000. In conclusion, long term fertilization would not impact soil bulk density, but could increase the organic matter and total N and P storage, enhance the availability of N, P and K nutrient due to the decrease of soil pH. Modifications in nutrient management and tillage system should be studied for the culture of fertile farmland.
Improving planting potential of lunar soil by adjusting grain size distribution
HAN Ya, XIE Geng-xin, YAN Ming, YAN Zhuo-yi, DING Jing-hang, XIONG Xin, WU Li-ping
2023, 29(10): 1863-1872.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023085
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  objectives   Lunar soil is generated by the fine rock debris under physical weathering, the low aeration porosity and lack of organic matter make it unsuitable for planting. Improving the physical properties of lunar soil would provide a crucial tool to realize the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar soil for the space agriculture race.   Methods   Based on the composition data of lunar soil samples retrieved from the lunar probe Chang’e-5, basalt was used to prepare simulated lunar soil (M0). Referring the particle size distribution data of lunar soil samples from Chang’e-5 and Apollo, soil groups, M0, M1, M2 and M3 were prepared by adding 0, 10%, 20% and 30% (wt) of basalt particles (1000−500 μm in size). N, P, and K nutrients were added into the simulated soils to carry out lettuce planting and laboratory leaching experiments.   Results   With the increased addition of large size particles (M0, M1, M2, and M3), the bulk density of lunar soil decreased from 1.85 to 1.80 g/cm3, aerated porosity at field moisture capacity increased from 7.62% to 11.68%. With the increase of large particle proportion in the simulated soils, the NH4+, total N and total P in the leachate decreased first and then increased, in other words, the nutrient holding capacity increased first and then decreased. The lowest NH4+ andtotal N were determined in the leachate of M2, which were 58.10% and 21.67% lower than those in M0. In addition, the lettuce grew best in M2, the dry weight of above- and under-ground parts was 97.60% and 39.20% higher than those of M0, respectively.   Conclusions   Adding large-size particles to simulated lunar soil can improve its physical structure, increase aeration porosity, reduce bulk density, thus improve its fertilizer retention capacity and planting potential. The primary addion ratio of large particals is 20% for the in-situ use of lunar soil.
Effects of calcium application on the distribution of photosynthetic products in peanut plant during pod development stages
CAO Yi-dan, GONG Yu, QIAN Lin-jun, ZHAO Ya-fei, SI Tong, ZOU Xiao-xia
2023, 29(10): 1873-1883.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023091
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  Objectives   The effect of calcium application rate on the distribution of photosynthetic carbon in peanut plant across pod development stage was studied, to understand the mechanism of calcium fertilizer in peanut growth and yield formation.   Methods   A peanut cultivar ‘Xianghua 55’ was used as the test materials to carry out a pot experiment. The treatments were basal applying CaO 0, 75, 150, and 300 kg/hm2, denoted as Ca0, Ca75, Ca150 and Ca300, respectively. At the young fruit, pod bulking, pod setting, and kernel filling stage, 13C-CO2 (300–350 mg/kg) were prepared through reaction of 13C-Na2CO3 and H2SO4 solution (1 mol/L) inside the growth chamber, to label the photosynthetic carbon in plants, respectively. At harvest, plant was divided into different organs for the determination of 13C abundance, dry matter accumulation (DMA), and the kennel yields.   Results   Ca application had significant effects on DMA of peanut plants. Ca75 treatment increased more DMA in roots and stems, and Ca150 increased more DMA in leaves, pegs, kernels, shells, and whole plant which were 12.43%, 33.60%, 34.35%, 11.91% and 14.82% higher than Ca0 did (P<0.05). Ca application significantly increased the peanut pod yield, kernel rate and the full fruit rate, did not affect the double kernel fruit rate. Ca150 was recorded the highest pod yield, which was 10.5% higher than that of Ca0. The δ13C abundance in kernel was highest at kernel filling stage under Ca0, Ca75 and Ca300 treatments, and was the highest at pod bulking stage under Ca150 treatment. With the extension of pod stage, the accumulation of 13C in peanut plant increased first and then decreased, with the peak accumulation at pod bulking stage. The total accumulation of 13C in peanut plant in Ca150 treatment was significantly higher than that in other treatments. With development of the peanut pod, the distribution rate of 13C in peanut kernel kept increasing until as high as 41.0% (Ca0)–48.3% (Ca75) at kennel filling period. The higher the CaO rate, the higher the distribution rate of 13C in kernel. The CaO rate 75–150 kg/hm2 was conducive to transfer 13C from root and needle to kernel, while the CaO rate 150–300 kg/hm2 was conducive to transport 13C from leaves and shells to kernels.   Conclusions   In Ca deficient soil, appropriate calcium application rate could promote the accumulation of 13C in peanut plants, significantly increase the distribution ratio of photosynthetic 13C in peanut kernel, laying a foundation for the increase of yield. Under the test conditions, CaO 150 kg/hm2 was recommended as the appropriate amount of calcium fertilizer to obtain the highest production benefit.
Effects of exogenous melatonin on nitrogen metabolism related enzyme activities and genes expression in apple rootstock seedlings under nutrient stress
LIU Huai-te, CAO Yang, DU Pei-hua, ZHOU Sha-sha, LI Zhong-yong, ZHANG Xue-ying, XU Ji-zhong, LIANG Bo-wen
2023, 29(10): 1884-1895.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023135
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  Objectives   The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin on endogenous melatonin synthesis, nitrogen metabolism key enzyme activities, nitrogen metabolism, and nitrogen transport gene expression in apple rootstock seedlings under nutrient stress.   Methods   In this experiment, Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings were used as experimental materials for hydroponic experiments. M. hupehensis seedlings with 7−8 leaves were firstly cultured in 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution for 12 days. Then the seedlings were divided into two groups, one group was added wtih 0.1 μmol/L melatonin in the nutrient solution and the other group wa not, and continued to grow for another 3 days. Each group was then further divided into two groups, one was supplied with 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution, and the other was supplied with 1/20 Hoagland nutrient solution (nutrient stress), forming 4 treatments, as: 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution (CK), 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution+0.1 μmol/L melatonin (MCK), 1/20 Hoagland nutrient solution (ST), 1/20 Hoagland nutrient solution+0.1 μmol/L melatonin (MST). After 20 days of treatment, the leaf and root samples were collected for the measurement of melatonin content, nitrogen metabolism-related enzyme activities, melatonin synthesis enzymes, and N transport/metabolism related gene expression levels.   Results   Compare with CK, ST treatment up-regulated the expression of melatonin synthesis-related genes MdTDC, MdT5H, MdAANAT and MdASMT in the leaves of M. hupehensis seedlings, and increased the endogenous melatonin content (P<0.05), decreased the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), Fd-glutamate synthetase (Fd-GOGAT) and NADH-glutamate synthetase (NADH-GOGAT) in the leaves and roots ofM. hupehensis seedlings (P<0.05), and down-regulated the expression levels of nitrogen metabolism related genesNR, NiR, GS, Fd-GOGAT and NADH-GOGAT, while up-regulated the expression levels of nitrogen transport genes MdNRT1.1, MdNRT2.5, MdNRT2.7, MdAMT1.2, MdAMT1.5, and MdAMT2.1 in leaves. Compared with ST, MST treatment up-regulated the expression of the four melatonin synthesis-related genes in leaves, and increased the endogenous melatonin content by 3.10% (P<0.05), enhanced the activities of NR, NiR, GS and Fd-GOGAT in leaves and the activities of NiR, GS, Fd-GOGAT in roots ofM.hupehensis seedlings. Enzyme activities related to N metabolism in leaves were increased by 65.62%, 51.49%, 59.63% and 17.53%, while those in roots were increased by 19.52%, 52.09% and 12.72%, respectively. Meanwhile, MST treatment up-regulated the leaf expression levels of the nitrogen metabolism-related genes NiR, GS, Fd-GOGAT and NADH-GOGAT to 2.16-, 2.08-, 2.22-, 1.71- and 1.19-fold, and root expression levels of 1.31-, 1.41-, 1.74- and 1.54-fold to those of ST treatment. In addition, melatonin significantly upregulated the expression levels of nitrogen transport genes MdNRT2.4, MdNRT2.5, MdNRT2.7, MdAMT1.2 and MdAMT2.1 in leaves of M. hupehensis seedlings under nutrient stress.   Conclusions   Under nutrient stress, exogenous melatonin plant upregulates the gene expression related with synthesis of melatonin, so increases the melatonin content in leaves and roots, to alleviate nutrient stress by promoting nitrogen metabolism enzyme activity and upregulating the expression of nitrogen transport and metabolism related genes. The addition of exogenous melatonin strengthens the mitigation effect of plant to nutrient stress.
Optimum coupling of micro-irrigation method and fertilization level on soil quality, young mango tree growth and water-fertilizer use efficiency
JIANG Shi-yao, LIU Xiao-gang, YI Huai-feng, ZHAO Lu, CUI Ning-bo, LI Yi-lin
2023, 29(10): 1896-1910.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023142
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  Objectives   The coupling effect of micro-irrigation method and fertilizer application rate for young mango trees was studied.   Methods   A field experiment was conducted in greenhouse of Kunming University of Science and Technology, using 2-year-old young mango tree ‘Guifeimang’ as experimental material. The 12 treatments were composed of three micro-irrigation methods: micro-sprinkler irrigation (SI), drip irrigation (DI), and micro-moistening irrigation (MI), and four fertilizer levels: 0, 93.2, 186.4 and 279.6 kg/hm2 (denoted as F0, F1, F2, and F3). The root zone soils of young mango trees were sampled at 30 days after each fertilization (i.e. 3 days after each irrigation) for the determination of nutrient content (NO3-N, available P and K), enzyme activity (catalase, urease and phosphatase), and microbial quantity (bacteria, fungi and actinomyces). The mongo tree growth and water-fertilizer use efficiency were investigated. The comprehensive root zone soil fertility index (SQI) and the tree growth quality index (GQI) were evaluated using the membership function with factor analysis.   Results   Micro-irrigation method and fertilization level had significant effects on soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities, microbial population, the increase range of morphological growth indices of both plant shoots and roots, and water and fertilizer use efficiency of young mango trees (P<0.05). Under the same fertilization level, soil nutrient contents were similar among the three irrigation methods, while the enzyme activities and microbial populations were in order of MI>DI>SI. Compared with SI, DI and MI increased soil enzyme activity by 15.09%−26.57% and 26.56%−48.86%, microbial quantity by 11.46%−30.19% and 12.87%−42.45%, irrigation water-use efficiency (IWUE) by 43.27% and 73.17%, partial factor productivity of fertilizer (PFP) by 33.96% and 54.44% (P<0.05). MI exhibited the highest increase in plant height and root volume, which were 100.29% and 54.06% higher than SI did. With the increase of fertilizer application levels, soil catalase activity, urease activity, microbial population, and IWUE reached peak at F2, soil nutrient content and phosphatase activity kept increasing with fertilization rate, and the PFP decreased with fertilization rate on the contrary. The correlation analysis showed that all the soil nutrient content, enzyme activity, and microbial population were positively correlated with mango growth indicators, and the degree of correlation raised in order of soil nutrient content, enzyme activity, and microbial population. Both the comprehensive SQI and GQI reached maximum at MIF2.   Conclusions   Micro-moistening irrigation coupled with 186.4 kg/hm2 of fertilizer (MIF2) is the most effective combination for promoting mango growth and improving soil environmental quality.
Effects of Aspergillus niger ZJ-17 combined with organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth, yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana
LIU Si-qin, JIANG Mei-yan, LIU Ren-lang, ZHANG Yu-rou, HOU Kai, FENG Dong-ju, XU Dong-bei, ZHENG Quan-lin, WU Wei
2023, 29(10): 1911-1922.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023115
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  Objectives   Unreasonable chemical fertilizer application impacts the yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana, a widely used Chinese medical herbs. We studied a green fertilization technology using the isolated rhizosphere fungi A. dahurica var. formosana with suitable chemical and organic fertilizers.   Methods   A field experiment was conducted in Suining, Sichuan Province. The tested microbial agent was prepared from Aspergillus niger ZJ-17 isolated from A. dahurica var. formosana rhizosphere. There were eight treatments in the experiment: half-fertilizer (T1), full-fertilizer (T2), half fertilizer+A. niger ZJ-17 seed application (T3), half fertilizer+A. niger ZJ-17 watering root (T4), full fertilizer+A. niger ZJ-17 seed application (T5), full fertilizer+A. niger ZJ-17 watering root (T6), no fertilizer (T0) and full fertilizer+commercial A. niger seed application (effective viable bacteria number≥10 billion/g, T7). Full fertilizer rate was composed of 750 kg/hm2 oil cake, 139.5 kg/hm2 urea, 2193.8 kg/hm2 superphosphate, 240 kg/hm2 potassium sulfate, and half fertilizer rate applied half amount of all the used fertilizers. The applying amount of the used microbial agent ( 3.0×108 CFU/mL) was 30 L/hm2, equaling to 0.06 L in each plot. Seed application was performed by pouring the microbial solution on the seed surface, and root irrigation by watering the microbial solution near the root soil in March of the next year. After seeding, plant samples were taken in frequency of every two months for determination of agronomic traits and plant nutrient content. At harvest, the quality and yield of A. dahurica var. formosana were analyzed, and the colonization of A. niger in soil was measured by fluorescence quantitative method.   Results   Seed application led to significantly higher colonization rate of A. niger than root application, commercial A. niger also colonized effectively in soil. Compared with T2, T5 treatment significantly increased plant height, root length and root diameter of A. dahurica var. formosana at harvest stage by 11.57%, 10.85% and 16.70% (P<0.05), the root yield and economic benefit by 16.33% and 19.94%, the accumulation of N, P and K in the underground part by 37.73%, 21.18% and 28.75%, increased the accumulation of total coumarins significantly. T5 also showed significantly higher promotion effect than T6 and T7 treatment. Under semi-fertilizer condition, T3 increased the contents of imperatorin and isoimperatorin ofA. dahurica var. formosana at harvest stage by 9.82% and 22.45% (P<0.05), T5 did not show significant effect on them.   Conclusions   Under conventional fertilizer application rate (full fertilizer), seed applying A. niger ZJ-17 can significantly improve the growth index, yield and benefit of A. dahurica var. formosana. Root application does not have the promotion effects. Under half fertilizer rate, seed applying A. niger ZJ-17 improved the imperatorin and isoimperatorin content, but decreased yield and benefit of A. dahurica var. formosanathan. Therefore, the suitable fertilizer rate needs further researching in practical production of A. dahurica var. formosana.
Comment on special topic
Mechanism of beneficial Trichoderma-root interaction and the screening strategy for signals
CHEN Yu, LI Yu-cong, LIU Yan, FU Yan-song, MIAO You-zhi, ZHANG Rui-fu
2023, 29(10): 1923-1931.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023129
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Trichoderma is a genus of filamentous fungi that are of interest to agriculture production and show good application prospects. Trichoderma interact with roots through signals, including colonization on the roots or as an endophyte of plants, regulating roots growth and plasticity, and promoting water and nutrients absorption. Trichoderma genomes contain a large number of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of natural active substances, which play a crucial role during Trichoderma-root interactions. Bioactivity-guided and genome mining isolation are the generally used methods to screen secondary metabolites (SMs) of Trichoderma, which usually are plant hormones and small molecule compounds. However, the screened SMs lack novelty in structures and encouraging researchs, and most known interactions are with model plantArabidopsis, limiting the basic theoretical breakthroughs in Trichoderma-root and application in agricultural production. It is urgent to incorporate theoretical breakthroughs of the screening study of new natural active products of Trichoderma into green agricultural development, which would be very important opportunities and challenges to achieve the sustainable agriculture in China.
Functions of plant WRKY transcription factors in nutrient uptake and utilization as well as detoxification of heavy metals
DENG Ya-ru, LIU Yan, WU Li-xia, LI Fang-jian, LI Tie-mei, WANG Jin-xiang
2023, 29(10): 1932-1943.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023139
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WRKY proteins are a group of important transcriptional regulators that are unique to plants. WRKY specifically bind with the W-box cis-elements in the promoters of downstream genes to induce or inhibit the transcription and expression of related genes, to regulate plant growth and development, as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The WRKY gene family is large in number, there are 74 identified WRKY genes 74 in Arabidopsis genome, 182 genes in soybean genome and 109 genes in rice genome, respectively. WRKY genes play pivotal roles in plant response to various biological and abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, nutrient deficiencies, and pathogen infection. Up to now, it has been proved that the AtWRKY45 and AtWRKY75 are involved in regulating the responses of Arabidopsis to low P stress, GmWRKY142 positively regulates the tolerance of Arabidopsis to Cd stress. When exposure to stress, the plant WRKY protein specifically binds to the W-box cis-element in the conserved region of the related gene promoter, thereby achieves self-regulation or cross regulation, then activates or inhibits the transcriptional expression of downstream genes in response to various stress conditions. Numerous downstream target genes have also been revealed consequently, such as the PHT family members related to P nutrition; three AtWRKY genes and six GmWRKY genes are involved in regulating plant nitrogen uptake and utilization; six AtWRKY genes, ten GmWRKY genes, and five OsWRKY genes regulate plant response to phosphorus deficiency; two AtWRKY genes and six GmWRKY genes affect plant potassium absorption and utilization; three GmWRKY genes are involved in regulating the absorption and utilization of sulfate; oneAtWRKY gene is involved in regulating the uptake and utilization of boron; one AtWRKY gene and one OsWRKY gene are involved in regulating plant iron absorption; seven AtWRKY genes, one GmWRKY gene, and one OsWRKY gene are involved in mitigating cadmium toxicity; two AtWRKY genes, two GmWRKY genes, and one OsWRKY gene participate in helping plants detoxify aluminum toxicity. The foci of future researches are: 1) mining new WRKY transcription factors that regulate nutrient uptake and utilization and the downstream genes; 2) decoding the regulation of nutrient-related WRKYs at the translation and post-translation level; 3) determining the transcription of nutrient-related WRKY at epigenetic level; 4) revealing the proteins that interact with WRKY and the underlying mechanisms under nutrient deficiency.
Short communication
Optimal water and nitrogen rate combination for winter wheat yield and water-nitrogen efficiency in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi
TANG Rui, HAN Yi-xiu, YI Shu-sheng, ZHENG Wei, NAN Xiao-hong, LUO Hong, WEN Xiao-rong, ZHAI Bing-nian
2023, 29(10): 1944-1955.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023072
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  Objectives   We explored the effects of water and nitrogen rate on regulating winter wheat yield, and soil nutrient availability, to provide an efficient water and nitrogen coupling management scheme for wheat production in the Guanzhong region.   Methods   A field split plot experiment on winter wheat was conducted in Fufeng County, Shaanxi Province. Four sprinkling irrigation levels of 30 mm (W1), 60 mm (W2), 90 mm (W3), 120 mm (W4) were used as the main zone, and four nitrogen (N) fertilization levels of 150.0 kg/hm2 (N1), 187.5 kg/hm2 (N2), 225.0 kg/hm2 (N3), 262.5 kg/hm2 (N4) were used as the subzones. After harvest, 0−20 cm soil samples were collected to determine soil physicochemical properties and microbial biomass of carbon (MBC), nitrogen (MBN), and phosphorus (MBP) contents. Plant samples were collected to determine dry matter, N content, yield and yield components.   Results   The wheat yield increased first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation and N application level. The highest (9053 kg/hm2) was recorded under W3N2 treatment, which was 1973 kg/hm2 higher than W1N1 treatment. And the maximum yield fitted by the Curved surface model was 8848 kg/hm2, corresponding to irrigation amount 98 mm and N application rate 212 kg/hm2. Increasing irrigation amount benefited wheat dry matter and N accumulation, with the highest average dry matter accumulation (20306 kg/hm2) and the highest average N accumulation (221 kg/hm2) under W3 treatments. The highest dry matter and N accumulation were recorded in the combination of W3 and N2, which was 21252 and 237 kg/hm2, respectively. Increasing N application was not conducive to N use by wheat, the N partial productivity and N use efficiency of N4 treatments were 34.5%−40.4% and 2.5%−6.9% lower than those of N1 treatment, respectively. The water use efficiency in all the treatments were in range of 15.1−21.6 kg/(hm2·mm), and controlling N application rate within 217−228 kg/hm2 could maintain water use efficiency at a high level. Under W3 irrigation treatments, soil physical and chemical properties were optimal, and W4 led to a synchronous decrease in soil NO3–N, MBC and MBN content. According to the path analysis, the total effects on yield by dry matter and N accumulation, water and N input, soil nutrient content, and yield components were 0.716, 0.642, 0.522, and 0.400, in turn, the dry matter and N accumulation exhibited the highest effect on yield. In addition, the dry matter and N accumulation and yield components regulated wheat yield mainly through direct path, with direct effect size of 0.555 and 0.400, respectively, water and N input and soil nutrients regulated wheat yield mainly through indirect path, with indirect effect size of 0.554 and 0.544, respectively.   Conclusions   The dry matter and N accumulation shows strongest direct effect, and irrigation and N application rate show strongest indirect effect on wheat yield. They are important factors in achieving wheat yield increase. Excessive irrigation and N application will deteriorate soil physicochemical properties, resulting in lower yield and water and N efficiencies. In winter wheat production under sprinkling irrigation in the Guanzhong region, irrigation amount 80−100 mm and N rate of 210−230 kg/hm2 show synergistically effect on wheat yield and water and N efficiency.
Partial replacement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer with chicken manure improves fruit appearance quality and taste of Gala apples
YANG An, CHENG Cun-gang, LI Zhuang, LI Yan-qing, CHE Sheng-guo
2023, 29(10): 1956-1965.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023089
Abstract(441) FullText HTML(197) PDF 529KB(27) Related Articles
  Objectives   We studied the effect of different proportion of chicken manure in total fertilizer input on the appearance and inner taste qualities, as well as the yields of Gala apples, to provide reference for the organic substitution in fruit production.   Methods   In 2017, a localized fertilizer experiment was started in Lashan Comprehensive Experimental Base of the Research Institute of Pomology of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xingcheng City, Liaoning province. The tested apple cultivar was ‘Gala’/SH38/Shan Dingzi (Malus pumila Mill/SH38/Malus baccata (L.) Borkh.). Six treatments were set up: no fertilizer control (CK), 100% chemical fertilizer (100%CF), 75% chemical fertilizer + 25% chicken manure (25%CHM), 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% chicken manure (50%CHM), 25% chemical fertilizer + 75% chicken manure (75%CHM), and 100% chicken manure (100%CHM). At fruit ripening stage, 20 representative fruits were taken from each treatment plot, 10 fruits for measurement of the appearance quality, and 10 for taste.   Results   Compared with 100%CF, 25%CHM and 50%CHM treatment did not impact the single fruit weight, while 75%CHM and 100%CHM treatment increased the single fruit weight significantly; 25%CHM, 50%CHM, and 75%CHM treatment did not affect fruit longitudinal and transverse diameter, while 100%CHM significantly increased the indexes. The manure substitution rates did not cause significant differences in the sunny side color, shade side lightness, red-green color difference, and yellow-green color difference of the fruits, but 50%CHM decreased the color saturation, and 75%CHM decreased the hug angle (P<0.05). Malic acid and quinic acid decide the tart and astringent flavor of fruit. The manure substitution rates did not influence fruit quinic acid content, but 75%CHM and 100%CHM fruits were recorded higher malic acid content than the 25%CHM and 50%CHM fruits. In addition, 100%CHM fruits had the highest titratable acid, the 75%CHM fruits had the highest esters (897.14 μg/g) and alcohols aroma substances (209.30 μg/g), the 25%CHM fruits had the highest aldehydes (48.20 μg/g) and ether aroma substances (6.76 μg/g), respectively. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the 75%CHM treatment had the highest overall score of 0.6291.   Conclusions   Replacing chemical fertilizer with appropriate proportion of chicken manure can increase single fruit weight and size, form more saturated color of fruit, enhance malic acid, ester aroma substances, as well as total aroma substances that determine the flavor of the fruit. Without change the total nitrogen input, the appropriate ratio of chicken manure and chemical fertilizer N is 3∶1 for high quality and yield Gala apple production.
Preparation of palm oil-based degradable coating materials and the property study
PANG Min-hui, DONG Shu-qi, ZOU Guo-yuan, LI Hong-yan, LIANG Li-na, GUO Xuan, LI Li-xia
2023, 29(10): 1966-1976.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2023095
Abstract(507) FullText HTML(185) PDF 1787KB(18) Related Articles
  Objectives   The physicochemical properties of vegetable oil polyols influence the microstructure and macroscopic properties of polyurethane materials. We changed the methanol dosage to adjust the hydroxyl value, viscosity and other indexes of palm oil-based polyols, to increase the properties of palm oil-based polyurethane coatings. The research was also designed to clarify the relationship between the physicochemical properties of polyols, polyurethane properties and the controlled release properties of fertilizers, to provide theoretical basis for optimizing coating quality and reducing cost of vegetable oil-based degradable coating fertilizer.   Methods   Palm oil with high saturation was used as feedstock, and the epoxidation/ring-opening method was used to synthesize four palm oil-based polyol samples by adjusting the adding ratios of methanol, denoted as POP1, POP2, POP3, and POP4. Then the four polyol samples were used to make controlled release urea PCU1, PCU2, PCU3, and PCU4 through in-situ reaction technology, respectively. The hydroxyl value, acid value, viscosity, molecular weight and functionality of palm oil-based polyols were measured, the microstructures of the palm oil-based polyols and the formed coating films were observed by FTIR, 1H NMR, SEM, and TG methods, respectively. The water absorption rate and cumulative N release rate of the coated urea samples were tested using weighing and water dissolving methods. The safety of the coating materials was evaluated by germination test.   Results   After adjusting methanol dosage, the hydroxyl values of the synthesized four POPs were 101−132 mgKOH/g, viscosities were 365−618 mPa·s, and the functionalities were 1.89−2.73. FTIR and 1H NMR showed that the POPs belonged to polyether ester polyols. With the increase of methanol ratio, the number of hydroxyl groups increased, but the molecular structure did not change. When the mass ratio of methanol and epoxidized palm oil was 0.8∶1−1∶1, the hydroxyl value of POP was about 130 mgKOH/g, the viscosity was less than 700 mPa·s, and functionality was more than 2. The resultant coating layers showed good thermal stability and water resistance. At the coating rate 3% (no accessory ingredient addition), the initial N release rates of PCU3 and PCU4 were about 7%, and the N release period lasted more than 20 days. The germination and safety experiment results showed that the coating materials did not cause side-effect on seed germination and crop growth.   Conclusions   The optimal mass ratio of methanol and epoxidized palm oil is in range of 0.8∶1 to 1∶1. Within the range, the synthesized palm oil-based polyols have hydroxyl value about 130 mgKOH/g, functionality more than 2, and viscosity less than 700 mPa·s. The resultant palm oil-based degradable coating materials show good controlled release performance, and the palm oil proportion in the coating materials could be as high as 65%.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 19(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(11070) PDF 2130KB(2182)
Status-quo, problem and trend of nitrogen fertilization in China
JU Xiao-tang, GU Bao-jing
2014, 20(4): 783-795.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0401
Abstract(10777) PDF 2629KB(16053)
Effects of different amount of maize straw returning on soil fertility and yield of winter wheat
ZHANG Jing, WEN Xiao-xia, LIAO Yun-cheng, LIU Yang
2010, 16(3): 612-619.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0314
Abstract(7715) PDF 929KB(1707)
Heavy metals in fertilizers and effect of the fertilization on heavy metal accumulation in soils and crops
WANG Mei, LI Shu-tian*
2014, 20(2): 466-480.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0224
Abstract(10041) PDF 1766KB(1220)
Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China
2010, 16(5): 1136-1143.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2010.0514
Abstract(8927) PDF 876KB(2328)
Nutrient resource quantity of crop straw and its potential of substituting
SONG Da-li, HOU Sheng-peng, WANG Xiu-bin, LIANG Guo-qing, ZHOU Wei
2018, 24(1): 1-21.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17348
Abstract(6996) FullText HTML(2752) PDF 632KB(536)
Long-term effects of mineral versus organic fertilizers on soil labile nitrogen fractions and soil enzyme activities in agricultural soil
SONG Zhen-zhen, LI Xu-hua, LI Juan, LIN Zhi-an, ZHAO Bing-qiang
2014, 20(3): 525-533.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0302
Abstract(7235) PDF 1228KB(1382)
The main types of biochar and their properties and expectative researches
YUAN Shuai, ZHAO Li-xin, MENG Hai-bo, SHEN Yu-jun
2016, 22(5): 1402-1417.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.14539
Abstract(7354) FullText HTML(2580) PDF 2772KB(1400)
Effects of long-term fertilization on pH of red soil, crop yields and uptakes of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium
CAI Ze-jiang, SUN Nan, WANG Bo-ren, XU Ming-gang, HUANG Jing, ZHANG Hui-min
2011, 17(1): 71-78.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.0110
Abstract(9856) PDF 906KB(2173)
Reviews and prospects on science and technology of green manure in China
CAO Wei-dong, BAO Xing-guo, XU Chang-xu, NIE Jun, GAO Ya-jun, GENG Ming-jian
2017, 23(6): 1450-1461.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.17291
Abstract(5201) FullText HTML(1630) PDF 553KB(337)