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Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers (ISSN 1008-505X), a peer-reviewed sci-tech academic journal with English abstracts, key words and references, is superintended by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, sponsored by the Chinese Society of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, administered by the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers was started in September of 1994,and officially published in 1999. As one of the high-level academic journals in the field of integrated agricultural sciences in China, the journal has the highest impaction factor in both the fields of fundamental agricultural sciences and agronomy sciences in China since 2008. It has been honored a member of Core Sci-Tech Journal of China since 2013, and was one of the 100 Outstanding Academic Journals of China (2007), Outstanding S&T Journal of China (2008, 2011, 2017). The journal is accepted by some important international and national databases and retrieval systems, such as Chemical Abstract (CA) of USA, Centre Agriculture Bioscience International (CABI), Japanese Science Technology Agency (JST), Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS), Chinese Academic Journal Comprehensive Evaluation Database (CAJCED), FAO database (AGRIS), etc. as data source.

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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Both PP333 and TIBA affect nitrogen accumulation in roots and leaves of Buxus megistophylla
HAN Cong-wei, XU Cheng-yang
 doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18043
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Objectives Two plant growth retardants, PP333 and TIBA, have been widely applied in chemical pruning of hedge plants because of having dwarfing effects on plants growth. In this study, both PP333 and TIBA were applied by spraying seedlings foliage to probe the responses of nitrogen accumulation in roots and leaves of the hedge plants. Methods A field experiment with a two-factor completely randomized design was conducted by foliar spraying the detacthment seedlings of Buxus megistophylla (3-year old). The applied concentrations of PP333 were composed of 4 levels: 0, 20, 50 and 80 mg/L, and TIBA application included 3 levels: 0, 50 and 100 mg/L. In detail, a total of 1 L of prepared solution was sprayed into each experimental plot in an interval of 25 days from 5 April, 2017. Twenty-five days after the third spraying, the whole seedlings of Buxus megistophylla from each plot were sampled to measure the total-N, free amino acid, nitrate-N in roots and leaves, and the soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment contents in leaves were determined. Results 1) Spraying PP333 significantly promoted the contents of total-N, nitrate-N and free amino acid in radicula and medium roots and TIBA application with high concentration obviously affected the contents of total-N content, nitrate-N and free amino acid in radicula. The interactions between the PP333 and TIBA significantly promoted the accumulations of total-N content, nitrate-N and free amino acid in radicula of the seedlings of B. megistophylla treated. 2) PP333, TIBA and their interactions dramatically increased the total-N, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content in leaves too, the content of free amino acids was improved by PP333 of 50 or 80 mg/L, and that of nitrate-N was improved by PP333 of 80 mg/L. 3) Compared with the TIBA treatment, the PP333 application significantly affected the nitrogen accumulation in B. megistophylla. Conclusions The nitrogen metabolic accumulation in B. megistophylla is regulated by PPP333, TIBA and their interactions. Compared with TIBA, PP333 could affect the metabolic process of nitrogen in B. megistophylla. In landscape maintenance, the nitrogen metabolic process in radicula and the contents of protein and photosynthetic pigments were improved dramatically by spraying both PP333 of 80 mg/L and TIBA of 100 mg/L. Spraying PP333 of 80 mg/L alone promoted the contents of nitrate-N and free amino acid.
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Tracing back to the origin of theoretical problems in plant nutrition
BAI You-lu
2019, 25(1): 1-10.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.19011
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This paper analyzed the development process of international plant nutrition research, especially on the plant nutrition theory in the past 200 years. From the early research on plant nutrition, the formation and development of humus theory of plant nutrition and its content were introduced. The discovery process of the mineral theory and Liebig’s reasons and facts of negation of humus theory are discussed. Liebig’s express and perfection process of mineral theory were introduced. The debates of the early controversy about mineral theory from Liebig and others were discussed. The contribution of mineral theory to modern agriculture was evaluated. This paper also questioned the theory of organic nutrition and carbon nutrition, pointed out the role of small organic molecular substances in plant growth and development.
Status and problems of chemical fertilizer application in crop plantations of China from 2014 to 2016
XU Yang, YANG Fan, ZHANG Wei-feng, MENG Yuan-duo, JIANG Yi
2019, 25(1): 11-21.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18073
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Objectives Crop farming consumes the largest fertilizers in china. Variation in chemical fertilizer input will cause the vibration of the balance supplies and efficiencies of agricultural industry. Clarifying the status of fertilizer application in crop farming is the premise of implementing new development concept and promoting structural reform of the agricultural supply side. Methods In this paper, we used data collected from the state owned 339 retailers all over the country to calculate total amounts of fertilizers for planting crops in China from 2014 to 2016, analyzed changes in the main crops and different areas of chemical fertilizer application and fertilizer varieties over the past three years. Results The total chemical fertilizer amounts were 5989.7×104 tons, 6052.6×104 tons and 6041.4×104 tons in crop farming from 2014 to 2016. Among them, the average annual application amounts of chemical fertilizers for wheat, corn and rice were 728.3×104 tons, 1214.2×104 tons and 887.1×104 tons respectively, accounting for 46.9% of the total fertilizer application. The average annual application amounts of chemical fertilizers in the North China area, the Central and South China area and the East China area was 1603.1×104 tons, 1156.8×104 tons and 978.7×104 tons respectively, accounting for 62.0% of the total fertilizer application. Farmers preferred to purchase compound fertilizers and urea, the average annual purchase ratios were 76.8% and 65.1%, respectively. Conclusions For the first time in China, the amount of planting fertilizer application has achieved zero growth in 2016, and fertilizer reduction has made important progress, however, imbalanced fertilization still existed in different regions. There were large surpluses in the North China and the Central and South China, and insufficient in the Southwest and Northwest China. In addition, different crop systems also had problems with unbalanced fertilization, as surpluses in corn and peanuts and insufficient in sugar cane and cotton. We suggest to implement soil test based fertilization, mechanical fertilization and organic fertilizer alternative fertilizers, promote the reduction and efficiency increase of chemical fertilizers and help build a beautiful China. .
Regional variation of yield and fertilizer use efficiency of potato in China
XU Ya-xin, HE Ping, QIU Shao-jun, XU Xin-peng, MA Jin-chuan, DING Wen-cheng, ZHAO Shi-cheng, GAO Qiang, ZHOU Wei
2019, 25(1): 22-35.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18018
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Objectives Large datasets were collected from field experiments on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to evaluate attainable yield, yield response, relative yield, and nutrient use efficiency parameters to N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers added in different potato production regions of China. It aimed to provide a basis for potato nutrient management strategies. Methods The datasets were collected from 117 field experiments conducted by the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI), China Program during 1992–2012 and 407 related journal papers from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database with the key words " potato”, " potato yield” and " potato efficiency” during 2000–2016 in different potato production regions of China. Potato production in China was divided into six geographic regions, i.e., Northeast (NE), Northwest (NW), Northcentral (NC), Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River (MLYR), Southeast (SE), and Southwest (SW). The treatments consisted of an optimal treatment (OPT) and the treatments with omission of N, P2O5 or K2O (OPT-N, OPT-P, OPT-K). Attainable potato yields, yield responses (YRs), relative yields (RYs), agronomic efficiencies (AEs), partial factor productivities (PFPs), and recovery efficiencies (REs) were analyzed and discussed. Results The average YRs of N, P2O5 and K2O fertilizers were 8.6, 5.9 and 6.6 t/hm2, showing N was the most limited nutrient for potato yield in China. Among different regions, the average attainable yield and YR of N ranked first in NE region (P < 0.05). The average RYs of N, P 2O5 and K2O were 71.0%, 79.4% and 77.2% respectively; the average RYs of N in NC, those of P2O5 in SE, those of K2O in NW were the highest across different regions. The N, P2O5 or K2O rates averaged by 164, 100 and 188 kg/hm2 across different regions, and the average N and K2O rates in SE region were shown to be the highest (P < 0.05), the average N and K 2O rates in NE region were lower, the P2O5 rates in NE, SW and NW were higher across different regions with the lowest P2O5 rates in MLYR. The average AEs of N, P2O5 and K2O were 52.5, 58.5 and 42.3 kg/kg respectively, and AEs of N or K2O in NE were the highest (P < 0.05). The averaged PFPs of N, P 2O5 and K2O were 205, 339 and 209 kg/kg respectively, and those of N or K2O in NE was the highest (P < 0.05). The REs of N, P 2O5 or K2O averaged by 36.4%, 18.5% and 27.6%, and REs of P2O5 in SE were observed to be with the highest values (P < 0.05). Conclusions There are great differences in tuber yields, fertilizer application rates, and fertilizer use efficiencies across different potato production areas in China. N is the most yield-limiting factor for potato in China, while NC, SE and NW showed high soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P and K, respectively. The optimal fertilization management of potato should be directed according to local conditions in different potato production areas.
Responses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions to long-term organic fertilization under rice-wheat rotation
CHEN Jie, LIANG Guo-qing, ZHOU Wei, WANG Xiu-bin, SUN Jing-wen, LIU Dong-hai, HU Cheng
2019, 25(1): 36-44.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18138
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Objectives Long-term fertilization affects the soil carbon sequestration and fertility. The responses of soil organic carbon and nitrogen fractions long-term organic manure application under rice-wheat rotation were investigated. The objective is to provide theoretical support for carbon sequestration and emission reduction. Methods The long-term experiment had lasted for 36-years with wheat and rice rotation in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China. The treatments included no fertilizer control (CK), inorganic fertilizer N (N), inorganic fertilizer N and P (NP), inorganic fertilizer N, P and K (NPK), manure (M), and manure plus inorganic fertilizer N, P and K (NPKM). After wheat harvested in 2017, the soil samples of 0−20 cm deep were collected. The contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC, MBN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), hot-water soluble carbon (HWSC), particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC, PON), light fraction of organic carbon and nitrogen (LFOC, LFON) and potassium chloride extracted nitrogen (KEN, as water-soluble inorganic nitrogen) were measured and analyzed. Results 1) Except the KEN, the long-term organic fertilization significantly increased the contents of carbon and nitrogen fractions in surface soil, especially the NPKM treatment. 2) The percentages of each labile organic carbon fraction in SOC were in descendent ordered as POC &gt; LFOC &gt; HWSC &gt; MBC &gt; DOC, and the percentage of POC was as high as 24.04%−37.63%. The percentages of each nitrogen fraction in TN were in descendent ordered as POC &gt; LFOC &gt; MBN &gt; KEN, with that of the PON of 12.09%−20.24%. The POC/SOC and PON/TN ratios in manure treatment were significantly higher than in the other treatments. 3) Through the analysis of sensitivity index of SOC and labile carbon fractions to fertilization, the results found that the sensitivity index of labile carbon fractions was significant higher than SOC, especially DOC. 4) Through the correlation analysis of each component, this study found that all fractions, except for the KEN, significantly and positively correlated whit each other, especially the correlation between DOC and SOC, PON and TN. Conclusions In the tested region, long-term organic and inorganic fertilization significantly increase the contents of soil carbon and nitrogen pool and stimulate their accumulation, especially the particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON). Moreover, the dissolved organic carbon can be regarded as a sensitive indicator of early change of organic matter because of its high sensitivity to fertilization.
The contents and distributions of phytolith and phytolith-occluded carbon in different rice genotypes
ZHANG Nan, YAN Guo-chao, YE Mu-jun, FAN Xiao-ping, XIAO Zhuo-xi, CHEN Hao, PENG Miao, LIANG Yong-chao
2019, 25(1): 45-54.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18056
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Objectives Rice is a well-known silicon (Si) accumulator. The phytolith enriched with Si in rice plant is able to occlude organic carbon. In order to explore the effect of Si-uptake ability on the content, distribution and carbon sequestration characteristic of phytoliths in rice, we selected four rice genotypes for investigation, different for illuminating the mechanism of phytolith carbon sequestration in rice. Methods A pot experiment was conducted in the glass room of Zhejiang University using two rice mutants and their wild types, i.e. Lsi1, a mutant defective in Si-uptake (low silicon rice 1) and Lsi2, a mutant defective in Si-uptake (low silicon rice 2). Si-uptake ability on the contents of SiO2, phytolith and phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC) were measured in different aboveground organs (stem, leaf and sheath). All treatments were under the same fertilization and management conditions. Results 1) Different rice genotypes had significant differences in contents of SiO2, phytolith and PhytOC per gram of dry biomass with the following decreased order: Lsi1 wild type &gt; Lsi2 wild type &gt; Lsi2 mutant &gt; Lsi1 mutant. The PhytOC contents were in the order of Lsi1 mutant &gt; Lsi2 mutant &gt; Lsi2 wild type &gt; Lsi1 wild type. The contents of SiO2, phytolith and PhytOC in Lsi1 and Lsi2 wild type were significantly higher than in its corresponding mutant, while the PhytOC contents showed an opposite trend. 2) The contents of SiO2 and phytolith in the rice mutants were the highest in leaf, followed by sheath and stem, while in the rice wide types, their contents were the highest in sheath, followed by leaf and stem. The PhytOC contents and PhytOC per gram of dry biomass of rice were the highest in leaf of the four rice genotypes. The distribution trend of PhytOC content was in the order of leaf &gt; stem &gt; sheath, while that of PhytOC per gram of dry biomass of rice was in the order of leaf &gt; sheath &gt; stem. 3) There existed a positive correlation between phytolith contents and SiO 2 contents (P&lt;0.01). Higher contents and smaller specific surface area of phytolith were observed in the rice genotypes with higher Si-uptake ability, indicating that both of the content and form of phytolith were affected by the genetic characteristics. A positive correlation was also found between phytolith contents and PhytOC (P&lt;0.01), while negative correlation was observed between PhytOC contents and PhytOC (P&lt;0.01), suggesting that the PhytOC per gram of dry biomass of rice was closely related to not only the phytolith content but the content of PhytOC. 4) The storages of phytolith and PhytOC, dry biomasses of the wild types of rice were significantly higher compared with their mutants. Conclusions Compared with the mutants, the wild types of rice has the higher contents of SiO2 and phytolith, dry biomasses and PhytOC per gram of dry biomass of rice, although the distributions are different. The wild types has lower PhytOC contents, but higher PhytOC storages than the mutants. Therefore, Lsi1 and Lsi2 wild type rice with higher Si-uptake ability have higher carbon sequestration potential than their corresponding mutants.
Effects of polyurea-formaldehyde on ammonia volatilization and yields under rice−wheat rotation in Taihu Region
ZHAO Meng, ZENG Ke, YAO Yuan-lin, ZHANG Min, DU Lin-lan, TIAN Yu-hua, HU Jian-min, YIN Bin
2019, 25(1): 55-63.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18028
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Objectives The aims of this study were to assess the effects of polyurea-formaldehyde slow-release fertilizer (MU) on NH3 volatilization and grain yield in rice-wheat rotation in Taihu Region. Methods A field trial was conducted under rice-wheat rotation system in Taihu Region.The tested polyurea-formaldehyde were MU70 (N 39%) and MU50 (N 40%), the soil was gleyed paddy soil. Using urea as control, six treatments were setup as 100%MU50, 100%MU70, 50%MU50, 50%MU70, farmer’s N practice (U) and control (CK). Except control, the total N application rate was N 270 kg/hm2 for rice and 190 kg/hm2 for wheat in all the treatments. All the fertilizers in MU were basal applied, and the urea was topdressed in three times for both rice and wheat. NH3 volatilization was measured by a dynamic chamber method. At harvest, the yield and nitrogen uptakes were measured, and the economic profits were calculated. Results NH3 volatilization occurred primarily during the rice season rather than the wheat season. Application of slow-release fertilizer in the rice season significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. The daily fluxes of NH3 volatilization were positively correlated with floodwater ammonium concentrations. Compared to polyurea-formaldehyde, urea significantly increased the floodwater ammonium concentrations. 100%MU50 and 100%MU70 significantly reduced rice yield. However, 50%MU50 and 50%MU70 increased rice yield by 5.7%−3.2% compared with urea. In the wheat reason, 100%MU50 and 100%MU70 significantly decreased NH3 volatilization and yield compared to urea. The NH3 volatilization difference between 50%MU50 and urea was not significant, but both of them were lower than that of 50%MU70. Compared to the U treatment, 50%MU50 and 50%MU70 increased the NUE but 100%MU50 and 100%MU70 reduced NUE in both rice and wheat seasons. In addition, NUE in 50%MU50 was increased by 8.1% compared to the urea application in rice reason and the 50%MU70 significantly increased the NUE by 3% in wheat reason. Conclusions Considering the agronomic, environmental and economic benefits, the total net income of 50%MU50 is 30259 yuan/hm2, which is not significantly different from the treatment of urea (30168 yuan/hm2). Therefore, the 50%MU50 treatment is a promising option and deserves promotion in Taihu Region.
Differences of annual nutrient budgets between rapeseed−rice and wheat−rice rotations in the Yangtze River Basin
ZHU Yun, LIAO Shi-peng, LIU Yu, LI Xiao-kun, REN Tao, CONG Ri-huan, LU Jian-wei
2019, 25(1): 64-73.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18031
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Objectives The differences of annual nutrient budgets were evaluated and compared between rapeseed−rice (R-R) and wheat−rice(W-R) rotations in the Yangtze River Basin during 1990 to 2017, aiming to provide basis for improving annual nutrient use efficiency and optimizing rational distribution of nutrient resources in paddy-upland rotation systems. Methods Total of 513 field experiments for R-R and W-R rotations were collected, covering Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Shanghai and Zhejiang provinces, China. The data included fertilizer rates, crop biomass, nutrient concentration, nutrient accumulation, nitrogen losses and so on, and the return of straw, stubble and litter loss were involved in crop biomass, and ammonia volatilization, nitrous oxide emissions, nitrogen leaching and runoff were involved in nitrogen losses. Then annual nutrient budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were analyzed, and the nitrogen losses were calculated. Results There was no significant difference in fertilizer rates for the two rotation systems. The average annual N, P2O5, K2O rates were 378.5 kg/hm2, 169.9 kg/hm2, 225.7 kg/hm2 for the R-R rotation and 394.4 kg/hm2, 172.5 kg/hm2, 210.8 kg/hm2 for the W-R rotation. The returning biomass of R-R rotation was 18984 kg/hm2, which was higher than that of 18123 kg/hm2 in W-R rotation. The average annual N, P2O5 and K2O returning for R-R rotation were 142.5 kg/hm2, 46.4 kg/hm2 and 441.3 kg/hm2, which were 9.7%, 6.7% and 27.4% higher than those of W-R rotation, respectively. The N, P2O5 and K2O returning by litter loss accounted for 29.3%, 18.5% and 16.3% of the total nutrient returning of rapeseed, as a result, the nutrient inputs of rapeseed season were significantly higher than those of wheat season. For the rice season, nutrient inputs in the W-R rotation showed an obvious advantage (except for K) due to the large population of wheat biomass. Averaged annual N, P2O5 and K2O uptake of W-R rotation were 333.9 kg/hm2, 125.8 kg/hm2 and 379.3 kg/hm2, which were 14.6%, 2.1% and −13.4% higher than those of R-R rotation. Annual N loss from R-R and W-R rotations were respective N 96.7 and 88.8 kg/hm 2, accounting for 22.5%−25.5% of the annual fertilizer N input. The N loss in rapeseed season was 34.5 kg/hm2, slightly higher than that of 29.8 kg/hm2 in wheat season, and that in rice season was N 59.0−62.2 kg/hm2, significantly higher than that in winter crops, so there was little difference between the two rotations. The highest N loss proportion (7.2%−18.4%) was from NH3 volatilization, then was from N runoff and leaching (6.7%−12.7%), and the lowest (1.1%−2.1%) was from N2O emission. When there was no straw returned, there was N surplus of 37.3 kg/hm2 in R-R rotation and −6.0 kg/hm 2 in W-R rotation, P surplus of P2O5 53.3−58.4 kg/hm2 and K deficit of K2O 138.3−145.0 kg/hm2 in both the rotations. In case of straw returning to the field, the average annual nutrient budgets of R-R rotation were N 133.0 kg/hm2, P2O5 93.1 kg/hm2 and K2O 229.0 kg/hm2, which were 30.9%, 3.2% and 28.7% higher than those of W-R rotation. Conclusions Without straw returning, N is surplus in rapeseed-rice rotation and keeps balanced or slightly deficit in wheat-rice rotation, P is surplus and K is deficient in both rotations. With straw returning, all the N, P and K nutrients are surplus in both the rotations. Straw returning is thus an important factor for annual nutrient balance in soil. As the large amount of N returning brought by high biomass of rapeseed, N fertilizer could be minimized to some extent in rapeseed-rice rotation.
Effects of nitrogen application and plastic film mulching on nitrogen uptake and allocation in dry-land spring maize
WANG Ze-lin, BAI Ju, LI Yang, YUE Shan-chao, LI Shi-qing
2019, 25(1): 74-84.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18038
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Objectives This experiment is to investigate the effect of nitrogen (N) application and plastic film mulching on dry matter accumulation, yield and N uptake and utilization of spring maize. Methods A field experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2017 in the Changwu County, Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province, which belonged to typical gully region of the Loess Plateau with the dark loessial soil. A split design was applied for the experiment, the main factors included plastic film mulching (FM) and no mulching (NM), and the sub-factors included four different N application rates of 0, 100, 250 and 400 kg/hm2. Plant samples for measuring total biomass were collected at different growth stages, 6 expanded leaves (V6), 10 expanded leaves (V10), silking stage, milking ripening and entire ripening stage. The samples were divided into different parts as required, and the total N contents were determined. Results 1) Both N application and plastic film mulching significantly increased grain yield of spring maize. N application improved the yield of spring maize more effectively under plastic film mulching. High grain yields of spring maize from 12.8 to 16.4 t/hm2 were obtained at N rates of 250 kg/hm2 and 400 kg/hm2, but there was no significant difference between two treatments. Under no mulching, the grain yield at N rate of 400 kg/hm2 was significantly lower than that of N rate of 250 kg/hm2. 2) N application, plastic film mulching significantly increased pre-silking and post-silking N and dry matter accumulation of spring maize, the effect of their interactions on the N and dry matter accumulation in post-silking was more effective than that of pre-silking. Under plastic film mulching, the proportion of N and dry matter accumulation in post-silking was 51.5% to 54.9% and 51.1% to 59.9%, respectively. High nitrogen and dry matter accumulation of pre-silking and post-silking were obtained with N rates of 250 kg/hm2 and 400 kg/hm2 under plastic film mulching, but N and dry matter accumulation at N rate of 400 kg/hm2 did not significantly increase compared with N rate of 250 kg/hm2. 3) As the interaction between N application and plastic film mulching significantly increased pre-silking N accumulation and promoted post-silking growth, the interaction significantly promoted the translocation amount of N in vegetative organs of spring maize. Under plastic film mulching, N rates of 250 kg/hm2 and 400 kg/hm2 effectively promoted translocation of more N stored in the vegetative organs into grains. Under the same mulching condition, there was no significant difference between the N rates of 400 kg/hm2 and 250 kg/hm2 in N translocation from the vegetative organs. 4) Plastic film mulching significantly increased nitrogen agronomic efficiency and N partial factor productivity under the same N application rate. N application, plastic film mulching and their interactions significantly increased N harvest index, which was 65.1% to 75.4% at N application rates of 250 kg/hm2 and 400 kg/hm2, there was no significant difference between two treatments. Conclusions The interaction between N application and plastic film mulching significantly promoted the N and dry matter accumulation of pre- and post-silking periods of spring maize, while this effect was more effective in the post-silking than in pre-silking, thus promoting N translocation from the vegetative organs into grain. The two factors synergistically increased the yield and the N harvest index of spring maize.
Effects of basal/topdressing nitrogen ratio on light interception and dry matter transport at different layers of wheat canopy under supplemental irrigation based on soil moisture
ZHANG Zhen, YU Zhen-wen, ZHANG Yong-li, SHI Yu
2019, 25(1): 97-105.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18008
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Objectives Under water-saving cultivation conditions, the effects of base application ratio of nitrogen on light energy utilization and accumulation, transport and distribution of dry matter in different layers of wheat canopy were studied to provide a basis for rational nitrogen fertilizer management. Methods The study included five treatments at a nitrogen application rate of 240 kg/hm2, with fertilizer ratios of base to topdressing of 0∶10 (N1), 3∶7 (N2), 5∶5 (N3), 7∶3 (N4) and 10∶0 (N5) for the cultivar Jimai 22. Relative soil moisture content was maintained up to 70% of field capacity at the joining and anthesis stages of wheat. Results Leaf area index at 0, 7 and 14 days after anthesis, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) capture ratios in upper and middle layers of wheat canopy under the N3 treatment with ratio of base fertilizer to topdressing of 5∶5 were significantly higher than those under other treatments, and penetration through the middle and lower wheat canopy layers was significantly lower than that under other treatments. Compared with the N1, N2, N4 and N5 treatments, PAR conversion and utilization efficiencies of N3 were increased by 13.64%, 8.02%, 8.70% and 14.38%, and 21.17%, 8.50%, 10.67% and 23.88%, respectively. Dry matter assimilation after anthesis, dry matter accumulation at maturity, rates of dry matter translocation and transport from middle-layer vegetative organs to grains before flowering under the N3 were significantly higher than those under other treatments. Compared with the N1, N2, N4 and N5 treatments, dry matter distribution amounts in grains at maturity were increased by 11.37%, 5.68%, 6.03% and 16.25%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that dry matter transport from middle-layer vegetative organs to grains before flowering was significantly and positively correlated with PAR capture ratio in the middle layer. Dry matter distribution in grains was significantly and positively correlated with PAR capture ratios in the upper, middle and all layers, and significantly and negatively correlated with PAR capture ratio in the lower layer. Conclusions The treatment with base to topdressing fertilizer ratio of 5:5 significantly enhanced light energy utilization in wheat canopy, promoted dry matter transport from middle-layer vegetative organs to grain before anthesis and accumulation of dry matter after anthesis, and resulted in the highest grain yield. The treatment with base to topdressing fertilizer ratio of 5:5 was the best treatment under the test conditions.
Effects of potassium application on performance of photosystemⅡof various Bt cotton genotypes
ZHAO Na, QIN Du-lin, NIE Jun-jun, GUO Wen-jun, QI Jie, LIU Yan-hui, MAO Li-li, SONG Xian-liang, SUN Xue-zhen
2019, 25(1): 106-114.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18037
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Objectives The paper studied the fluorescence dynamics of functional leaves of Bt cotton genotypes under the condition of potash fertilization, to provide a scientific basis for K fertilizer application in Bt cottons. Methods Field experiments were carried out at Shandong Agricultural University Experimental Station during 2016−2017. Three cotton genotypes, DP99B, L21 and J169 were chosen, and two treatments of no K fertilization (CK) and application of K2SO4 240 kg/hm2 (K) were used in the experiments. Samples of functional leaves were collected during the budding stage of cotton. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and chlorophyll content were measured using LI-6400XT potable photosynthesis system. The chlorophyll fluorescence transients were measured using multiple plant efficiency meter (M-PEA Hansatech), including the excitation energy of light absorbed by excited cross section of PSII reaction center (TRo/CSm), the number of active reaction centers (RC/CSm), probability of an electron moving from QA to QBo) and the performance index of absorption basis (PIabs). The related parameters of the dynamics of the photosystemⅡperformance (OJIP) were analyzed using JIP-test. Results The basal application of K fertilizer significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), chlorophyll content, excitation energy of light absorbed by leaf area per PSII reaction center (TRo/CSm), number of active reaction centers (RC/CSm), probability of an electron moving from QA to QBo), performance index of absorption basis (PIabs). At the same time, application of K fertilizer significantly reduced the heat dissipation energy per unit reaction center (DIo/RC), the ratio of a variable fluorescence Fk to the amplitude Fo-Fj (Wk) and the ratio of a variable fluorescence Fj to the amplitude Fo-Fp (Vj). After potassium fertilization, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was increased significantly by 9.60%, 19.84%, 11.85% in 2016 and by 9.14%, 18.48%, 9.60% in 2017, and the performance index (PIabs) was also increased significantly by 10.79%, 17.93% and 14.04% for Bt cotton genotype DP99B, L21 and J169, respectively. Conclusions Potassium fertilizer application is beneficial to improve the performances of electron donor and acceptor in PSII reaction center of various Bt cotton genotypes, and the performance of the electron transfer chain at the electron acceptor side of the PSII reaction center was also improved. Thus, potassium fertilizer application could effectively improve the overall performance of PSII and ultimately enhanced the photosynthetic capacity of different cotton genotypes. L21 showed better responsive effect to potassium fertilization than DP99B and J169. Thus, rational potassium fertilization in actual cotton production should consider the sensitivity of different genotypes to potassium fertilization.
QTL mapping for ear leaf stay-green in maize under high and low N conditions
LI Dong-ya, WANG Yi, TANG Ji-hua, XU Heng, TAN Jin-fang, HAN Yan-lai
2019, 25(1): 115-122.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18080
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Objectives Stay-green of maize leaves is closely associated with the grain yield and quality. In this study, QTLs for ear leaf stay-green in maize were identified by using single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) to provide theoretical support for the fine mapping and cloning of major QTLs. Methods Two years field experiments with a randomized complete block design were conducted, and a total of 172 maize SSSLs from a cross between a N-efficient inbred line Xu178 and a N-inefficient inbred line Zong3 were used as test materials. Nitrogen levels of 240 kg/hm2 (high) and 75 kg/hm2 (low) were applied for each material. The SPAD values of 10 days-old ear leaves after silking were measured to evaluate their stay-green feature. The T-test method was used to analysis the phenotype differences between SSSL and Xu178, and the QTLs for stay-green were mapped in the SSR genetic linkage map at P < 0.01. Results In the genome range, 53 QTLs for ear leaf stay-green were detected under the two nitrogen levels and effectively resulted in contribution rates of –2.45% to –22.65%. These QTLs were unevenly distributed in all the 10 chromosomes of maize, up to 14 QTLs were detected in chromosome 1, while only one QTL was detected in chromosome 7. Under high nitrogen condition, a total of 29 QTLs were detected, and in which six QTLs including qhnSG1d, qhnSG2a, qhnSG3a, qhnSG4a, qhnSG8b and qhnSG10c were detected simultaneously under the two-year experimental condition. Here, qhnSG8b and qhnSG10c represented QTLs with high N-specific characteristics, and effective contribution rates were –4.47%, –9.17%, –9.46% and –5.05% in two years, respectively. Under low nitrogen condition, a total of 16 QTLs were detected, and 2 QTLs of which, qlnSG1f and qlnSG2b, were detected repeatedly under the two-year experimental conditions. qlnSG1f was a low N-specific QTL, and made effective contribution rates of –9.70% and –10.85% in two years, respectively. Conclusions The high N-specific stay-green QTL is localized in the segment of umc1077−umc2350 and the low N-specific stay-green QTL is localized in the segment of umc1013−umc2047.
Critical nitrogen concentration dilution model and nitrogen nutrition diagnosis in summer maize with different nitrogen efficiencies
AN Zhi-chao, HUANG Yu-fang, WANG Yang, ZHAO Ya-nan, YUE Song-hua, SHI Hai-bin, YE You-liang
2019, 25(1): 123-133.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18020
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Objectives The objective of this study was to establish the critical nitrogen dilution curve of maize in central area of Henan Province, China, to compare differences of nitrogen use efficiency among different varieties of maize, and to study the reliability of nitrogen nutrition index for diagnosing and evaluating nitrogen nutrition in maize, which would provide theoretical basis for rational nitrogen fertilization of maize. Methods In this paper, Weike702 and Zhongdan909, as the two different nitrogen use efficiency varieties, were studied for three consecutive years in a field trial with five nitrogen levels (0, 120, 180, 240 and 360 kg/hm2). Effects of different nitrogen application rates on dry matter of both varieties at jointing, spike formation, silking and harvest stages were analyzed, critical nitrogen dilution curves of two varieties were established based on the dry matter and plant nitrogen concentration in different periods, differences of critical nitrogen dilution curve models for maize with different nitrogen use efficiencies were analyzed, and the nitrogen nutrition index and its relationship with relative shoot biomass and relative yield of maize were analyzed. Results The nitrogen use efficiency of Zhongdan909 was significantly higher than that of Weike702, and the shoot biomass of both varieties showed N0 < N120 < N180 = N240 = N360. With the increase of N application rate, the aboveground biomass of two varieties of maize could be divided into two parts: nitrogen limitation and non-limiting nitrogen, the critical nitrogen dilution curve models of the two cultivars (Weike702, Nc = 35.638DM –0.341, Zhongdan909, Nc = 30.801DM–0.370) had good stability. Compared with the model parameters of Zhongdan909, the parameter a of Weike 702 increased by 15.70%, its parameter b decreased by 7.84%, and the value of a changed more than that of the parameter b. The nitrogen nutrition indices of the two cultivars based on this model at the same period were raised with the increase of nitrogen application rate. The nitrogen nutrition index was first increased and then decreased with the increase of nitrogen application rate in maize growth period when the nitrogen application rate was less than 180 kg/hm2. When nitrogen application rate exceeded 240 kg/hm2, the nitrogen nutrition index was increased continuously. The correlations between nitrogen nutrition indices and relative shoot biomass, relative yield of maize also reached a significant level. Conclusions In this paper, the nitrogen nutrition status of maize plants can be diagnosed and evaluated using the critical nitrogen dilution curve model and nitrogen nutrition index of two varieties of maize in central Henan Province. There were differences in the parameters of critical nitrogen concentration dilution curve between different nitrogen use efficiency varieties. Varieties with high nitrogen use rate had lower nitrogen concentration per unit biomass and higher curve slope, and the nitrogen concentrations were lower than those with the low nitrogen utilization rate.
Feasibility study of BP neural network and probabilistic neural network for nitrogen nutrition diagnosis of rice images
ZHOU Qiong, YANG Hong-yun, YANG Jun, SUN Yu-ting, SUN Ai-zhen, YANG Wen-ji
2019, 25(1): 134-141.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18026
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Objectives Identifying key indicators for image and establishing models for processing of massive image data rapidly were two main steps in achieving nitrogen nutrition diagnosis. This project screened the sensitive period and location of rice nitrogen nutrition diagnosis, optimized the image processing technical parameters, and compared the reliability between two methods, BP neural network and probabilistic neural network, in nutrient diagnosis, which provided ideas and methods for determining the nutritional status of crops and inverting the growth process quickly and accurately by using computer vision virtual technology. Methods In this study, super hybrid rice ‘LYP9’ was used as experimental crop to set up four kinds of rice cultivation experiments at different fertilization levels (equivalent to N 0, 210, 300 and 390 kg/hm2), the image data of a total of 1920 groups of the first leaves and the second leaves, the third leaves from crop top, and their corresponding sheaths were obtained by scanning with a scanner during the panicle differentiation stage and the full heading stage. Nineteen rice indexes were obtained. The diagnosis models of rice nitrogen nutrition on standardized nineteen rice characteristic indexes obtained by image processing were respectively established by applying BP neural network and probabilistic neural network. Based on the models, rice nitrogen nutrition diagnosis and identification were carried out. Results 1) The accuracy of overall recognition of rice at the panicle differentiation stage was higher than that of the full heading stage; the image data of the third leaves was the most reliable among the three parts of leaves; 2) For the panicle differentiation stage and the full heading stage, the overall recognition accuracy of the nineteen rice characteristic indexes obtained by image processing was higher by using the BP neural network, compared with the probabilistic neural network. The accuracy of diagnosis and identification of rice nitrogen nutrition in the nineteen rice characteristic indexes of the third leaves at the panicle differentiation stage processed through the BP neural network was up to 90%. The accuracy of diagnosis and identification of rice nitrogen nutrition in the nineteen rice characteristic indexes of the second leaves and the third leaves at the panicle differentiation stage processed through the probabilistic neural network was up to 82%. Conclusions The leaf characteristics of the third leaves in the panicle differentiation stage are the most distinguishable, and it is easy to diagnose and identify nitrogen nutrition, which can be used as an effective period and location for nitrogen nutrition diagnosis. The components of six color space, RGB and HSI, can best reflect nitrogen nutrition status. Regarding the recognition effect, the BP neural network is higher than the probabilistic neural network, and its overall recognition accuracy is 90%.
Contents of the main metabolites in maize affected by humic acids with different molecular weight derived from weathered coal
ZHOU Li-ping, YUAN Liang, ZHAO Bing-qiang, LI Yan-ting, LIN Zhi-an
2019, 25(1): 142-148.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18403
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Objectives The molecular weight of humic acid determines its function. The effect difference of humic acids with different molecular weight was studied in this paper, in order to provide theoretical basis for the efficient utilization of humic acid in China. Methods A hydroponic experiment was carried out using Hoagland nutrition solution as the basic cultural liquid and maize cultivar of ‘Zheng Dan 958’ as material. Three kinds of humic acids with molecular weight of &gt; 50 kDa (HA H), 10 kDa to 50 kDa (HAM) and &lt; 10 kDa (HA L) were separately added into the cultural solution in ratio of 10 mg C/L, and with no humic acid addition as control (CK). Maize seedlings were grown for 20 days, then harvested. The whole plant was divided into root, stem and leaf, dried and weighed. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) (Bruker VERTEX 70) was applied to detect the contents of the main chemical components. Results The addition of humic acid could significantly improve the dry weight of maize root, stem and leaf, which was increased by 91.07%, 89.27% and 88.53%, respectively, compared with the control. Among the three humic acids, the greatest promoting effect was obtained by HAL, in which the dry weight of root, stem and leaf was increased by 143.14%, 123.41% and 150.54%, respectively; followed by HAM and HAL. The transmissivity of the FTIR spectrum with the wave lengths of 3420 cm–1 and 1655 cm–1 was lower in the humic acid treatments in the roots than that in the control, while those in stems were higher than in the control, indicating that humic acid could increase the content of carbohydrate, protein, polypeptide and amino acid in maize roots, and reduce their accumulation in stems. For the leaves treated with humic acid, the transmissivity of spectrum with wavelength of 3420, 2920, 1735, 1655, 1518, 1380, 1250 and 1050 cm–1 in the humic acid treated leaves were all lower than those in the control, and those in HAL were significantly lower than HAM and HAH. Conclusions Exogenous addition of humic acid can increase the dry biomass and change the contents of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in maize. Humic acid with molecular weight of &lt; 10 kDa performs better than that having larger molecular weight. So small molecular humic acid should be considered for the effective use of humic acid products in the practical production.
Comparison of heavy metal limits for chemical fertilizers in China,EU and US and enlightenments
YANG Xu, YU Yao, LI Hua-fen, HU Yi-ao, ZHAGN Cheng-lin
2019, 25(1): 149-156.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18024
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This paper briefly introduced the work out procession and the heavy metal limits in chemical fertilizers in some states of the United States and the Europe Union countries, and pointed out the shortages existed in the standards and the working out processions in China. The heavy metal limit standards for chemical fertilizers in China are fertilizer type specific, and greatly different among the fertilizers. The heavy metal limit standards are issued by different departments, including national and industrial standards. Some of the national standards for simple fertilizers and compound fertilizers lack heavy metal limits, but that for water-soluble fertilizers has quite strict limits for heavy metals. The limit standards for heavy metals do not have adequate theoretical and experimental data support, and have no necessary explanations for the basis of establishment after publication. The heavy metal limits in the United States are set up considering both the phosphate and micronutrient fertilizers and their application amounts. Several institutions (e.g. USEPA) in the United State made the standards using the evaluation models for the risks assessment of harmful elements in fertilizers for human health, and referring the data from long-term local field trials and the surveys for risk assessments in foods . The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCO) has proposed limits for heavy metals in chemical fertilizers based on these acceptable limits, and some states in the US are implementing the heavy metal standards based on their state laws and regulations. The EU countries do not have uniform heavy metal limits in chemical fertilizers, and they manage the fertilizers by their own laws and regulations. The standard settings for heavy metal limits relate to various benefits and public welfare issues in fertilizer production and application, soil health, water environmental protection, food safety, deserving our careful thinking and investigation. Suggestion: China should refer to the standard setting methods in developed countries to establish assessment system for hazard risk of heavy metals. The heavy metal limits should consider fertilizer types such as macronutrient, secondary and micronutrient fertilizers, and make one standard for all chemical fertilizers in China. Meanwhile, by referring to the existing research results from foreign countries, it is better to jointly formulate heavy metal limit standards for chemical fertilizers suitable for our national conditions by various departments based on investigation and long-term fixed experiment.
Status of soil nutrients of spring rapeseed planting area and fertilization strategy in eastern Qinghai Province
XU Qian, SONG Jia, TIAN Hui, ZHANG Yang, XU Ting-ting, ZHANG Rong, ZUO Ya-jie, MA Ai-sheng, YAO Zhi-yuan, GAO Ya-jun
2019, 25(1): 157-166.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.18040
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Objectives Altitude, parent material, climate, crop cultivar, tillage system and fertilization rate have strong impacts on fertility of cropland. This survey has clarified the current contents of soil nutrients in spring rapeseed planting area of Qinghai Province, which will be helpful to establish proper fertilization strategy for high yield and quality rapeseed production and sustainable development of agriculture. Methods There are three major counties for spring rapeseed production, i.e. Huangzhong, Datong and Huzhu counties of eastern Qinghai Province. In total, 103 soil samples were collected from the plough layers of farmlands for spring rapeseed production in 2015, and the primary soil nutrient contents were determined. In conjunction with ArcGIS and Kriging interpolation, the current soil fertility of spring rapeseed planting fields and its spatial distribution characteristics were studied. Results The average contents and levels of soil nutrients were: soil organic matter 26.81 g/kg (moderate), total N 1.97 g/kg (rich), available P 19.03 mg/kg (moderate), available K 164.27 mg/kg (rich), available Fe 12.02 mg/kg (rich), available Mn 6.43 mg/kg (moderate), available Cu 0.70 mg/kg (moderate), available Zn 1.81 mg/kg (moderate) and available B 0.27 mg/kg (deficient). Among the three counties, 94% of soil total N and 91% of soil available P contents were above the moderate levels. The available K and Zn contents were greatly different from each other. 23.0% of the soil was deficient in available K, and the K deficient soil was mainly distributed in Huangzhong and Huzhu. Zn deficient area was 36.9%, which was mainly distributed in Huzhu. As high as 93.2% of the soil was deficient in B and mainly distributed in Huzhu and Datong. Conclusions The spring rapeseed fields were generally high in soil N, P and K contents, indicating potential for the reduction of NPK fertilizers. In details, nitrogen fertilizer rate should be reduced properly in Datong and Huzhu, and phosphorus fertilizer rates should be reduced in Huangzhong and Datong. Potassium fertilizers should be applied in low K fields in Huangzhong and Huzhu. As the large areas of severe B deficiency in the three counties and the deficiency of available Zn in Huzhu County, B and Zn fertilizers should be applied properly to avoid the decrease of crop yield and quality due to the short supply of important plant nutrients. The balanced supply of nutrients will help to improve the fertilization efficiency and realize the goal of sustainable development of the spring rapeseed industry.
Fertilizer use and food security in China
ZHU Zhao-liang, JIN Ji-yun
2013, 21(2): 259-273.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0201
Abstract(4014) PDF 2130KB(1904)
Effects of green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activitiesand fertility in tobacco-planting soils
YE Xie-feng, YANG Chao, LI Zheng, JING Hai-xia
2013, 21(2): 445-454.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
Abstract(3355) PDF 1194KB(719)
Effects of long-term straw return on soil fertility, nitrogen pool fractions and crop yields on a fluvo-aquic soil in North China
ZHAO Shi-cheng, CAO Cai-yun, LI Ke-jiang, QIU Shao-jun, ZHOU Wei, HE Ping
2014, 22(6): 1441-1449.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0614
Abstract(3098) PDF 1272KB(968)
Effects of organic fertilization on soil nutrient, enzyme activity and crop productivity in semi-arid areas of southern Ningxia
ZHANG Peng, JIA Zhi-kuan, LU Wen-tao, ZHANG Xiao-fang, SUN Hong-xia, YANG Bao-ping
2011, 19(5): 1122-1130.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2011.1105
Abstract(3290) PDF 1203KB(1488)
Effects of long-term straw-returning on corn yield, economic benefit and water use in arid farming areas
ZHOU Huai-ping, XIE Wen-yan, GUAN Chun-lin, YANG Zhen-xin, LI Hong-mei
2013, 21(2): 321-330.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0207
Abstract(3661) PDF 1106KB(650)
Soil enzyme activities in different re-vegetation stages on sloping-land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, China
YANG Ning, ZOU Dong-sheng, YANG Man-yuan, CHEN Jing, CHEN Zhi-yang,
LIN Zhong-gui
,
SONG Guang-tao
2013, 21(6): 1516-1524.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2013.0629
Abstract(2659) PDF 1181KB(769)
Effect of different fertilizing methods on nitrogen balance in the black soil for continuous maize production in Northeast China
CAI Hongguang, MI Guohua, ZHANG Xiuzhi, REN Jun, FENG Guozhong, GAO Qiang
2012, 20(1): 89-97.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2012.11213
Abstract(3793) PDF 1067KB(1377)
Effects of continuous straw mulching on soil physical and chemical properties and crop yields in paddy-upland rotation system
WU Ji, GUO Xi-sheng, LU Jian-wei, WANG Yun-qing, XU Zheng-yu, ZHANG Xiao-ling
2012, 20(3): 587-594.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2012.11304
Abstract(3176) PDF 1031KB(1308)
Effect of potassium application and straw returning on spring maize yield, nutrient absorption and soil potassium balance
XIE Jia-gui, HOU Yun-peng, YIN Cai-xia, KONG Li-li, QIN Yu-bo, LI Qian, WANG Li-chun*
2014, 22(5): 1110-1118.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2014.0507
Abstract(3014) PDF 1138KB(1075)
Nutrient absorption, translocation in rice and soil nitrogenequilibrium under different nitrogen application doses
HOU Yun-peng, HAN Li-guo, KONG Li-li, YIN Cai-xia, QIN Yu-bo, LI Qian, XIE Jia-gui
2015, 23(4): 836-845.   doi: 10.11674/zwyf.2015.0402
Abstract(3620) PDF 1114KB(107537)