• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
白虓宇, 李秀芳, 李传飞, 尹俊杰, 唐毓, 李廷轩, 叶代桦. 磷高效水稻材料的根系形态结构特征[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023494
引用本文: 白虓宇, 李秀芳, 李传飞, 尹俊杰, 唐毓, 李廷轩, 叶代桦. 磷高效水稻材料的根系形态结构特征[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023494
BAI Xiao-yu, LI Xiu-fang, Li Chuan-fei, YIN Jun-jie, TANG yu, LI Ting-xuan, YE Dai-hua. The root morphological and structural characteristics of high phosphorus efficient rice materials[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023494
Citation: BAI Xiao-yu, LI Xiu-fang, Li Chuan-fei, YIN Jun-jie, TANG yu, LI Ting-xuan, YE Dai-hua. The root morphological and structural characteristics of high phosphorus efficient rice materials[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023494

磷高效水稻材料的根系形态结构特征

The root morphological and structural characteristics of high phosphorus efficient rice materials

  • 摘要:
    目的 选育磷高效水稻材料是利用土壤资源的有效方式,根系是水稻磷吸收最重要的器官,其形态结构特征直接影响水稻的磷吸收能力,研究水稻根系发育特征有助于揭示其磷高效吸收的机理。
    方法 采用水培试验,以40份水稻材料为研究对象,设置0.003 mmol/L (低磷)和0.3 mmol/L(正常磷)两个供磷处理,分蘖期调查水稻地上部生物量和磷积累量,采用聚类分析筛选磷高效水稻材料。然后分析了筛选到的磷高效水稻材料R527和磷低效水稻材料IR58025的根系形态和解剖结构,解析了水稻根系发育特征与磷吸收的关系。
    结果 (1)低磷条件下,40份水稻材料磷吸收能力存在显著差异,生物量和磷积累量的范围分别为0.11~0.93 g/plant和0.07~0.58 mg/plant。以磷积累量为主、生物量为辅进行聚类分析,获得磷高效水稻材料R527和磷低效水稻材料IR58025。(2)低磷条件下,磷高效水稻材料R527的生物量(0.83 g/plant)和磷积累量(0.46 mg/plant)显著高于磷低效水稻材料IR58025,分别为IR58025的6.38和5.75倍。(3)磷高效水稻材料R527低磷条件下的总根长、根表面积、不定根长、侧根长和侧根表面积比正常磷处理分别增加61.79%、38.12%、60.44%、67.99%和186.67%。低磷条件下,磷高效水稻材料R527的总根长、根表面积、根体积、平均根直径、不定根长、侧根长、不定根表面积和侧根表面积分别为磷低效水稻材料IR58025的2.62、2.87、3.22、1.18、4.41、2.97、3.97和1.45倍。(4)低磷条件下,磷高效水稻材料R527中柱、外皮层和皮层占比分别为磷低效水稻材料IR58025的1.11、0.67和1.05倍。(5)低磷条件下,水稻的总根长、根表面积、根体积、平均根直径、不定根长、侧根长、不定根表面积、侧根表面积、皮层占比和中柱占比与生物量和磷积累量显著正相关,外皮层和内皮层占比与生物量和磷积累量显著负相关。
    结论 磷高效水稻材料R527的生物量和磷积累量均显著高于磷低效水稻材料IR58025。低磷条件下,磷高效水稻材料R527更大的总根长、根表面积、根体积、不定根长、侧根长、不定根表面积、侧根表面积和皮层占比,更低的外皮层和内皮层占比是其磷高效吸收的重要原因。

     

    Abstract:
    Objectives Breeding rice materials with high phosphorus (P) uptake efficiency is an effective way to use the soil P resources. Rice root is the most important organ for P absorption, studying the root morphological and structural characteristics can reveal the mechanisms of P-efficient uptake.
    Methods A hydroponic experiment with low P (0.003 mmol/L) and normal P (0.3 mmol/L) concentrations in the nutrient solution, was conducted, 40 rice materials were grown on both the P conditions, and at the tillering stage, the rice plants were harvested for investigation of shoot biomass and P contents. Through cluster analysis of shoot P accumulation and biomass, R527 and IR58025 were identified as high P efficiency and low P efficiency materials, respectively. The root morphology, and root anatomical structure of the two rice materials were further determined to elucidate the relationship between rice root development characteristics and P uptake.
    Results (1) Under low P conditions, the 40 rice materials were recorded significantly different biomass and P accumulation, ranged from 0.11 to 0.93 g/plant in biomass and 0.07 to 0.58 mg/plant in P accumulation, with coefficients of variation of 49.41% and 49.55%, respectively. (2) Under low P conditions, the biomass (0.83 g/plant) and P accumulation (0.46 mg/plant) of R527 were 6.38 and 5.75 times higher than those of IR58025. (3) The total root length, root surface area, adventitious root length, lateral root length, and lateral root surface area of R527 under low P stress was 61.79%, 38.12%, 60.44%, 67.99% and 186.67% higher than under normal P conditions. And the total root length, root surface area, root volume, average root diameter, adventitious root length, lateral root length, adventitious root surface area and lateral root surface area of R527 under low P stress were 2.62, 2.87, 3.22, 1.18, 4.41, 2.97, 3.97 and 1.45 times of those in IR58025. (4) Under low P conditions, the proportions of stele, epidermis, cortex, and endodermis in R527 were 1.11, 0.67 and 1.05 times of those in IR58025. (5) Under low P conditions, total root length, root surface area, root volume, average root diameter, adventitious root length, adventitious root surface area, lateral root length, lateral root surface area, cortex proportion, and stele proportion of rice showed positive correlation with biomass and P accumulation, while epidermis and endodermis proportions showed negative correlation.
    Conclusions The growth of high-P efficiency rice material R527 is less inhibited than low-P efficiency material IR58025 under low P conditions, due to the significantly higher biomass and P accumulation. Under low P conditions, R527 could develop large total root length, root surface area, root volume, adventitious root length, lateral root length, adventitious root surface area, lateral root surface area, and cortex proportion, as well as lower epidermis and endodermis proportions, which is contributed to its efficient P uptake.

     

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