• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
徐富贤, 周兴兵, 张林, 郭晓艺, 刘茂, 朱永川, 熊洪, 郭长春, 蒋鹏. 川东南冬水田稻鱼共作系统下施氮量对杂交稻产量和土壤养分的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023527
引用本文: 徐富贤, 周兴兵, 张林, 郭晓艺, 刘茂, 朱永川, 熊洪, 郭长春, 蒋鹏. 川东南冬水田稻鱼共作系统下施氮量对杂交稻产量和土壤养分的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023527
XU Fu-Xian, ZHOU Xing-Bing, ZHANG Lin, GUO Xiao-yi, LIU Mao, ZHU Yong-chuan, XIONG Hong, GUO Chang-chun, JIANG Peng. Effect of nitrogen application rate on grain yield of hybrid rice and soil nutrient under rice-fish co-culture system in Southeast of Sichuan Province[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023527
Citation: XU Fu-Xian, ZHOU Xing-Bing, ZHANG Lin, GUO Xiao-yi, LIU Mao, ZHU Yong-chuan, XIONG Hong, GUO Chang-chun, JIANG Peng. Effect of nitrogen application rate on grain yield of hybrid rice and soil nutrient under rice-fish co-culture system in Southeast of Sichuan Province[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023527

川东南冬水田稻鱼共作系统下施氮量对杂交稻产量和土壤养分的影响

Effect of nitrogen application rate on grain yield of hybrid rice and soil nutrient under rice-fish co-culture system in Southeast of Sichuan Province

  • 摘要:
    目的 利用川东南冬水田区连续多年稻鱼共作系统,研究了施氮量对免耕栽培杂交稻产量形成和土壤养分的影响,为稻鱼共作系统下免耕栽培杂交稻长期且合理的氮肥管理策略提供理论依据。
    方法 于2018—2022年在川东南冬水田区进行了5年大田定位试验,供试杂交稻品种为蓉优1015和内6优103,耕作方式为免耕。设置0、45、90、135 kg/hm2 4个施N水平,分别记作N0、N45、N90、N135,在水稻收获期,调查了杂交稻产量及产量构成因素,分析了0—20 cm土层全量和速效氮磷钾含量,以及有机质含量和pH,用回归方法研究了施氮量与水稻产量和土壤养分因子含量变化之间的关系。
    结果 稻鱼共作系统下,年份、施氮量对杂交稻产量及产量构成的影响达极显著水平。5年间,杂交稻产量与施氮量均呈极显著正相关(r=0.9070**~0.9720**),与低氮量处理N45相比,N90和N135处理杂交稻产量分别增加了6.37%~26.53%、9.11%~25.11%,有效穗数和每穗粒数也显著增加。而N90处理杂交稻产量与N135处理相当或更高。逐步回归分析表明,杂交稻产量构成(有效穗数、每穗粒数、结实率和千粒重)与产量的偏相关系数达显著或极显著水平(t=2.20*~9.17**)。通径分析表明,杂交稻有效穗数和每穗粒数对产量的直接贡献(分别0.8574和0.4987)和总贡献(分别0.6364和0.3598)较大,表明有效穗数和穗粒数是影响产量的主要因素。在0、N45处理下,土壤全氮、碱解氮随稻鱼共作年限的增加而下降,而在N90、N135处理下随稻鱼共作年限的增加而增加。土壤全氮、碱解氮含量随施氮量增加而提高,而全磷、全钾、速效磷、速效钾含量则随施氮量增加而下降。杂交稻产量与土壤养分含量呈极显著正相关;因此提高磷素、钾素供给能力是稻鱼共作系统杂交稻高产的重要基础。
    结论 川东南冬水田区稻鱼共作系统下,年施氮90 kg/hm2可以提高杂交水稻的有效穗数和每穗粒数,进而维持甚至不断提高水稻的产量。连续施用中、高量氮肥还可以不断提升土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、全钾、碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾含量,且随稻鱼共作年限延长呈增加趋势;土壤pH值则随稻鱼共作年限延长呈下降趋势。

     

    Abstract:
    Objectives We investigated therice yield and soil nutrient and pH variations caused by nitrogen application rates under no-tillage cultivation practice in a fish-rice integrated farming system, so as to provide a theoretical basis forlong-term and reasonable fertilizer management under the system.
    Methods A localized field experiment was carried out for consessive five years in a winter logging-water field in Southeast of Sichuan Province from 2018 to 2022. No-tillage cultivation practice was used, and two hybrid rice cultivars Rongyou1015 and Nei6you103 were used as test materals. Four N fertilizer treatments were 0, 45, 90 and 135 kg/hm2 (denoted as N0, N45, N90, and N135), representing low, meddle and high N rate, except the N0. At rice harvesting stage of each year, the grain yield, yield components, and nitrogen content in different part of hybrid rice were analyzed. The soil total and available N, P and K content, and the pH in 0−20 cm layer were determined.
    Results Experimental years and N rates significantly affected grain yield and yield components of hybrid rice in the rice-fish integrated farming system. During the five years, thegrain yield was positively correlated with N rate (FYear=7.95**−63.44**, FN rate=3.95*−282.99**). Compared with N45, N90 and N135 treatmentincreasedgrain yield by 6.37%−26.53% and 9.11%−25.11%, respectively,due to the higher panicle number per unit land and spikelet per panicle;Whereas N90was recorded similar or even higher grain yield than N135. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the yield component were positively correlated with grain yield, and the path analysis showed that panicle number and spikelets per panicle had the highest direct contribution(0.8574 and 0.4987, respectively) and total contribution (0.6364 and 0.3598, respectively) to grain yield. In the fish-rice integrated farming, soil pH significantly decreased with the elongation of experimental years (r=−0.9823** − −0.9385**), while the organic matter, total and available P and K kept increased (r=0.7128**−0.9932**). In no N and low N rate (N0, N45), the soil total and alkali hydrolyzed N (AN) significantly decreased with the increase of experimental years; whereas under medium and high N application rate (90, 135 kg/hm2), the content of total N and alkali hydrolyzed N (AN) in N90 and N135 significantly increased with the increase of experimental years. The content of total N and AN in soil increased with the increasing of N application rate, while the content of total P, total K, available P and available K in soil decreased with the increasing of N application rate. There was extremely significant linear relationship between grain yield and the soil nutrient under rice-fish integrated farming system, and improving the supplying capacity of soil phosphorus and potassium is an important approach to obtaining highrice grain yield under rice-fish co-culture system.
    Conclusion The optimal N application rate for hybrid rice was 90 kg/ha under rice-fish co-culture system, and further improvement grain yield should focus on increasing panicle number per unit land and spikelets per spikelets of hybrid rice. Continuous application medium and high nitrogen rate could be increase the content of organic matter, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), total potassium (K), available P and available K in the soil under rice-fish co-culture system,and show an increasing trends with the years extension of rice-fish co-culture, while the pH value decreased with increasing the years of rice-fish co-culture in Southeast of Sichuan Province.

     

/

返回文章
返回