• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
王庆源, 于振文, 石玉, 张永丽, 张振. 隔两年深松配合条旋耕显著提升冬小麦的氮素吸收利用效率和产量[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023542
引用本文: 王庆源, 于振文, 石玉, 张永丽, 张振. 隔两年深松配合条旋耕显著提升冬小麦的氮素吸收利用效率和产量[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023542
Wang Qing-yuan, Yu Zhen-wen, Shi Yu, Zhang Yong-li, Zhang Zhen. Strip rotary tillage combining with every two-year subsoiling increases the nitrogen use efficiency and yield of winter wheat[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023542
Citation: Wang Qing-yuan, Yu Zhen-wen, Shi Yu, Zhang Yong-li, Zhang Zhen. Strip rotary tillage combining with every two-year subsoiling increases the nitrogen use efficiency and yield of winter wheat[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023542

隔两年深松配合条旋耕显著提升冬小麦的氮素吸收利用效率和产量

Strip rotary tillage combining with every two-year subsoiling increases the nitrogen use efficiency and yield of winter wheat

  • 摘要:
    目的 基于2007—2008小麦生长季开始设置的长期定位试验,探究耕作方式对小麦氮代谢和氮素利用效率的影响,为小麦高产高效生产提供理论依据。
    方法 定位试验位于山东省济宁市兖州区小孟镇,供试冬小麦品种为济麦22,包括常年翻耕(PT),常年旋耕(RT),常年条旋耕(ST)和隔两年深松+条旋耕(STS)四个处理。2022、2023年在小麦开花期和成熟期采集植株样品,测定各器官含氮量。在开花后0~28天,每隔7天取样,测定旗叶硝酸还原酶(NR)、谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)活性以及游离氨基酸和可溶性蛋白含量。于成熟期调查产量构成三因素,并计算氮素利用效率。
    结果 与PT、RT和ST处理相比,STS处理提高了旗叶硝酸还原酶活性、谷氨酰胺合成酶活性、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白含量,增加了开花期和成熟期植株各部位氮素积累量,花前氮素转运量和转运率,花后氮素吸收量对籽粒的贡献率,提高了氮素吸收效率、籽粒氮利用效率,氮收获指数和氮肥偏生产力。其中,成熟期籽粒氮素积累量增加了8.53%~30.15%,籽粒氮分配比例增加4.56%~14.06%,千粒重和产量分别提高了4.20%~9.96%和7.83~18.39%,氮肥偏生产力提高了7.85%~18.40%。
    结论 隔两年深松+条旋耕(STS)耕作方式提高了小麦氮代谢酶活性,增强了氮素的吸收和同化能力,提高了氮素利用效率,同时提高了籽粒产量。

     

    Abstract:
    Objectives We studied the effects of tillage methods on the nitrogen metabolism, and uptake and utilization of winter wheat, aiming to choose optimum tillage technology for the high yield and high efficiency production of winter wheat.
    Methods The investigation was based on the long-term tillage field experiment that start since 2007 and located in Jining City, Shandong Province. The experiment uses wheat cultivar is Jimai 22, as test materials, and is composed of four treatments, including perennial plowing tillage (PT), perennial rotary tillage (RT), perennial strip rotary tillage (ST) and strip rotary tillage with a two-year subsoiling interval (STS). In 2022 and 2023, wheat plants were sampled at anthesis and maturity stages to determine the nitrogen content of various parts; flag leaves were labelled for measurement of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, free amino acid and soluble protein contents in frequency of every 7 days from 0 to 28 days after anthesis; and the yield, and three yield components were investigated at mature stage. The nitrogen use efficiencies were calculated at last.
    Results Compared with PT, RT and ST treatments in the two years, STS increased the NR and GS activates, free amino acids and soluble protein contents, total nitrogen accumulation, the nitrogen translocation amount and rate before flowering, and the absorption and contribution rate of nitrogen to grain after anthesis, resulting higher nitrogen absorption efficiency, grain nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen partial factor productivity. Thereby, the grain nitrogen accumulation increased by 8.53%−30.15% and the distribution rate in gain was increased by 4.56%−14.06%, the 1000-kernel weight and yield were enhanced by 4.20%−9.66% and 7.83−18.39%, and the nitrogen partial factor productivity was increased by 7.85%−18.40%.
    Conclusions The combination of strip rotary tillage with every two-year subsoiling has showed satisfactory effect on increasing the nitrogen absorption, metabolism, and assimilation, so is recommended as the tillage technology for achieving high yield and efficiency production of winter wheat.

     

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