• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
曹兵, 高玮, 李洪杰, 杜梦扬, 王学霞, 陈延华, 倪小会, 赵萌, 谷佳林, 董淑琪, 李子双. 控释掺混肥对麦玉轮作体系氨挥发、产量和氮肥利用效率的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023546
引用本文: 曹兵, 高玮, 李洪杰, 杜梦扬, 王学霞, 陈延华, 倪小会, 赵萌, 谷佳林, 董淑琪, 李子双. 控释掺混肥对麦玉轮作体系氨挥发、产量和氮肥利用效率的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023546
CAO Bing, GAO Wei, LI Hong-jie, DU Meng-yang, WANG Xue-xia, CHEN Yan-hua, NI Xiao-hui, ZHAO Meng, GU Jia-lin, DONG Shu-qi, LI Zi-shuang. Effects of blended application of coated and common urea on ammonia volatilization, yield and nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023546
Citation: CAO Bing, GAO Wei, LI Hong-jie, DU Meng-yang, WANG Xue-xia, CHEN Yan-hua, NI Xiao-hui, ZHAO Meng, GU Jia-lin, DONG Shu-qi, LI Zi-shuang. Effects of blended application of coated and common urea on ammonia volatilization, yield and nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023546

控释掺混肥对麦玉轮作体系氨挥发、产量和氮肥利用效率的影响

Effects of blended application of coated and common urea on ammonia volatilization, yield and nitrogen use efficiency in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system

  • 摘要:
    目的 针对华北平原冬小麦—夏玉米轮作体系氮肥施用量大、氮肥利用率低和氮素损失严重等问题,探讨不同配比的控释掺混肥减氮和一次性施肥对氨挥发损失、周年作物产量和施肥经济效益的影响,确立麦玉轮作体系轻简高效和环境友好的施肥技术。
    方法 在山东省德州市现代农业科技园区开展田间试验。冬小麦和夏玉米均设不施氮对照(CK)、农户习惯施氮(FFP)、优化施氮(OPT)、CRBF1 (包膜尿素与普通尿素在冬小麦和夏玉米上的掺混比例分别为5∶5和3∶7)、CRBF2(包膜尿素与普通尿素在冬小麦和夏玉米上的掺混比例分别为7∶3和5∶5)共5个处理。基施和追施肥后,检测了氨挥发量、强度和损失率。调查了作物干物质积累和产量、氮素吸收量和氮肥利用效率,计算了施肥经济效益。
    结果 与FFP处理相比,CRBF1和CRBF2处理的夏玉米、冬小麦和周年产量差异不显著;CRBF1和CRBF2处理夏玉米氮肥偏生产力提高了8.87~9.86 kg/kg,CRBF2处理玉米氮肥吸收利用率提高了48.4%(P<0.05);CRBF1和CRBF2处理冬小麦季氮肥吸收利用率、氮肥农学利用率和氮肥偏生产力分别提高了30.3%~37.2%、5.22~5.77 kg/kg和6.52~7.06 kg/kg (P<0.05)。与FFP和OPT处理相比,CRBF1和CRBF2处理的肥料+施肥人工投入减少381~960元/hm2,周年净收入增加1208 ~2654元/hm2。CRBF1和CRBF2处理的周年氨挥发损失量、损失强度和损失率较FFP处理分别降低了69.7%~71.9%、72.0%~74.5%和90.0%~94.1% (P<0.05)。
    结论 包膜尿素与普通尿素在冬小麦、夏玉米季按照5∶5、3∶7,或者按照7∶3、5∶5的比例掺混一次性基施,均可在减少氮肥用量和施肥劳力投入的条件下,确保周年作物产量稳定,提高生产效益,并显著降低氨挥发损失,是华北平原冬小麦-夏玉米轮作系统高产高效、轻简施肥的有效氮肥施用技术。

     

    Abstract:
    Objectives Excessive nitrogen fertilizer application is common in the winter wheat summer maize rotation system in the North China Plain (NCP), causing low nitrogen utilization rate and serious nitrogen loss to the environment. We explored the effects of controlled release blended fertilizer with different blending ratio of coated urea on ammonia volatilization loss, annual crop yield and economic benefits, aiming to set up labor-saving, high efficiency and environmentally-friendly nitrogen fertilizer management in the grain production.
    Methods A field experiment was carried out in the Modern Agricultural Science and Technology Park of Dezhou City from 2022 to 2023. Five treatments were performed for both winter wheat and summer maize, including no nitrogen control (CK), conventional nitrogen application (FFP), optimized nitrogen application (OPT, decreasing N 30 kg/hm2), CRBF1 (blending coated and conventional urea in 5∶5 for winter wheat and 3∶7 for summer maize), and CRBF2 (blending ratio of coated and conventional urea in 7∶3 for winter wheat and 5∶5 for summer maize). The dry matter accumulation, yield, nitrogen absorption, and fertilization economic benefits were investigated. The ammonia volatilization was monitored during basal and topdressing periods.
    Results Compared with FFP, CRBF1 and CRBF2 treatments were recorded similar maize, wheat, and annual yield; enhanced N partial factor productivity by 8.87~9.86 kg/kg, and N recovery efficiency by 48.4% with CRBF2 treatment in summer maize season, and increased N recovery efficiency, N agronomic efficiency, and N partial factor productivity by 30.3%~37.2%, 5.22~5.77 kg/kg, and 6.52~7.06 kg/kg in winter wheat season, respectively (P<0.05). Compared with FFP and OPT treatments, CRBF1 and CRBF2 treatments decreased fertilizer and fertilization cost by 381~960 Yuan/hm2, thereby increased annual net income by 1208~2654 Yuan/hm2. In two seasons, Comparison to FFP and OPT, CRBF1 and CRBF2 treatments significantly reduced annual ammonia volatilization loss by 69.7%~71.9%, ammonia volatilization intensity by 72.0%~74.5%, and ammonia volatilization rate by 90.0%~94.1%, compared to FFP treatment, respectively (P<0.05).
    Conclusions The one-time basal application of coated and common urea in blending ratio 5∶5 and 3∶7, or 7∶3 and 5∶5 in winter wheat and summer maize respectively is proved of effective in keeping stable annual crop yield, increasing total production benefit, and mitigating ammonia volatilization loss, under the condition of reduced nitrogen fertilizer and labor input. so the blending application of coated and common urea is an alternative way to realize the simple and labor cost effective management for fertilization in the winter wheat and summer maize rotation system in North China plain.

     

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