• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
李志坤, 杜远仿, 刘伟, 朱伟, 马宗斌. 氮肥和缩节胺配合对棉花“四桃”种子播种和营养品质的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023560
引用本文: 李志坤, 杜远仿, 刘伟, 朱伟, 马宗斌. 氮肥和缩节胺配合对棉花“四桃”种子播种和营养品质的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023560
LI Zhi-kun, DU Yuan-fang, LIU Wei, ZHU Wei, MA Zong-bin. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and mepiquat chloride combined application on the sowing and nutritional quality of cotton seed from “four peaches”[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023560
Citation: LI Zhi-kun, DU Yuan-fang, LIU Wei, ZHU Wei, MA Zong-bin. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and mepiquat chloride combined application on the sowing and nutritional quality of cotton seed from “four peaches”[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2023560

氮肥和缩节胺配合对棉花“四桃”种子播种和营养品质的影响

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and mepiquat chloride combined application on the sowing and nutritional quality of cotton seed from “four peaches”

  • 摘要:
    目的 探讨棉花“四桃”种子品质的差异及其对氮肥和缩节胺 (DPC)配合的响应,为合理施用氮肥和DPC提高种子质量提供科学依据。
    方法 2015—2017年,在郑州市黄河滩区进行了双因素裂区设计田间试验。主区为 3 个氮肥用量,即:不施氮肥 (N0)、施用常量氮肥 (N1,225 kg/hm2) 和过量氮肥 (N2,450 kg/hm2);副区为 3 个 DPC 用量,即:不喷施 DPC (D0)、喷施常量 DPC (D1,75 g/hm2) 和过量 DPC (D2,150 g/hm2)。测定了“四桃”种子的播种品质(籽指、发芽势和发芽率)和营养品质(总蛋白、粗脂肪、总淀粉、可溶性蛋白和可溶性糖含量)。
    结果 “四桃”种子的播种品质和营养品质差异显著,早秋桃比伏前桃、伏桃和晚秋桃的籽指分别增加6.53%、0.11%和3.08%,发芽势分别增加9.47%、0.68%和13.49%。伏桃比伏前桃、早秋桃和晚秋桃的发芽率分别增加3.27%、0.03%和2.64%。伏桃和早秋桃比伏前桃和晚秋桃的总蛋白和可溶性蛋白含量显著增加,而其总淀粉和可溶性糖含量显著下降,但“四桃”的粗脂肪含量差异不显著。N肥与DPC配合对种子品质有显著影响,且其效应大于“四桃”本身的差异。其中,N1比N0和N2处理的发芽势分别增加36.36%和12.74%,D1比D0和D2处理的发芽势分别增加12.39%和5.04%。N1比N0和N2处理、D1比D0和D2处理的总蛋白、可溶性蛋白和粗脂肪含量均有所增加。N1D1比其余8个组合的发芽势以及总蛋白、可溶性蛋白和粗脂肪含量分别增加3.35%~40.86%、3.80%~43.01%、13.75%~54.86%和1.11%~13.48%。种子的发芽势和发芽率与总蛋白、粗脂肪和可溶性蛋白含量呈极显著正相关,与总淀粉和可溶性糖含量呈极显著负相关。
    结论 在黄河流域棉区,棉花生育中后期的种子质量明显改善,总体表现为早秋桃优于伏桃,晚秋桃和伏前桃接近。氮肥与DPC合理组合可增加种子的总蛋白、粗脂肪和可溶性蛋白含量,降低总淀粉和可溶性糖含量,提升发芽势和发芽率,且N肥与DPC组合对种子品质的效应大于“四桃”本身的差异。棉花施用常量氮肥配合常量DPC,并采收早秋桃和伏桃有利于提升种子质量。

     

    Abstract:
    Objectives This study aimed to explore the differences of seed quality among the cotton “four peaches” and its response to nitrogen fertilizer and mepiquat chloride (DPC) application, and provide a scientific supports for rational application of N fertilizer and DPC to improve seed quality.
    Methods A two-factor split-plot design field experiment was conducted from 2015 to 2017 in the Yellow River beach area of Zhengzhou. The main plots were assigned to N fertilizer rates, namely no N application (N0), normal N (N1) and excessive N (N2), with the rate of 0, 225 and 450 N kg/hm2, respectively. And the subplots to DPC dosages, namely no DPC, normal DPC and excessive DPC, with the dosages of 0, 75 and 150 g/hm2 (D0, D1, and D2), respectively. The sowing quality indexes including seed index (SI), germination potential (GP) and germination rate (GR); and nutritional quality indexes including total protein, crude fat, total starch, soluble protein and soluble sugar in cottonseed from “four peaches” were determined.
    Results Differences in sowing and nutritional quality of seeds from “four peaches” were observed. The SI of seeds from early-autumn bolls were 6.53%, 0.11%, and 3.08% higher than the seeds from the pre-summer bolls, summer bolls, and late-autumn bolls, and the GP were 9.47%, 0.68%, and 13.49% higher, respectively. The GR of summer boll seeds were 3.27%, 0.03%, and 2.64% higher than those of pre-summer boll, early-autumn boll, and late-autumn boll seeds, respectively. Seeds from summer boll and early-autumn boll contained significantly higher total protein and soluble protein than the seeds from pre-summer bolls and late-autumn bolls, but lower total starch and soluble sugar content; The seeds from all the “four peaches” contained close crude fat. The combined application of nitrogen fertilizer and DPC had obvious impact on the quality of seed from “four peaches”, and the efffect overpassed that brought by the “four peaches” themselves. Among the treatments, N1 was recorded 36.36% and 12.74% higher GP than N0 and N2, and significantly higher total protein, soluble protein and crude fat content; D1 was recorded 12.39% and 5.04% higher GP than D0 and D2 treatment, and total protein, soluble protein and crude fat content as well. Among all the combined treatments, N1D1 were tested the highest seed GP, and the content of total protein, soluble protein and crude fat, with the increment ranging of 3.35%–40.86%, 3.80%–43.01%,13.75%–54.86% and 1.11%–13.48%, respectively. The GP and GR of cotton seeds were positively correlated with the total protein, crude fat and soluble protein content, while negatively correlated with the total starch and soluble sugar content.
    Conclusions In the cotton-growing region of Yellow River valley, the quality of cotton seeds produced during the middle and late growth stages were obviously improved, and generally showed early-autumn boll being superior to summer boll, late-autumn boll and pre-summer boll similar. Reasonable combination of nitrogen fertilizer and DPC can increase the total protein, crude fat and soluble protein content, reduce the total starch and soluble sugar content, and improve the GP and GR of seeds. In addition, the combined application of nitrogen and DPC demonstrated a greater effect on the quality of seeds than that of the difference among the “four peaches” themselves. Therefore, applying conventional rate of nitrogen fertilizer with conventional dosage of DPC, and harvesting early-autumn boll and summer boll could improve the quality of cotton seeds.

     

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