• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
张亚丽, 党文辉, 尹甜梦, 张银杰, 张登晓, 穆博, 刘世亮, 张兴昌. 土壤磷地表径流提取系数研究进展[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024017
引用本文: 张亚丽, 党文辉, 尹甜梦, 张银杰, 张登晓, 穆博, 刘世亮, 张兴昌. 土壤磷地表径流提取系数研究进展[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024017
ZHANG Ya-li, DANG Wen-hui, YIN Tian-meng, ZHANG Yin-jie, ZHANG Deng-xiao, MU Bo, LIU Shi-liang, ZHANG Xing-chang. Research advances on the phosphorus extraction coefficient of surface soil runoff[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024017
Citation: ZHANG Ya-li, DANG Wen-hui, YIN Tian-meng, ZHANG Yin-jie, ZHANG Deng-xiao, MU Bo, LIU Shi-liang, ZHANG Xing-chang. Research advances on the phosphorus extraction coefficient of surface soil runoff[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024017

土壤磷地表径流提取系数研究进展

Research advances on the phosphorus extraction coefficient of surface soil runoff

  • 摘要: 土壤磷地表径流提取系数(Phosphorus extraction coefficient,ECp)是模拟表层土壤可溶性磷随地表径流迁移,估算农业磷非点源污染负荷模型中的一个重要参数。当前ECp的相关研究存在内涵模糊,确定方法各异,变异范围和影响机制也不够清晰等问题。本文梳理了国内外相关研究中ECp的提取方法、影响因素,为提高农业磷非点源污染评估的精度提供理论依据。ECp定义为地表径流溶解态磷(Dissolved phosphorus,DP)浓度与表层土壤可溶性磷含量的比率。该系数通常基于降雨试验,通过建立地表径流DP和表层土壤磷含量的线性回归方程,用回归线的斜率表示ECp,因此其概念本质主要体现在统计学意义上。ECp受降雨、土壤、植被覆盖和农田管理措施等多种因素影响,变异范围较大。ECp通常与土壤黏粒含量、吸附性、植被覆盖度等因素呈反比,而与土壤初始含水量呈正比。非石灰性土壤ECp值一般大于石灰性土壤。为简化计算,ECp在NPS污染模型中通常被设为一个定值。例如,在模型CREAMS (化学物、径流和农业措施带来的土壤侵蚀Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agriculture Management)和AGNPS (农业非点源Agricultural Nonpoint Source)中,ECp值设为7.5,而在模型EPIC (土壤侵蚀和作物生产力评价Erosion/Productivity Impact Calculator)和SWAT (水土评估工具Soil and Water Assessment Tools)中,ECp值则设为5.7。因此,未来研究仍须重视ECp的物理内涵,精准测算次降雨平均和动态ECp,阐明土壤磷素地表径流提取的动力机制;加强地表径流和表层土壤中可溶性磷素含量间的非线性关系的研究,提高ECp值确定方法的适用性;深入分析不同区域ECp的变异特征和影响因素,针对施肥频繁且易发生复杂强烈水力侵蚀的坡耕地,尤其需要提出ECp的校正值。这里,我们强烈推荐用核定后或者监测获得的ECp统计值代替现有NPS污染模型中的常数,以提高土壤磷素流失负荷模拟精度。

     

    Abstract: The phosphorus extraction coefficient (ECp) of surface soil runoff is an important parameter to simulate the release and transport of dissolved phosphorus from upper soil layer to surface runoff, and to estimate the phosphorus output of agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution. However, the vague connotation and diverse determination methods lead to varied ECps, and the variation range and influence mechanisms on ECps remains unclear. We reviewed the relative researches at home and abroad in aim to provide relatively accurate and comparable ECps for evaluation of agricultural NPS simulation. ECp is defined as the ratio of dissolved phosphorus concentration (DP) in surface runoff to that in surface soil. ECps are usually tested using rainfall experiments, in which the linear regression equations of DP between surface runoff and surface soil are established, and the slope of the regression is defined as ECp. ECps are usually affected by such factors as precipitation, soil property, vegetation, and land use patterns. ECp is inversely proportional to soil clay content, absorptivity, vegetation coverage, etc., and is directly proportional to the initial water content of soil. The ECps in non-calcareous soil are higher than those in calcareous soil. For calculation convenience, ECp is usually taken as a constant in some NPS pollution models, normally 7.5 in the chemicals, runoff, erosion from agriculture management models (CREAMS) and in agricultural nonpoint source pollution models (AGNPS), and 5.7 in the Erosion/Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) models. In the future, the physical connotation of ECp still needs studied and defined; the ECps in each rainfall event and on average need monitored in accuracy. The nonlinear correlation between soluble phosphorous concentration in surface runoff and surface soil should be studied to improve the applicability of the determination method. Specific or regional ECps require systemically monitoring, especially in slope land with frequent fertilization and complex hydraulic erosion, so as to propose suitable calibration coefficients for ECps under different conditions. We strongly recommend to replace the constant ECp value in some NPS pollution models with the calibrated or observed ECps for precise simulation of P load from surface soil.

     

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