• ISSN 1008-505X
  • CN 11-3996/S
洪自强, 张正珍, 周甜, 苏明, 李翻过, 康建宏, 吴宏亮. 水肥一体化下钾肥用量对春玉米光合荧光参数的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024065
引用本文: 洪自强, 张正珍, 周甜, 苏明, 李翻过, 康建宏, 吴宏亮. 水肥一体化下钾肥用量对春玉米光合荧光参数的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024065
HONG Zi-qiang, ZHANG Zheng-zhen, ZHOU Tian, SU Ming, LI Fan-guo, KANG Jian-hong, WU Hong-liang. Optimal potassium dosage for high fluorescence parameters and target yield of spring maize under drip irrigation[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024065
Citation: HONG Zi-qiang, ZHANG Zheng-zhen, ZHOU Tian, SU Ming, LI Fan-guo, KANG Jian-hong, WU Hong-liang. Optimal potassium dosage for high fluorescence parameters and target yield of spring maize under drip irrigation[J]. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers. DOI: 10.11674/zwyf.2024065

水肥一体化下钾肥用量对春玉米光合荧光参数的影响

Optimal potassium dosage for high fluorescence parameters and target yield of spring maize under drip irrigation

  • 摘要:
    目的 研究水肥一体化下不同施钾量对玉米光合荧光特性、生理特性及产量的影响,为宁夏地区玉米钾肥高效施用提供理论依据和技术支撑。
    方法 采用随机区组试验设计,共设6个钾肥量处理0、60、120、180、240、300 kg/hm2,依次记为K0、K1、K2、K3、K4、K5。监测了春玉米叶片相对叶绿素含量(SPAD)、叶面积指数(LAI)、光合势(LAD)、光合荧光参数,调查了玉米产量,分析了光合指标与产量之间的相关性。
    结果 施钾量对春玉米叶片LAI具有显著影响,2年结果表明,春玉米花前期(V6~R1)、花后期LAD分别占全生育期LAD约20%、80%,因此,春玉米干物质积累主要在花后进行。SPAD值均在R3期达到最大峰值。2年中,玉米各生育时期的Pn (净光合速率)、Tr (蒸腾速率)、Gs (气孔导度)、Ci (胞间二氧化碳浓度)均随着钾肥用量的增加,呈现先增后降的趋势。与K0相比,K3处理下的Pn最大峰值显著提高了16.14%,K3处理的Ci最大峰值平均增加了4.42% (P<0.05)。于R1期,K3处理下的Fv/Fm平均较K0提高了23.54%。产量也随着施钾量的增加先增后减,最高产量出现在K3处理,两年分别为15179和14964 kg/hm2。相关分析表明,光合势与玉米产量相关极显著。K3处理对玉米产量的优化效果综合得分最高。
    结论 合理施钾保证较高的SPAD值和PSII反应中心的活性,提高春玉米对光能的捕获、吸收、转化及最大光化学效率,降低热耗散,促进春玉米光合作用,促进干物质的转化,从而提高春玉米的产量。总施钾量为180 kg/hm2 (K3)时,春玉米光合荧光特性表现较优,光合势较强。宁夏滴灌水肥一体化条件下,玉米产量达15000 kg/hm2时,最佳施钾为155~202 kg/hm2

     

    Abstract:
    Objectives We approached the effects of potassium application dosages on the photosynthetic and fluorescence indicators and yield of spring maize under drip fertigation, to understand the beneficial roles of potassium during the growth stages, and to propose an optimal potassium application rate for maize production under drip fertigation in Ningxia Autonomous Region.
    Methods A randomized block group experimental design was adopted in a field experiment, six potassium fertilizer dosages were setup, including: 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 kg/hm2, and denoted as K0, K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, respectively. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI), photosynthetic potential (LAD), and photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of spring maize leaves were monitored during the growing period, and the yield were investigated ar harvest. The correlation of yield with the monitored indicators were analyzed, and the optimal patissium dosage were proposed.
    Results Potassium application had a significant effect on spring maize leaf LAI, showing an "S" trend of "slow-fast-slow". 2-year results showed that the LAD pre- (V6~R1) and post-anthesis (R1~R6) accounted for about 20% and 80% of the total LAD in spring maize. The dry matter accumulation was mainly occurred after flowering. In 2 years, Pn (net photosynthetic rate), Tr (transpiration rate), Gs (stomatal conductance) and Ci (intercellular carbon dioxide concentration) all showed a trend of increasing and then decreasing with the increase of potash fertilizer dosage. Compared with K0, the average peak Pn and Ci values were all recorded in K3 treatment, which were 16.14% and 4.42% higher than those in K0 treatment. In the 2 years, the Fv/Fm in K3 treatment increased by 23.54% on average at R1 stage compared to K0 treatment. With the increase of potassium application, the yields all showed an increasing and then decreasing trend, and the maximum yield was achieved under K3 treatment, which was 15179 kg/hm2 and 14964 kg/hm2, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed that LAI affected maize yield in the late stage (P<0.05), and LAD did that across the whole growing period (P<0.01). Principal component analysis showed that the K3 treatment had the highest composite score for the optimization effect on maize yield.
    Conclusions Reasonable potassium application dosage (180 kg/hm2) results higher SPAD value, and PSII reaction center activity, thus improve the capacity of optical energy capture, absorption, conversion, and maximizes photochemical efficiency of spring maize, reduces heat dissipation, promote the photosynthesis of spring maize, and promote the conversion of dry matter, so as to improve the yield of spring maize. The optimal potassium application dosage is 155~202 kg/hm2 for reaching the target maize yield of 15000.00 kg/hm2 under drip fertitation in Ningxia.

     

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